XNYS:ALJ Alon USA Energy Inc Quarterly Report 10-Q Filing - 3/31/2012

Effective Date 3/31/2012

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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
þ
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2012
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM __________TO __________ 

Commission file number: 001-32567
ALON USA ENERGY, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________________________________

Delaware
 
74-2966572
(State or other jurisdiction of
 
(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
 
Identification No.)
7616 LBJ Freeway, Suite 300, Dallas, Texas 75251
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(972) 367-3600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
___________________________________________________

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes  þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer þ
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Indicate by check whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The number of shares of the Registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of May 1, 2012, was 56,190,964.

 
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
 
 
EX-3.1 SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF ALON USA ENERGY, INC.
EX-10.1 FIRST AMENDMENT TO AMENDED AND RESTATED CREDIT AGREEMENT, DATED AS OF APRIL 20, 2012 AMONG SOUTHWEST CONVENIENCE STORES, LLC, SKINNY'S LLC, THE LENDER PARTY THERETO AND WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
EX-10.2 ALON USA ENERGY, INC. SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED INCENTIVE COMPENSATION PLAN
EX-31.1 CERTIFICATION OF CEO PURSUANT TO SECTION 302
EX-31.2 CERTIFICATION OF CFO PURSUANT TO SECTION 302
EX-32.1 CERTIFICATION OF CEO AND CFO PURSUANT TO SECTION 906



PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(dollars in thousands except per share data)
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
 
(unaudited)
 
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
50,289

 
$
157,066

Accounts and other receivables, net
191,274

 
247,214

Inventories
197,071

 
147,272

Deferred income tax asset
71,358

 
49,410

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
16,941

 
8,376

Total current assets
526,933

 
609,338

Equity method investments
20,403

 
20,342

Property, plant and equipment, net
1,493,396

 
1,504,870

Goodwill
105,943

 
105,943

Other assets, net
89,665

 
89,889

Total assets
$
2,236,340

 
$
2,330,382

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
327,831

 
$
298,596

Accrued liabilities
145,698

 
91,416

Current portion of long-term debt
11,523

 
119,874

Total current liabilities
485,052

 
509,886

Other non-current liabilities
193,102

 
192,065

Long-term debt
902,856

 
930,322

Deferred income tax liability
289,892

 
302,325

Total liabilities
1,870,902

 
1,934,598

Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, par value $0.01, 10,000,000 shares authorized; 7,000,000 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2012 and 4,000,000 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2011, respectively
70,000

 
40,000

Common stock, par value $0.01, 100,000,000 shares authorized; 56,190,964 and 56,107,986 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively
562

 
561

Additional paid-in capital
318,242

 
318,659

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of income tax
(50,602
)
 
(26,483
)
Retained earnings
30,819

 
63,273

Total stockholders’ equity
369,021

 
396,010

Non-controlling interest in subsidiaries
(3,583
)
 
(226
)
Total equity
365,438

 
395,784

Total liabilities and equity
$
2,236,340

 
$
2,330,382


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
1


ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except per share data)

 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
Net sales (1)
$
1,792,133

 
$
1,651,104

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
1,618,674

 
1,461,123

Unrealized losses on commodity swaps
45,312

 

Direct operating expenses
72,209

 
56,923

Selling, general and administrative expenses
35,140

 
34,330

Depreciation and amortization
30,711

 
25,447

Total operating costs and expenses
1,802,046

 
1,577,823

Gain on disposition of assets
131

 
12

Operating income (loss)
(9,782
)
 
73,293

Interest expense
(31,040
)
 
(20,440
)
Equity earnings (loss) of investees
61

 
(245
)
Other loss, net
(8,100
)
 
(31,913
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(48,861
)
 
20,695

Income tax expense (benefit)
(17,751
)
 
7,470

Net income (loss)
(31,110
)
 
13,225

Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest
(1,743
)
 
160

Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(29,367
)
 
$
13,065

Earnings (loss) per share, basic
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.24

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic (in thousands)
56,028

 
54,549

Earnings (loss) per share, diluted
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.22

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted (in thousands)
56,028

 
60,484

Cash dividends per share
$
0.04

 
$
0.04

___________
(1)
Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail segment of $16,124 and $14,218 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
2


ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(unaudited, dollars in thousands)

 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
Net income (loss)
$
(31,110
)
 
$
13,225

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
Interest rate derivatives designated as cash flow hedges:
 
 
 
Unrealized holding loss arising during period, net of tax
(111
)
 
(36
)
Less: reclassification adjustments for gain (loss) realized in net loss, net of tax
647

 
634

Net gain (loss), net of tax
536

 
598

Commodity contracts designated as cash flow hedges:
 
 
 
Unrealized holding gain (loss) arising during period, net of tax
(26,134
)
 

Less: reclassification adjustments for gain (loss) realized in net loss, net of tax

 

Net gain (loss), net of tax
(26,134
)
 

Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
(25,598
)
 
598

Comprehensive income (loss)
(56,708
)
 
13,823

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest
(3,222
)
 
160

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
(53,486
)
 
$
13,663



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
3


ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands)
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(29,367
)
 
$
13,065

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) available to common stockholders to cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
30,711

 
25,447

Stock compensation
563

 
254

Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
(20,627
)
 
5,580

Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest
(1,743
)
 
160

Equity earnings of investees (net of dividends)
(61
)
 

Amortization of debt issuance costs
1,725

 
1,404

Amortization of original issuance discount
786

 
455

Write-off of unamortized original issuance discount
9,624

 

Gain on disposition of assets
(131
)
 
(12
)
Unrealized losses on commodity swaps
45,312

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts and other receivables, net
23,262

 
(39,787
)
Inventories
(49,799
)
 
(3,699
)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
(8,565
)
 
(786
)
Other assets, net
(1,556
)
 
(19,958
)
Accounts payable
29,235

 
(30,004
)
Accrued liabilities
467

 
27,394

Other non-current liabilities
1,037

 
44,868

Net cash provided by operating activities
30,873

 
24,381

Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
(14,557
)
 
(25,163
)
Capital expenditures for turnarounds and catalysts
(2,105
)
 
(185
)
Dividends from investees, net of equity earnings

 
2,495

Proceeds from disposition of assets
11

 
18

Earnout payment related to Krotz Springs refinery acquisition

 
(2,187
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(16,651
)
 
(25,022
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Dividends paid to stockholders
(2,237
)
 
(2,204
)
Dividends paid to non-controlling interest
(135
)
 
(287
)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock

 
10,100

Stock issuance costs

 
(282
)
Inventory supply agreement

 
1,165

Deferred debt issuance costs
(2,400
)
 
(1,567
)
Revolving credit facilities, net
(113,341
)
 
13,852

Additions to long-term debt

 
30,000

Payments on long-term debt
(2,886
)
 
(2,378
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(120,999
)
 
48,399

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
(106,777
)
 
47,758

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
157,066

 
71,687

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
50,289

 
$
119,445

Supplemental cash flow information:
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
$
14,456

 
$
12,737

Refunds received for income tax
$
(1,980
)
 
$
(186
)
Non-cash activity:
 
 
 
Financing activity — payment on long-term debt from issuance of preferred stock
$
(30,000
)
 
$


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
4


ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
(1)
Basis of Presentation
(a)
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Alon USA Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Alon”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. These consolidated financial statements of Alon are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of Alon’s management, the information included in these consolidated financial statements reflects all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments, which are necessary for a fair presentation of Alon’s consolidated financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results that may be obtained for the year ending December 31, 2012.
The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2011, has been derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. These unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Alon’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011.
(b)
New Accounting Standards
In June 2011, the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 220, Comprehensive Income, were amended to allow an entity the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement or in two separate but consecutive statements. Under either option, the entity is required to present reclassification adjustments on the face of the financial statement where those components are presented. These provisions are effective for the first interim or annual period beginning after December 15, 2011, and are to be applied retrospectively, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this guidance did not affect Alon's financial position or results of operations because these requirements only affect the presentation of the financial statements and disclosures.
(2)
Segment Data
Alon’s revenues are derived from three operating segments: (i) refining and unbranded marketing, (ii) asphalt and (iii) retail and branded marketing. The reportable operating segments are strategic business units that offer different products and services. The segments are managed separately as each segment requires unique technology, marketing strategies and distinct operational emphasis. Each operating segment’s performance is evaluated primarily based on operating income.
(a)
Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment
Alon’s refining and unbranded marketing segment includes sour and heavy crude oil refineries located in Big Spring, Texas; and Paramount, Bakersfield and Long Beach, California (the “California refineries”); and a light sweet crude oil refinery located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana. Alon's refineries have a combined throughput capacity of approximately 240,000 barrels per day (“bpd”). At these refineries, Alon refines crude oil into products including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, feedstocks, asphalts and other petroleum products, which are marketed primarily in the South Central, Southwestern and Western regions of the United States. In Bakersfield, Alon is converting intermediate products into finished products and is not refining crude oil. Finished products and blendstocks are also marketed through sales and exchanges with other major oil companies, state and federal governmental entities, unbranded wholesale distributors and various other third parties. Alon also acquires finished products through exchange agreements and third-party suppliers.
(b)
Asphalt Segment
Alon’s asphalt segment includes the Willbridge, Oregon refinery and 11 refinery/terminal locations in Texas (Big Spring), California (Paramount, Long Beach, Elk Grove, Bakersfield and Mojave), Oregon (Willbridge), Washington (Richmond Beach), Arizona (Phoenix and Flagstaff), and Nevada (Fernley) (50% interest) as well as a 50% interest in Wright Asphalt Products Company, LLC (“Wright”) which specializes in marketing patented tire rubber modified asphalt products. Alon produces both paving and roofing grades of asphalt and, depending on the terminal, can manufacture performance-graded asphalts, emulsions and cutbacks. The operations in which Alon has a 50% interest (Fernley and Wright), are recorded under the equity method of accounting and the investments are included as part of total assets in the asphalt segment data.

