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Fund Spy

In a Harsh Climate, Funds Get Creative

Unwanted adventurism or canny flexibility?

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To avoid potential legal issues, the typical mutual fund prospectus is remarkably broad (or, some would say, annoyingly vague). After slogging through pages and pages of technical details, an investor might conclude that the fund can do anything it wants. For example, conventional stock funds that intend to fill their portfolios entirely with common equities usually allow themselves the freedom to use derivatives, own bonds, or raise large amounts of cash, even if the managers have no intention of doing anything of the kind.

In practice, though, the strategies of most funds are fairly well circumscribed. Most managers would prefer to focus on their areas of expertise, and most advisors and shareholders became less accepting of true go-anywhere mandates over the years. Since the financial crisis that began in 2007, though, it has become more common for managers to use the freedoms their prospectuses provide. Morningstar's director of fixed-income fund research, Eric Jacobson, noted this pattern among bond funds last year.

Gregg Wolper has a position in the following securities mentioned above: DODFX, TSM, HMC. Find out about Morningstar’s editorial policies.