5

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


(c)
Retail and Branded Marketing Segment
Alon’s retail and branded marketing segment operates approximately 300 convenience stores located primarily in Central and West Texas and New Mexico. These convenience stores typically offer various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, general merchandise and food and beverage products to the general public, primarily under the 7-Eleven, Alon and FINA brand names. Substantially all of the motor fuel sold through Alon’s convenience stores and the majority of the motor fuels marketed in Alon’s branded business is supplied by Alon’s Big Spring refinery. Alon markets gasoline and diesel under the Alon and FINA brand names through a network of approximately 625 locations, including Alon's convenience stores.
Alon has operated under an exclusive license to use the FINA trademark in the wholesale distribution of motor fuel within Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah since 2000. Alon's license to use the FINA brand will expire in August 2012 in accordance with its terms. Alon developed its own brand and logo in anticipation of this expiration of this license and has begun the process of converting all of its locations and all locations served by its branded marketing business to the new Alon brand. Under the brand, Alon will no longer be subject to the geographic limitations contained in the FINA license agreement.
(d)
Corporate
Operations that are not included in any of the three segments are included in the corporate category. These operations consist primarily of corporate headquarters operating and depreciation expenses.
Segment data as of and for the three month periods ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, are presented below:
 
Refining and
Unbranded Marketing
 
Asphalt
 
Retail and Branded
Marketing
 
Corporate
 
Consolidated
Total
Three Months Ended March 31, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales to external customers
$
1,331,117

 
$
92,549

 
$
368,467

 
$

 
$
1,792,133

Intersegment sales/purchases
311,254

 
(31,189
)
 
(280,065
)
 

 

Depreciation and amortization
25,702

 
1,382

 
3,074

 
553

 
30,711

Operating income (loss)
(2,111
)
 
(1,421
)
 
(5,507
)
 
(743
)
 
(9,782
)
Total assets
1,878,201

 
120,430

 
222,200

 
15,509

 
2,236,340

Turnaround, chemical catalyst and capital expenditures
9,636

 
1,491

 
5,409

 
126

 
16,662

 
Refining and
Unbranded Marketing
 
Asphalt
 
Retail and Branded
Marketing
 
Corporate
 
Consolidated
Total
Three Months Ended March 31, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales to external customers
$
1,248,677

 
$
86,243

 
$
316,184

 
$

 
$
1,651,104

Intersegment sales/purchases
250,347

 
(23,487
)
 
(226,860
)
 

 

Depreciation and amortization
20,037

 
1,730

 
3,277

 
403

 
25,447

Operating income (loss)
79,289

 
(9,628
)
 
4,223

 
(591
)
 
73,293

Total assets
1,863,971

 
118,012

 
200,931

 
16,882

 
2,199,796

Turnaround, chemical catalyst and capital expenditures
23,278

 
660

 
1,345

 
65

 
25,348

Operating income (loss) for each segment consists of net sales less cost of sales, direct operating expenses, selling, general and administrative expenses, depreciation and amortization, and gain on disposition of assets. Intersegment sales are intended to approximate wholesale market prices. Consolidated totals presented are after intersegment eliminations.
Total assets of each segment consist of net property, plant and equipment, inventories, cash and cash equivalents, accounts and other receivables and other assets directly associated with the segment’s operations. Corporate assets consist primarily of corporate headquarters information technology and administrative equipment.
(3)
Fair Value
The carrying amounts of Alon’s cash and cash equivalents, receivables, payables and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these assets and liabilities. The reported amounts of long-term debt approximate fair

6

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


value. Derivative financial instruments are carried at fair value, which is based on quoted market prices.
Alon must determine fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As required, Alon utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs (levels 1 and 2) and minimize the use of unobservable inputs (level 3) within the fair value hierarchy. Alon generally applies the “market approach” to determine fair value. This method uses pricing and other information generated by market transactions for identical or comparable assets and liabilities. Assets and liabilities are classified within the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level (least observable) input that is significant to the measurement in its entirety.
The following table sets forth the assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, by input level, in the consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively:
 
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets
For Identical
Assets or
Liabilities
(Level 1)
 
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
 
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
 
Consolidated
Total
As of March 31, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (futures and forwards)
$
3,487

 
$

 
$

 
$
3,487

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)

 
54,211

 

 
54,211

Commodity contracts (call options)

 
9,034

 

 
9,034

Interest rate swap

 
3,373

 

 
3,373

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)

 
31,936

 

 
31,936

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (futures and forwards)
78

 

 

 
78

Commodity contracts (call options)

 
9,268

 

 
9,268

Interest rate swap

 
4,197

 

 
4,197

(4)
Derivative Financial Instruments
Mark to Market
Commodity Derivatives. Alon selectively utilizes commodity derivatives to manage its exposure to commodity price fluctuations and uses crude oil and refined product commodity derivative contracts to reduce risk associated with potential price changes on committed obligations. Alon does not speculate using derivative instruments. Credit risk on Alon’s derivative instruments is substantially mitigated by transacting with counterparties meeting established collateral and credit criteria.
Cash Flow Hedges
To designate a derivative as a cash flow hedge, Alon documents at the inception of the hedge the assessment that the derivative will be highly effective in offsetting expected changes in cash flows from the item hedged. This assessment, which is updated at least quarterly, is generally based on the most recent relevant historical correlation between the derivative and the item hedged. If, during the term of the derivative, the hedge is determined to be no longer highly effective, hedge accounting is prospectively discontinued and any remaining unrealized gains or losses, based on the effective portion of the derivative at that date, are reclassified to earnings when the underlying transaction occurs.
Commodity Derivatives. As of March 31, 2012, Alon has accounted for certain commodity swap contracts as cash flow hedges with contract purchase volumes of 5,670,000 barrels of crude and contract sales volumes 5,670,000 barrels of refined products with a remaining contract term of nine months. As of March 31, 2012, Alon has recorded an unrealized after-tax loss of $26,134 related to these transactions in Other Comprehensive Income ("OCI").
Interest Rate Derivatives. Alon selectively utilizes interest rate related derivative instruments to manage its exposure to floating-rate debt instruments. Alon periodically uses interest rate swap agreements to manage its floating to fixed rate position by converting certain floating-rate debt to fixed-rate debt. As of March 31, 2012, Alon had an interest rate swap agreement with

7

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


a notional amount of $100,000, a remaining period of nine months and a fixed interest rate of 4.25%. This swap was accounted for as a cash flow hedge.
For cash flow hedges, gains and losses reported in equity are reclassified into interest expense when the forecasted transaction affects income. During the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, Alon recognized in equity unrealized after-tax gains of $536 and $598, respectively, for the fair value measurement of the interest rate swap agreements. There were no amounts reclassified from equity into interest expense as a result of the discontinuance of cash flow hedge accounting.
For the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, there was no hedge ineffectiveness recognized in income. No component of the derivative instruments’ gains or losses was excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness.
The following table presents the effect of derivative instruments on the consolidated statements of financial position.
 
As of March 31, 2012
 
Asset Derivatives
 
Liability Derivatives
 
Balance Sheet
 
 
 
Balance Sheet
 
 
 
Location
 
Fair Value
 
Location
 
Fair Value
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)
 
 
$

 
Accrued liabilities
 
$
(13,376
)
Commodity contracts (call options)
 
 

 
Accrued liabilities
 
(9,034
)
Commodity contracts (futures and forwards)
Accounts receivable
 
5,032

 
Accrued liabilities
 
(1,545
)
Total derivatives not designated as hedging instruments
 
 
$
5,032

 
 
 
$
(23,955
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)
 
 
$

 
Accrued liabilities
 
$
(40,835
)
Interest rate swap
 
 

 
Other non-current liabilities
 
(3,373
)
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments
 
 

 
 
 
(44,208
)
Total derivatives
 
 
$
5,032

 
 
 
$
(68,163
)
 
As of December 31, 2011
 
Asset Derivatives
 
Liability Derivatives
 
Balance Sheet
 
 
 
Balance Sheet
 
 
 
Location
 
Fair Value
 
Location
 
Fair Value
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)
Accounts receivable
 
$
32,678

 
Accrued liabilities
 
$
(742
)
Commodity contracts (call options)
 
 

 
Accrued liabilities
 
(9,268
)
Commodity contracts (futures and forwards)
Accounts receivable
 
809

 
Accrued liabilities
 
(887
)
Total derivatives not designated as hedging instruments
 
 
$
33,487

 
 
 
$
(10,897
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest rate swap
 
 
$

 
Other non-current liabilities
 
$
(4,197
)
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments
 
 

 
 
 
(4,197
)
Total derivatives
 
 
$
33,487

 
 
 
$
(15,094
)

8

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


The following tables present the effect of derivative instruments on Alon’s consolidated statements of operations and accumulated other comprehensive income.
Cash Flow Hedging Relationships
 
Gain (Loss) Recognized
in OCI
 
Gain (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Effective Portion)
 
Gain (Loss) Reclassified
from Accumulated OCI into
Income (Ineffective
Portion and Amount
Excluded from
Effectiveness Testing)
 
 
 
 
Location
 
Amount
 
Location
 
Amount
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (swaps)
 
$
(40,835
)
 
Cost of sales
 
$

 
 
 
$

Interest rate swap
 
824

 
Interest expense
 
(995
)
 
 
 

Total derivatives
 
$
(40,011
)
 
 
 
$
(995
)
 
 
 
$

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest rate swaps
 
$
922

 
Interest expense
 
$
(975
)
 
 
 
$

Total derivatives
 
$
922

 
 
 
$
(975
)
 
 
 
$

Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
 
Gain (Loss) Recognized in Income
 
Location
 
Amount
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2012
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (futures & forwards)
Cost of sales
 
$
1,714

Commodity contracts (swaps)
Cost of sales
 
(14,334
)
Commodity contracts (swaps)
Unrealized losses on commodity swaps
 
(45,312
)
Commodity contracts (call options)
Other loss, net
 
(8,153
)
Total derivatives
 
 
$
(66,085
)
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2011
 
 
 
Commodity contracts (futures & forwards)
Cost of sales
 
$
(2,070
)
Commodity contracts (swaps)
Cost of sales
 
5,259

Commodity contracts (swaps)
Other loss, net
 
(31,919
)
Total derivatives
 
 
$
(28,730
)
(5)
Inventories
Alon’s inventories (including inventory consigned to others) are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined under the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for crude oil, refined products, asphalt, and blendstock inventories. Materials and supplies are stated at average cost. Cost for convenience store merchandise inventories is determined under the retail inventory method and cost for convenience store fuel inventories is determined under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.

9

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


Carrying value of inventories consisted of the following:
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
Crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstocks
$
69,070

 
$
37,159

Crude oil inventory consigned to others
74,362

 
62,489

Materials and supplies
25,928

 
21,491

Store merchandise
20,314

 
19,322

Store fuel
7,397

 
6,811

Total inventories
$
197,071

 
$
147,272

Crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstock inventories totaled 2,092 thousand barrels and 1,838 thousand barrels as of March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. A reduction of inventory volumes resulted in a liquidation of LIFO inventory layers associated with refined products and asphalt carried at lower costs which prevailed in previous years. The liquidation decreased cost of sales by approximately $18,209 and $42,642 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Market values of crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstock inventories exceeded LIFO costs by $84,865 and $93,401 at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.
Crude oil inventory consigned to others represents inventory that was sold to third parties with an obligation by Alon to repurchase the inventory at the end of the respective agreements. As a result of this requirement to repurchase inventory, no revenue was recorded on these transactions and the inventory volumes remain valued under the LIFO method.
Alon had 1,099 thousand barrels and 951 thousand barrels of crude oil consigned to others at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. Alon recorded liabilities associated with this consigned inventory of $49,196 in accounts payable and $60,737 in other non-current liabilities and $26,389 in accounts payable and $58,328 in other non-current liabilities at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.
Additionally, Alon recorded accrued liabilities of $347 and $117 at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively, for forward commitments related to month-end consignment inventory target levels differing from projected levels and the associated pricing with these inventory level differences.
Effective January 1, 2011, Alon elected to account for inventory consigned to others under the "Normal Purchase Normal Sales" exemption of FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. This exemption applies to situations where commodities are physically delivered. If the contracts were settled March 31, 2012, the payment would be in excess of liabilities recorded by $14,963.
For inventory consignment agreements entered into after January 1, 2012 (Note 14), the transaction will be recorded in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging for fair value hedges.
(6)
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, plant and equipment, net consisted of the following:
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
Refining facilities
$
1,727,767

 
$
1,718,792

Pipelines and terminals
43,461

 
43,414

Retail
149,723

 
147,679

Other
18,811

 
18,685

Property, plant and equipment, gross
1,939,762

 
1,928,570

Less accumulated depreciation
(446,366
)
 
(423,700
)
Property, plant and equipment, net
$
1,493,396

 
$
1,504,870


10

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


(7)
Additional Financial Information
The tables that follow provide additional financial information related to the consolidated financial statements.
(a)
Other Assets, Net
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
Deferred turnaround and chemical catalyst cost
$
18,189

 
$
20,998

Environmental receivables
17,017

 
17,369

Deferred debt issuance costs
13,029

 
12,354

Intangible assets, net
7,298

 
7,418

Receivable from supply agreements
12,496

 
12,496

Other, net
21,636

 
19,254

Total other assets
$
89,665

 
$
89,889

(b)
Accrued Liabilities and Other Non-Current Liabilities
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
Accrued Liabilities:
 
 
 
Taxes other than income taxes, primarily excise taxes
$
21,789

 
$
32,892

Employee costs
11,372

 
11,368

Commodity contracts
64,790

 
10,897

Accrued finance charges
17,508

 
10,902

Environmental accrual
6,292

 
6,292

Other
23,947

 
19,065

Total accrued liabilities
$
145,698

 
$
91,416

 
 
 
 
Other Non-Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
Pension and other postemployment benefit liabilities, net
$
46,747

 
$
46,493

Environmental accrual (Note 14)
58,296

 
59,171

Asset retirement obligations
11,570

 
11,442

Interest rate swap valuations
3,373

 
4,197

Consignment inventory
60,737

 
58,328

Other
12,379

 
12,434

Total other non-current liabilities
$
193,102

 
$
192,065

(8)
Postretirement Benefits
Alon has four defined benefit pension plans covering substantially all of its employees, excluding employees of SCS. The benefits are based on years of service and the employee's final average monthly compensation. Alon's funding policy is to contribute annually not less than the minimum required nor more than the maximum amount that can be deducted for federal income tax purposes. Contributions are intended to provide not only for benefits attributed to service to date but also for those benefits expected to be earned in the future. Alon’s estimated contributions during 2012 to its pension plans has not changed significantly from amounts previously disclosed in Alon’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2011. For the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, Alon contributed $1,290 and $1,100, respectively, to its qualified pension plans.

11

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


The components of net periodic benefit cost related to Alon’s benefit plans were as follows for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011:
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
Components of net periodic benefit cost:
 
 
 
Service cost
$
943

 
$
914

Interest cost
1,032

 
1,035

Expected return on plan assets
(1,077
)
 
(933
)
Amortization of net loss
646

 
448

Net periodic benefit cost
$
1,544

 
$
1,464

(9)
Indebtedness
Debt consisted of the following:
 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
Term loan credit facility
$
424,125

 
$
425,250

Revolving credit facilities
195,000

 
308,341

Senior secured notes
209,849

 
209,324

Retail credit facilities
85,405

 
107,281

Total debt
914,379

 
1,050,196

Less current portion
(11,523
)
 
(119,874
)
Total long-term debt
$
902,856

 
$
930,322

Alon USA, LP Credit Facility. Alon has a $240,000 revolving credit facility (the “Alon USA LP Credit Facility”) that will mature on March 1, 2016. The Alon USA LP Credit Facility can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit subject to a limit of the lesser of the facility or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility.
Borrowings under the Alon USA LP Credit Facility bear interest at the Eurodollar rate plus 3.50% per annum subject to an overall minimum interest rate of 4.00%.
The Alon USA LP Credit Facility is secured by (i) a first lien on cash, accounts receivables, inventories and related assets of Alon USA LP and (ii) a second lien on fixed assets, including the Big Spring refinery and certain asphalt terminals.
The Alon USA LP Credit Facility contains certain restrictive covenants including maintenance financial covenants.
Borrowings of $195,000 and $200,000 were outstanding under the Alon USA LP Credit Facility at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. At March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, outstanding letters of credit under the Alon USA LP Credit Facility were $20,873 and $35,509, respectively.
Paramount Petroleum Corporation Credit Facility. In February 2012, Alon repaid in full all of its obligations under the Paramount Credit Facility.
Alon Brands Term Loans. In March 2011, Alon Brands issued $30,000 five-year unsecured notes (the "Alon Brands Term Loans") to a group of investors including certain shareholders of Alon Israel and their affiliates. In conjunction with the issuance of the Alon Brands Term Loans, 3,092,783 warrants were issued to purchase shares of Alon's common stock. In March 2012, Alon issued $30,000 of 8.5% Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and repaid in full its obligations under the Alon Brands Term Loans. Also as part of the transaction, the warrants issued in conjunction with the Alon Brands Term Loans were surrendered to Alon. As the Alon Brands Term Loans were originally issued at a discount, the remaining $9,624 of unamortized original issuance discount was charged to interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2012.
Financial Covenants. Alon has certain credit facilities that contain restrictive covenants, including maintenance financial covenants. At March 31, 2012, Alon was in compliance with these maintenance financial covenants.

12

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


(10)
Stock-Based Compensation
Alon’s original incentive compensation plan, the Alon USA Energy, Inc. 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan, was approved by its stockholders in 2006 and amended in May 2010. In May 2012, Alon’s stockholders approved a second amended and restated incentive compensation plan, the Alon USA Energy, Inc. Second Amended and Restated 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan ("the Plan"), which is a component of Alon’s overall executive incentive compensation program. The Plan permits the granting of awards in the form of options to purchase common stock, Stock Appreciation Rights (“SARs”), restricted shares of common stock, restricted common stock units, performance shares, performance units and senior executive plan bonuses to Alon’s directors, officers and key employees.
Restricted Stock. Non-employee directors, and non-employee directors of Alon's subsidiaries who are designated by Alon's directors, are awarded an annual grant of $25 in shares of restricted stock. The restricted shares granted to the non-employee directors vest over a period of three years, assuming continued service at vesting.
Compensation expense for the restricted stock grants amounted to $174 and $12 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
The following table summarizes the restricted share activity from January 1, 2011:
 
 
 
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Values
Nonvested Shares
Shares
 
(per share)
Nonvested at January 1, 2011
16,169

 
$
9.28

Granted
186,015

 
13.50

Vested
(7,278
)
 
10.31

Forfeited

 

Nonvested at December 31, 2011
194,906

 
$
13.26

Granted

 

Vested

 

Forfeited

 

Nonvested at March 31, 2012
194,906

 
$
13.26

As of March 31, 2012, there was $1,345 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested share-based compensation arrangements granted under the Amended and Restated 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.0 years. There were no shares vested in 2012.
Restricted Stock Units. In May 2011, Alon granted 500,000 restricted stock units to the CEO and President of Alon at a grant date fair value of $11.47. Each restricted unit represents the right to receive one share of Alon common stock upon the vesting of the restricted stock unit. All 500,000 restricted stock units vest on March 1, 2015, assuming continued service at vesting. Compensation expense for the restricted stock units amounted to $374 for the three months ended March 31, 2012, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
Stock Appreciation Rights. Through March 31, 2012, Alon has granted awards of 599,165 SARs to certain officers and key employees of Alon of which 60% of these SARs have a grant price of $28.46 and the remaining SARs have grant prices ranging from $10.00 to $16.00. At March 31, 2012, 180,832 SARs with a grant price of $28.46 expired without any being exercised.
When exercised, all SARs are convertible into shares of Alon common stock, the number of which will be determined at the time of exercise by calculating the difference between the closing price of Alon common stock on the exercise date and the grant price of the SARs (the “Spread”), multiplying the Spread by the number of SARs being exercised and then dividing the product by the closing price of Alon common stock on the exercise date.
Compensation expense for the SARs grants amounted to $15 and $242 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.

13

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


(11)
Stockholders’ Equity (per share in dollars)
(a)
Preferred stock (share value in dollars)
In March 2012, pursuant to the terms of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock Agreement, Alon issued 3,000,000 shares of 8.5% Series B Convertible Preferred Stock to a group of investors who held, in the aggregate, $30,000 of the Alon Brands Term Loans and 3,092,783 warrants to purchase shares of Alon common stock. Pursuant to such agreement, Alon repaid in full its obligations under the Alon Brands Term Loans and the warrants were surrendered to Alon. The terms of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are substantially the same as the terms of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock except that, based on certain conditions, Alon has the right to convert the preferred stock into Alon common stock from March 2015 for the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and from October 2013 for the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. If all of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock were to be converted into Alon's common stock based on the initial conversion price of $6.74 per share, then 4,451,100 shares of Alon's common stock would be issued.
(b)
Dividends
Common Stock Dividends. On March 15, 2012, Alon paid a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on Alon’s common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 1, 2012.
Preferred Stock Dividends. On March 31, 2012, 82,978 shares of Alon common stock were issued for payment of the quarterly 8.5% Series A Convertible Preferred Stock dividend to preferred stockholders of record at the close of business on March 20, 2012.
(c)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The following table displays the change in accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax.
 
Unrealized Loss on Cash Flow Hedges
 
Defined Benefit Pension Plans
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2011
$
(3,194
)
 
$
(23,289
)
 
$
(26,483
)
Current period other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(24,119
)
 

 
(24,119
)
Balance at March 31, 2012
$
(27,313
)
 
$
(23,289
)
 
$
(50,602
)
(12)
Earnings (Loss) Per Share
Basic earnings (loss) per share is calculated as net income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the average number of participating shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted earnings per share include the dilutive effect of SARs using the treasury stock method and the dilutive effect of convertible preferred shares, warrants and granted restricted stock units using the if-converted method.
The calculation of earnings (loss) per share, basic and diluted, for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, is as follows:
 
Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(29,367
)
 
$
13,065

Average number of shares of common stock outstanding
56,028

 
54,549

Dilutive SARs, RSUs, convertible preferred stock and warrants

 
5,935

Average number of shares of common stock outstanding assuming dilution
56,028

 
60,484

Earnings (loss) per share – basic
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.24

Earnings (loss) per share – diluted
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.22


14

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


(13)
Related-Party Transactions
In March 2012, pursuant to the terms of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock Agreement, Alon issued $12,000 of 8.5% Series B Convertible Preferred Stock to certain shareholders of Alon Israel and their affiliates. In conjunction with the issuance of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, Alon repaid all amounts due under the Alon Brands Term Loan and the warrants held by Alon Israel and their affiliates were surrendered to Alon.
(14)
Commitments and Contingencies
(a)
Commitments
In the normal course of business, Alon has long-term commitments to purchase utilities such as natural gas, electricity and water for use by its refineries, terminals, pipelines and retail locations. Alon is also party to various refined product and crude oil supply and exchange agreements. These agreements are typically short-term in nature or provide terms for cancellation.
Supply and Offtake Agreement with J. Aron & Company
During the first quarter of 2012, Alon entered into a Supply and Offtake Agreement (the “Supply and Offtake Agreement”), with J. Aron & Company (“J. Aron”). Pursuant to the Supply and Offtake Agreement (i) J. Aron agreed to sell to Alon, and Alon agreed to buy from J. Aron, at market prices, crude oil for processing at the California refineries and (ii) Alon agreed to sell, and J. Aron agreed to buy, at market prices, certain refined products produced at the California refineries.
In connection with the execution of the Supply and Offtake Agreement for the California refineries, Alon also entered into agreements that provided for the sale, at market prices, of Alon's crude oil and certain refined product inventories to J. Aron, the lease to J. Aron of crude oil and refined product storage tanks located at the California refineries, and an agreement to identify prospective purchasers of refined products on J. Aron’s behalf. The Supply and Offtake Agreement for the California refineries has an initial term that expires in May 2016. J. Aron may elect to terminate the agreement prior to the initial term beginning in May 2013, provided Alon receives notice of termination at least six months prior to that date. Following expiration or termination of the Supply and Offtake Agreement, Alon is obligated to purchase at market prices the crude oil and refined product inventories then owned by J. Aron and located at the California refineries. Alon is required to meet certain conditions, that are expected to be met, or otherwise the agreement could be terminated by J. Aron in May 2012.
(b)
Contingencies
Alon is involved in various other claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. In August 2011, Alon received from the Federal Trade Commission a civil investigative demand to provide documents as part of an industry-wide investigation related to petroleum industry practices and pricing. Alon believes the ultimate disposition of this and all other matters will not have a material effect on Alon’s financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
(c)
Environmental
Alon is subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. These rules regulate the discharge of materials into the environment and may require Alon to incur future obligations to investigate the effects of the release or disposal of certain petroleum, chemical, and mineral substances at various sites; to remediate or restore these sites; to compensate others for damage to property and natural resources and for remediation and restoration costs. These possible obligations relate to sites owned by Alon and associated with past or present operations. Alon is currently participating in environmental investigations, assessments and cleanups under these regulations at refineries, service stations, pipelines and terminals. Alon may in the future be involved in additional environmental investigations, assessments and cleanups. The magnitude of future costs will depend on factors such as the unknown nature and contamination at many sites, the timing, extent and method of the remedial actions which may be required, and the determination of Alon’s liability in proportion to other responsible parties.
Environmental expenditures are expensed or capitalized depending on their future economic benefit. Expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and that have no future economic benefit are expensed. Liabilities for expenditures of a non-capital nature are recorded when environmental assessment and/or remediation is probable, and the costs can be reasonably estimated. Substantially all amounts accrued are expected to be paid out over the next 15 years. The level of future expenditures for environmental remediation obligations cannot be determined with any degree of reliability.
Alon has accrued environmental remediation obligations of $64,588 ($6,292 current payable and $58,296 non-current liability) at March 31, 2012, and $65,463 ($6,292 current payable and $59,171 non-current liability) at December 31, 2011.

15

ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)


In connection with the acquisition of the Bakersfield refinery on June 1, 2010, a subsidiary of Alon entered into an indemnification agreement with a prior owner for remediation expenses of conditions that existed at the refinery on the acquisition date. Alon is required to make indemnification claims to the prior owner by March 15, 2015. Alon has recorded a current receivable of $706 and a non-current receivable of $15,622, and a current receivable of $706 and a non-current receivable of $15,719 at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.
Paramount Petroleum Corporation has indemnification agreements with a prior owner for part of the remediation expenses at its refineries and offsite tank farm and, as a result, has recorded a current receivable of $1,893 and a non-current receivable of $1,395, and a current receivable of $1,893 and a non-current receivable of $1,650 at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.
(15)
Subsequent Events
Dividend Declared
On May 2, 2012, Alon declared its regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on Alon’s common stock, payable on June 15, 2012, to stockholders of record at the close of business on June 1, 2012.
Stockholders' Equity
In May 2012, Alon shareholder's approved an amendment to Alon's Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of common stock from 100,000,000 shares to 150,000,000 shares and to increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock from 10,000,000 shares to 15,000,000 shares.

16


ITEM 2.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011. In this document, the words “Alon,” “the Company,” “we” and “our” refer to Alon USA Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements contained in this report and other materials we file with the SEC, or in other written or oral statements made by us, other than statements of historical fact, are “forward-looking statements” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements relate to matters such as our industry, business strategy, goals and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, capital expenditures, liquidity and capital resources and other financial and operating information. We have used the words “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “budget,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “future” and similar terms and phrases to identify forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations regarding future events, results or outcomes. These expectations may or may not be realized. Some of these expectations may be based upon assumptions or judgments that prove to be incorrect. In addition, our business and operations involve numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could result in our expectations not being realized or otherwise materially affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Actual events, results and outcomes may differ materially from our expectations due to a variety of factors. Although it is not possible to identify all of these factors, they include, among others, the following:
changes in general economic conditions and capital markets;
changes in the underlying demand for our products;
the availability, costs and price volatility of crude oil, other refinery feedstocks and refined products;
changes in the spread between West Texas Intermediate ("WTI") crude oil and West Texas Sour ("WTS") crude oil;
changes in the spread between WTI crude oil and Light Louisiana Sweet and Heavy Louisiana Sweet crude oils, as well as the spread between California crudes such as Buena Vista and WTI;
the effects of transactions involving forward contracts and derivative instruments;
actions of customers and competitors;
termination of our Supply and Offtake Agreements with J. Aron & Company (“J. Aron”), which include all our refineries and under which J. Aron is our largest supplier of crude oil and our largest customer of refined products. Additionally, we are obligated to repurchase all consigned inventories and certain other inventories upon termination of these Supply and Offtake Agreements;
changes in fuel and utility costs incurred by our facilities;
disruptions due to equipment interruption, pipeline disruptions or failure at our or third-party facilities;
the execution of planned capital projects;
adverse changes in the credit ratings assigned to our trade credit and debt instruments;
the effects of and cost of compliance with current and future state and federal environmental, economic, safety and other laws, policies and regulations;
operating hazards, natural disasters such as flooding, casualty losses and other matters beyond our control;
the global financial crisis’ impact on our business and financial condition; and
the other factors discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011 under the caption “Risk Factors”.
Any one of these factors or a combination of these factors could materially affect our future results of operations and could influence whether any forward-looking statements ultimately prove to be accurate. Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results and future performance may differ materially from those suggested in any forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update these statements unless we are required by the securities laws to do so.

17


Company Overview
We are an independent refiner and marketer of petroleum products operating primarily in the South Central, Southwestern and Western regions of the United States. Our crude oil refineries are located in Texas, California, Oregon and Louisiana and have a combined throughput capacity of approximately 250,000 barrels per day (“bpd”). Our refineries produce petroleum products including various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other petroleum-based products.
Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Our refining and unbranded marketing segment includes sour and heavy crude oil refineries located in Big Spring, Texas; and Paramount, Bakersfield and Long Beach, California; and a light sweet crude oil refinery located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana. We refer to the Paramount, Bakersfield and Long Beach refineries together as our “California refineries.” The refineries in our refining and unbranded marketing segment have a combined throughput capacity of approximately 240,000 bpd. At these refineries we refine crude oil into petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, petrochemical feedstocks and asphalts, which are marketed primarily in the South Central, Southwestern, and Western United States. At Bakersfield, we convert intermediate products into finished products and do not refine crude oil.
We market transportation fuels produced at our Big Spring refinery in West and Central Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arizona. We refer to our operations in these regions as our “physically integrated system” because we supply our retail and branded marketing segment's convenience stores and unbranded distributors with motor fuels produced at our Big Spring refinery and distributed through a network of pipelines and terminals which we either own or have access to through leases or long-term throughput agreements.
We market refined products produced by our California refineries to wholesale distributors, other refiners and third parties primarily on the West Coast. We started up the Bakersfield hydrocracker unit in late June 2011 and began processing vacuum gas oil produced by our other California locations.
We market refined products produced by our Krotz Springs refinery to other refiners and third parties. The refinery’s location provides access to upriver markets on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and its docking facilities along the Atchafalaya River allow barge access. The refinery also uses its direct access to the Colonial Pipeline to transport products to markets in the Southern and Eastern United States. The Krotz Springs refinery processing units are structured to yield approximately 101.5% of total feedstock input, meaning that for each 100 barrels of crude oil and feedstocks input into the refinery, it produces 101.5 barrels of refined products. Of the 101.5%, on average 99.0% is light finished products such as gasoline and distillates, including diesel and jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks and liquefied petroleum gas, and the remaining 2.5% is primarily heavy oils.
Asphalt Segment. Our asphalt segment markets asphalt produced at our Big Spring and California refineries included in the refining and unbranded marketing segment and at our Willbridge, Oregon refinery. Asphalt produced by the refineries in our refining and unbranded marketing segment is transferred to the asphalt segment at prices substantially determined by reference to the cost of crude oil, which is intended to approximate wholesale market prices. Our asphalt segment markets asphalt through 11 refinery/terminal locations in Texas (Big Spring), California (Paramount, Long Beach, Elk Grove, Bakersfield and Mojave), Oregon (Willbridge), Washington (Richmond Beach), Arizona (Phoenix and Flagstaff) and Nevada (Fernley) (50% interest) as well as through a 50% interest in Wright Asphalt Products Company, LLC (“Wright”). We produce both paving and roofing grades of asphalt, including performance-graded asphalts, emulsions and cutbacks.
Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. Our retail and branded marketing segment operates approximately 300 convenience stores located in Central and West Texas and New Mexico. These convenience stores typically offer various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, general merchandise and food and beverage products to the general public, primarily under the 7-Eleven, Alon and FINA brand names. We have operated under an exclusive license to use the FINA trademark in the wholesale distribution of motor fuel within Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah since 2000. Our license to use the FINA brand will expire in August 2012 in accordance with its terms. We developed our own brand and logo in anticipation of the expiration of this license and have begun the process of converting all of our locations and all locations served by our branded marketing business to the new Alon brand. Under the Alon brand, we will no longer be subject to the geographic limitations contained in the FINA license agreement.
Substantially all of the motor fuel sold through our retail operations and the majority of the motor fuel marketed in our branded business is supplied by our Big Spring refinery. In 2012, approximately 93% of the motor fuel requirements of our branded marketing operations, including retail operations, were supplied by our Big Spring refinery. Branded distributors that are not part of our integrated supply system, primarily in Central Texas, are supplied with motor fuels we obtain from third-party suppliers.

18


We market gasoline and diesel under the Alon and FINA brand names through a network of approximately 625 locations, including our convenience stores. Approximately 51% of the gasoline and 20% of the diesel motor fuel produced at our Big Spring refinery was transferred to our retail and branded marketing segment at prices substantially determined by reference to commodity pricing information published by Platts. Additionally, our retail and branded marketing segment licenses the use of the Alon and FINA brand names and provides credit card processing services to approximately 200 licensed locations that are not under fuel supply agreements with us.
First Quarter Operational and Financial Highlights
Operating income (loss) for the first quarter of 2012 was $(9.8) million, compared to $73.3 million in the same period last year. Our operational and financial highlights for the first quarter of 2012 include the following:
Combined refinery throughput for the first quarter of 2012 averaged 135,190 bpd, consisting of 69,512 bpd at the Big Spring refinery and 65,678 bpd at the Krotz Springs refinery, compared to 135,638 bpd for the first quarter of 2011, consisting of 62,181 bpd at the Big Spring refinery and 73,457 bpd at the Krotz Springs refinery. The California refineries were not in operation for the first quarter of 2012 or 2011.
Operating margin at the Big Spring refinery was $17.05 per barrel for the first quarter of 2012, compared to $19.50 per barrel for the same period in 2011. This decrease in operating margin is mainly due to a $1.41 per barrel impact on realized hedging losses and an $0.85 per barrel impact from lower by-product pricing. Additionally, mid-continent product pricing, being lower than Gulf Coast pricing, impacted margins.
Operating margin at the Krotz Springs refinery was $4.90 per barrel for the first quarter of 2012, compared to $5.06 per barrel for the same period in 2011. This decrease in operating margin is due to a $0.92 per barrel impact on realized hedging losses and a $1.10 per barrel impact from lower by-product pricing. Additionally, light product yields were lower in the first quarter of 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 as a result of unplanned outages in the FCC Unit and the FCC Gasoline Treater.
The average sweet/sour spread for the first quarter of 2012 was $3.62 per barrel compared to $4.10 per barrel for the same period in 2011. The average LLS to WTI spread for the first quarter of 2012 was $12.61 per barrel compared to $9.35 per barrel for the same period in 2011.
The average Gulf Coast 3/2/1 crack spread was $24.78 per barrel for the first quarter of 2012 compared to $18.09 per barrel for the first quarter of 2011. The average Gulf Coast 2/1/1 high sulfur diesel crack spread for the first quarter of 2012 was $12.46 per barrel compared to $9.03 per barrel for the first quarter of 2011.
Asphalt margins in the first quarter of 2012 were $55.18 per ton compared to $18.18 per ton in the first quarter of 2011. This increase was primarily due to non-cash inventory items, partially offset by higher crude oil costs. The average blended asphalt sales price increased 13.0% from $506.55 per ton in the first quarter of 2011 to $572.54 per ton in the first quarter of 2012 and the average non-blended asphalt sales price increased 12.9% from $302.57 per ton in the first quarter of 2011 to $341.49 per ton in the first quarter of 2012. The average price of Buena Vista crude increased 16.8% from $99.31 per barrel in the first quarter of 2011 to $116.00 per barrel in the first quarter of 2012.
Retail fuel sales volume increased by 12.8% from 36.7 million gallons in the first quarter of 2011 to 41.3 million gallons in the first quarter of 2012. Our branded fuel sales volume increased by 9.3% from 85.6 million gallons in the first quarter of 2011 to 93.5 million gallons in the first quarter of 2012.
On March 15, 2012, we paid a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on our common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 1, 2012.
On March 31, 2012, 82,978 shares of our common stock were issued for payment of the quarterly 8.5% Series A Convertible Preferred Stock dividend to preferred stockholders of record at the close of business on March 20, 2012.
Major Influences on Results of Operations
Refining and Unbranded Marketing. Earnings and cash flow from our refining and unbranded marketing segment are primarily affected by the difference between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks. The cost to acquire crude oil and other feedstocks and the price of the refined products we ultimately sell depend on numerous factors beyond our control, including the supply of, and demand for, crude oil, gasoline and other refined products which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in domestic and foreign economies, weather conditions, domestic and foreign political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels and government regulation. While our

19


sales and operating revenues fluctuate significantly with movements in crude oil and refined product prices, it is the spread between crude oil and refined product prices, and not necessarily fluctuations in those prices, that affect our earnings.
In order to measure our operating performance, we compare our per barrel refinery operating margins to certain industry benchmarks. We calculate the per barrel operating margin for each refinery by dividing the refinery’s gross margin by its throughput volumes. Gross margin is the difference between net sales and cost of sales (exclusive of substantial unrealized hedge positions and inventory adjustments related to acquisitions).
We compare our Big Spring refinery’s per barrel operating margin to the Gulf Coast 3/2/1 crack spread. A 3/2/1 crack spread is calculated assuming that three barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted, or cracked, into two barrels of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate the Gulf Coast 3/2/1 crack spread using the market values of Gulf Coast conventional gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel and the market value of West Texas Intermediate, or WTI, a light, sweet crude oil.
We compare our California refineries’ per barrel operating margin to the West Coast 3/1/1/1 crack spread. A 3/1/1/1 crack spread is calculated assuming that three barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted into one barrel of gasoline, one barrel of diesel and one barrel of fuel oil. We calculate the West Coast 3/1/1/1 crack spread using the market values of West Coast LA CARBOB pipeline gasoline, LA ultra-low sulfur pipeline diesel, and LA 380 pipeline CST (fuel oil) and the market value of Buena Vista crude oil.
We compare our Krotz Springs refinery’s per barrel margin to the Gulf Coast 2/1/1 crack spread. A 2/1/1 crack spread is calculated assuming that two barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted into one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate the Gulf Coast 2/1/1 crack spread using the market values of Gulf Coast conventional gasoline and Gulf Coast high sulfur diesel and the market value of Light Louisiana Sweet, or LLS, crude oil.
Our Big Spring refinery and California refineries are capable of processing substantial volumes of sour crude oil, which has historically cost less than intermediate and sweet crude oils. We measure the cost advantage of refining sour crude oil by calculating the difference between the value of WTI crude oil less the value of West Texas Sour, or WTS, a medium, sour crude oil. We refer to this differential as the sweet/sour spread. A widening of the sweet/sour spread can favorably influence the operating margin for our Big Spring and California refineries. In addition, our California refineries are capable of processing significant volumes of heavy crude oils which historically have cost less than light crude oils. We measure the cost advantage of refining heavy crude oils by calculating the difference between the value of WTI crude oil less the value of Buena Vista crude oil. A widening of this spread can favorably influence the refinery operating margins for our California refineries.
The Krotz Springs refinery has the capability to process substantial volumes of low-sulfur, or sweet, crude oils to produce a high percentage of light, high-value refined products. Sweet crude oil typically comprises 100% of the Krotz Springs refinery's crude oil input. This input was primarily comprised of Heavy Louisiana Sweet, or HLS crude oil, and LLS crude oil. We measure the cost of refining these lighter sweet crude oils by calculating the difference between the average value of LLS crude oil (which also approximates the value of HLS crude oil) to the average value of WTI crude oil. A narrowing of this spread can favorably influence the refinery operating margins of our Krotz Springs refinery.
The results of operations from our refining and unbranded marketing segment are also significantly affected by our refineries’ operating costs, particularly the cost of natural gas used for fuel and the cost of electricity. Natural gas prices have historically been volatile. Typically, electricity prices fluctuate with natural gas prices.
Demand for gasoline products is generally higher during summer months than during winter months due to seasonal increases in highway traffic. As a result, the operating results for our refining and unbranded marketing segment for the first and fourth calendar quarters are generally lower than those for the second and third calendar quarters. The effects of seasonal demand for gasoline are partially offset by seasonality in demand for diesel, which in our region is generally higher in winter months as east-west trucking traffic moves south to avoid winter conditions on northern routes.
Safety, reliability and the environmental performance of our refineries are critical to our financial performance. The financial impact of planned downtime, such as a turnaround or major maintenance project, is mitigated through a diligent planning process that considers expectations for product availability, margin environment and the availability of resources to perform the required maintenance.
The nature of our business requires us to maintain substantial quantities of crude oil and refined product inventories. Crude oil and refined products are essentially commodities, and we have no control over the changing market value of these inventories. Because our inventory is valued at the lower of cost or market value under the LIFO inventory valuation methodology, price fluctuations generally have little effect on our financial results.
Asphalt. Earnings from our asphalt segment depend primarily upon the margin between the price at which we sell our asphalt and the transfer prices for asphalt produced at our refineries in the refining and unbranded marketing segment. Asphalt is transferred to our asphalt segment at prices substantially determined by reference to the cost of crude oil, which is intended to approximate wholesale market prices. The asphalt segment also conducts operations and markets asphalt at our refinery

20


located in Willbridge, Oregon. In addition to producing asphalt at our refineries, at times when refining margins are unfavorable we opportunistically purchase asphalt from other producers for resale. A portion of our asphalt sales are made using fixed price contracts for delivery at future dates. Because these contracts are priced at the market prices for asphalt at the time of the contract, a change in the cost of crude oil between the time we enter into the contract and the time we produce the asphalt can positively or negatively influence the earnings of our asphalt segment. Demand for paving asphalt products is higher during warmer months than during colder months due to seasonal increases in road construction work. As a result, revenues from our asphalt segment for the first and fourth calendar quarters are expected to be lower than those for the second and third calendar quarters.
Retail and Branded Marketing. Earnings and cash flows from our retail and branded marketing segment are primarily affected by merchandise and motor fuel sales volumes and margins at our convenience stores and the motor fuel sales volumes and margins from sales to our Alon and FINA-branded distributors, together with licensing and credit card related fees generated from our Alon and FINA-branded distributors and licensees. Retail merchandise gross margin is equal to retail merchandise sales less the delivered cost of the retail merchandise, net of vendor discounts and rebates, measured as a percentage of total retail merchandise sales. Retail merchandise sales are driven by convenience, branding and competitive pricing. Motor fuel margin is equal to motor fuel sales less the delivered cost of fuel and motor fuel taxes, measured on a cents per gallon (“cpg”) basis. Our motor fuel margins are driven by local supply, demand and competitor pricing. Our convenience store sales are seasonal and peak in the second and third quarters of the year, while the first and fourth quarters usually experience lower overall sales.
Factors Affecting Comparability
Our financial condition and operating results over the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, were not materially affected by factors having an impact on understanding comparisons of our period-to-period financial performance.
Results of Operations
Net Sales. Net sales consist primarily of sales of refined petroleum products through our refining and unbranded marketing segment and asphalt segment and sales of merchandise, including food products, and motor fuels, through our retail and branded marketing segment.
For the refining and unbranded marketing segment, net sales consist of gross sales, net of customer rebates, discounts and excise taxes and includes inter-segment sales to our asphalt and retail and branded marketing segments, which are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements. Asphalt sales consist of gross sales, net of any discounts and applicable taxes. Retail net sales consist of gross merchandise sales, less rebates, commissions and discounts, and gross fuel sales, including motor fuel taxes. For our petroleum and asphalt products, net sales are mainly affected by crude oil and refined product prices and volume changes caused by operations. Our retail merchandise sales are affected primarily by competition and seasonal influences.
Cost of Sales. Refining and unbranded marketing cost of sales includes crude oil and other raw materials, inclusive of transportation costs. Asphalt cost of sales includes costs of purchased asphalt, blending materials and transportation costs. Retail cost of sales includes cost of sales for motor fuels and for merchandise. Motor fuel cost of sales represents the net cost of purchased fuel, including transportation costs and associated motor fuel taxes. Merchandise cost of sales includes the delivered cost of merchandise purchases, net of merchandise rebates and commissions. Cost of sales excludes depreciation and amortization expense.
Direct Operating Expenses. Direct operating expenses, which relate to our refining and unbranded marketing and asphalt segments, include costs associated with the actual operations of our refineries and asphalt terminals, such as energy and utility costs, routine maintenance, labor, insurance and environmental compliance costs. Environmental compliance costs, including monitoring and routine maintenance, are expensed as incurred. All operating costs associated with our crude oil and product pipelines are considered to be transportation costs and are reflected as cost of sales.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative, or SG&A, expenses consist primarily of costs relating to the operations of our convenience stores, including labor, utilities, maintenance and retail corporate overhead costs. Refining and marketing and asphalt segment corporate overhead and marketing expenses are also included in SG&A expenses.

21


ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED
Summary Financial Tables. The following tables provide summary financial data and selected key operating statistics for Alon and our three operating segments for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011. The summary financial data for our three operating segments does not include certain SG&A expenses and depreciation and amortization related to our corporate headquarters. The following data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. All information in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” except for Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2011 is unaudited.
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
 
 
 
Net sales (1)
$
1,792,133

 
$
1,651,104

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Cost of sales
1,618,674

 
1,461,123

Unrealized losses on commodity swaps
45,312

 

Direct operating expenses
72,209

 
56,923

Selling, general and administrative expenses (2)
35,140

 
34,330

Depreciation and amortization (3)
30,711

 
25,447

Total operating costs and expenses
1,802,046

 
1,577,823

Gain on disposition of assets
131

 
12

Operating income (loss)
(9,782
)
 
73,293

Interest expense (4)
(31,040
)
 
(20,440
)
Equity earnings (loss) of investees
61

 
(245
)
Other loss, net (5)
(8,100
)
 
(31,913
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(48,861
)
 
20,695

Income tax expense (benefit)
(17,751
)
 
7,470

Net income (loss)
(31,110
)
 
13,225

Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest
(1,743
)
 
160

Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(29,367
)
 
$
13,065

Earnings (loss) per share, basic
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.24

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic (in thousands)
56,028

 
54,549

Earnings (loss) per share, diluted
$
(0.52
)
 
$
0.22

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted (in thousands)
56,028

 
60,484

Cash dividends per share
$
0.04

 
$
0.04

CASH FLOW DATA:
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
30,873

 
$
24,381

Investing activities
(16,651
)
 
(25,022
)
Financing activities
(120,999
)
 
48,399

OTHER DATA:
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA (6)
12,759

 
66,570

Capital expenditures (7)
14,557

 
25,163

Capital expenditures for turnaround and chemical catalyst
2,105

 
185


22


 
March 31,
2012
 
December 31,
2011
BALANCE SHEET DATA (end of period):
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
50,289

 
157,066

Working capital
41,881

 
99,452

Total assets
2,236,340

 
2,330,382

Total debt
914,379

 
1,050,196

Total equity
365,438

 
395,784

(1)
Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail and branded marketing segment of $16,124 and $14,218 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
(2)
Includes corporate headquarters selling, general and administrative expenses of $190 and $188 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.
(3)
Includes corporate depreciation and amortization of $553 and $403 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.
(4)
Interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2012, includes a charge of $9,624 for the write-off of unamortized original issuance discount associated with our repayment of the Alon Brands Term Loan.
(5)
Other loss, net for both the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011 is substantially the loss on heating oil call option crack spread contracts.
(6)
Adjusted EBITDA represents earnings before non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries, income tax expense, interest expense, depreciation and amortization and gain on disposition of assets. Adjusted EBITDA is not a recognized measurement under GAAP; however, the amounts included in Adjusted EBITDA are derived from amounts included in our consolidated financial statements. Our management believes that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors because it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors, and other interested parties in the evaluation of companies in our industry. In addition, our management believes that Adjusted EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry because the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA generally eliminates the effects of non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries, income tax expense, interest expense, gain on disposition of assets and the accounting effects of capital expenditures and acquisitions, items that may vary for different companies for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the prior claim that non-controlling interest have on the income generated by non-wholly-owned subsidiaries;
Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in or cash requirements for our working capital needs; and
Our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may differ from EBITDA calculations of other companies in our industry, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered a measure of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only supplementally.

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The following table reconciles net income (loss) available to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively:
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
(dollars in thousands)
Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(29,367
)
 
$
13,065

Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries
(1,743
)
 
160

Income tax expense (benefit)
(17,751
)
 
7,470

Interest expense
31,040

 
20,440

Depreciation and amortization
30,711

 
25,447

Gain on disposition of assets
(131
)
 
(12
)
Adjusted EBITDA
$
12,759

 
$
66,570

Adjusted EBITDA does not exclude unrealized losses on commodity swaps of $45,312 and loss on heating oil call option crack spread contracts of $8,153 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and loss on heating oil call option crack spread contracts of $31,919 for the three months ended March 31, 2011.
(7)
Includes corporate capital expenditures of $126 and $65 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.

24



REFINING AND UNBRANDED MARKETING SEGMENT
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
(dollars in thousands, except per barrel data and pricing statistics)
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
 
 
 
Net sales (1)
$
1,642,371

 
$
1,499,024

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 

Cost of sales
1,503,393

 
1,345,021

Unrealized losses on commodity swaps
45,312

 

Direct operating expenses
63,219

 
46,949

Selling, general and administrative expenses
6,856

 
7,728

Depreciation and amortization
25,702

 
20,037

Total operating costs and expenses
1,644,482

 
1,419,735

Operating income (loss)
$
(2,111
)
 
$
79,289

KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
 
 
 
Per barrel of throughput:
 
 
 
Refinery operating margin – Big Spring (2)
$
17.05

 
$
19.50

Refinery operating margin – CA Refineries (2)
N/A

 
N/A

Refinery operating margin – Krotz Springs (2)
4.90

 
5.06

Refinery direct operating expense – Big Spring (3)
3.59

 
4.13

Refinery direct operating expense – CA Refineries (3)
N/A

 
N/A

Refinery direct operating expense – Krotz Springs (3)
3.99

 
2.85

Capital expenditures
7,531

 
23,093

Capital expenditures for turnaround and chemical catalyst
2,105

 
185

PRICING STATISTICS:
 
 
 
WTI crude oil (per barrel)
$
103.00

 
$
94.13

WTS crude oil (per barrel)
99.38

 
90.03

Buena Vista crude oil (per barrel)
116.00

 
99.31

LLS crude oil (per barrel)
112.51

 
98.37

Crack spreads (3/2/1) (per barrel):
 
 
 
Gulf Coast
$
24.78

 
$
18.09

Crack spreads (3/1/1/1) (per barrel):
 
 
 
West Coast
12.64

 
12.15

Crack spreads (2/1/1) (per barrel):
 
 
 
Gulf Coast high sulfur diesel
$
12.46

 
$
9.03

Crude oil differentials (per barrel):
 
 
 
WTI less WTS
$
3.62

 
$
4.10

LLS less WTI
12.61

 
9.35

WTI less Buena Vista
(13.00
)
 
(5.18
)
Product price (dollars per gallon):
 
 
 
Gulf Coast unleaded gasoline
$
2.98

 
$
2.60

Gulf Coast ultra-low sulfur diesel
3.16

 
2.83

Gulf Coast high sulfur diesel
3.12

 
2.76

West Coast LA CARBOB (unleaded gasoline)
3.20

 
2.79

West Coast LA ultra-low sulfur diesel
3.24

 
2.91

Natural gas (per MMBTU)
2.50

 
4.20


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THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCTION DATA:
BIG SPRING REFINERY
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
bpd
 
%
 
bpd
 
%
Refinery throughput:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sour crude
55,546

 
79.9

 
52,124

 
83.8

Sweet crude
12,206

 
17.6

 
8,499

 
13.7

Blendstocks
1,760

 
2.5

 
1,558

 
2.5

Total refinery throughput (4)
69,512

 
100.0

 
62,181

 
100.0

Refinery production:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasoline
35,140

 
50.7

 
30,373

 
49.3

Diesel/jet
22,236

 
32.1

 
19,988

 
32.4

Asphalt
4,535

 
6.6

 
4,340

 
7.0

Petrochemicals
4,136

 
6.0

 
3,824

 
6.2

Other
3,187

 
4.6

 
3,165

 
5.1

Total refinery production (5)
69,234

 
100.0

 
61,690

 
100.0

Refinery utilization (6)
 
 
96.8
%
 
 
 
86.6
%
THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCTION DATA:
KROTZ SPRINGS REFINERY
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
bpd
 
%
 
bpd
 
%
Refinery throughput:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Light sweet crude
53,658

 
81.7

 
52,930

 
72.0

Heavy sweet crude
11,004

 
16.8

 
19,224

 
26.2

Blendstocks
1,016

 
1.5

 
1,303

 
1.8

Total refinery throughput (4)
65,678

 
100.0

 
73,457

 
100.0

Refinery production:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasoline
27,533

 
41.6

 
31,175

 
42.4

Diesel/jet
28,713

 
43.4

 
34,542

 
46.9

Heavy Oils
5,045

 
7.6

 
1,659

 
2.3

Other
4,927

 
7.4

 
6,146

 
8.4

Total refinery production (5)
66,218

 
100.0

 
73,522

 
100.0

Refinery utilization (6)
 
 
77.8
%
 
 
 
86.8
%


26


(1)
Net sales include intersegment sales to our asphalt and retail and branded marketing segments at prices which approximate wholesale market prices. These intersegment sales are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
(2)
Refinery operating margin is a per barrel measurement calculated by dividing the margin between net sales and cost of sales (exclusive of substantial unrealized hedge positions and inventory adjustments related to acquisitions) attributable to each refinery by the refinery's throughput volumes. Industry-wide refining results are driven and measured by the margins between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil, which are referred to as crack spreads. We compare our refinery operating margins to these crack spreads to assess our operating performance relative to other participants in our industry.
The refinery operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2012, excludes unrealized losses on commodity swaps of $45,312, as shown separately in the statements of operations. The refinery operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2011, excludes a benefit from inventory reductions of $22,460.
(3)
Refinery direct operating expense is a per barrel measurement calculated by dividing direct operating expenses at our Big Spring, California, and Krotz Springs refineries, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, by the applicable refinery’s total throughput volumes.
(4)
Total refinery throughput represents the total barrels per day of crude oil and blendstock inputs in the refinery production process. The California refineries were not in operation for the first quarter of 2012 or 2011.
(5)
Total refinery production represents the barrels per day of various products produced from processing crude and other refinery feedstocks through the crude units and other conversion units at the refineries.
(6)
Refinery utilization represents average daily crude oil throughput divided by crude oil capacity, excluding planned periods of downtime for maintenance and turnarounds.


27


ASPHALT SEGMENT
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
(dollars in thousands, except per ton data)
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
 
 
 
Net sales
$
92,549

 
$
86,243

Operating costs and expenses:

 

Cost of sales (1)
82,672

 
82,752

Direct operating expenses
8,990

 
9,974

Selling, general and administrative expenses
926

 
1,415

Depreciation and amortization
1,382

 
1,730

Total operating costs and expenses
93,970

 
95,871

Operating loss
$
(1,421
)
 
$
(9,628
)
KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
 
 
 
Blended asphalt sales volume (tons in thousands) (2)
136

 
138

Non-blended asphalt sales volume (tons in thousands) (3)
43

 
54

Blended asphalt sales price per ton (2)
$
572.54

 
$
506.55

Non-blended asphalt sales price per ton (3)
341.49

 
302.57

Asphalt margin per ton (4)
55.18

 
18.18

Capital expenditures
$
1,491

 
$
660

(1)
Cost of sales includes intersegment purchases of asphalt blends from our refining and unbranded marketing segment at prices which approximate wholesale market prices. These intersegment purchases are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
(2)
Blended asphalt represents base asphalt that has been blended with other materials necessary to sell the asphalt as a finished product.
(3)
Non-blended asphalt represents base material asphalt and other components that require additional blending before being sold as a finished product.
(4)
Asphalt margin is a per ton measurement calculated by dividing the margin between net sales and cost of sales by the total sales volume. Asphalt margins are used in the asphalt industry to measure operating results related to asphalt sales.

28


RETAIL AND BRANDED MARKETING SEGMENT
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
 
2012

2011
 
(dollars in thousands, except per gallon data)
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
 
 
 
Net sales (1)
$
368,467


$
316,184

Operating costs and expenses:



Cost of sales (2)
343,863


283,697

Selling, general and administrative expenses
27,168


24,999

Depreciation and amortization
3,074


3,277

Total operating costs and expenses
374,105

 
311,973

Gain on disposition of assets
131


12

Operating income (loss)
$
(5,507
)
 
$
4,223

KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
 
 
 
Branded fuel sales (thousands of gallons) (3)
93,490

 
85,570

Branded fuel margin (cents per gallon) (3)
(5.3
)
 
3.7

Number of stores (end of period) (4)
300

 
304

Retail fuel sales (thousands of gallons)
41,329

 
36,655

Retail fuel sales (thousands of gallons per site per month) (4)
48

 
42

Retail fuel margin (cents per gallon) (5)
10.8

 
14.6

Retail fuel sales price (dollars per gallon) (6)
$
3.46

 
$
3.19

Merchandise sales
$
73,482

 
$
68,001

Merchandise sales (per site per month) (4)
$
81

 
$
75

Merchandise margin (7)
32.1
%
 
33.1
%
Capital expenditures
$
5,409

 
$
1,345

(1)
Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail and branded marketing segment of $16,124 and $14,218 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Net sales also includes net royalty and related net credit card fees of $1,474 and $1,419 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
(2)
Cost of sales includes intersegment purchases of motor fuels from our refining and unbranded marketing segment at prices which approximate wholesale market prices. These intersegment purchases are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
(3)
Branded fuel sales represent branded fuel sales to our wholesale marketing customers that are primarily supplied by the Big Spring refinery. The branded fuels that are not supplied by the Big Spring refinery are obtained from third-party suppliers. The branded fuel margin represents the margin between the net sales and cost of sales attributable to our branded fuel sales volume, expressed on a cents-per-gallon basis.
(4)
At March 31, 2012 we had 300 retail convenience stores of which 287 sold fuel. At March 31, 2011 we had 304 retail convenience stores of which 292 sold fuel.
(5)
Retail fuel margin represents the difference between motor fuel sales revenue and the net cost of purchased motor fuel, including transportation costs and associated motor fuel taxes, expressed on a cents-per-gallon basis. Motor fuel margins are frequently used in the retail industry to measure operating results related to motor fuel sales.
(6)
Retail fuel sales price per gallon represents the average sales price for motor fuels sold through our retail convenience stores.
(7)
Merchandise margin represents the difference between merchandise sales revenues and the delivered cost of merchandise purchases, net of rebates and commissions, expressed as a percentage of merchandise sales revenues. Merchandise margins, also referred to as in-store margins, are commonly used in the retail convenience store industry to measure in-store, or non-fuel, operating results.

29


Three Months Ended March 31, 2012 Compared to the Three Months Ended March 31, 2011
Net Sales
Consolidated. Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2012 were $1,792.1 million, compared to $1,651.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2011, an increase of $141.0 million. This increase was primarily due to higher refined product prices and increased sales volumes in our retail and branded marketing segment.