XNAS:RGLD Royal Gold Inc Annual Report 10-K Filing - 6/30/2012

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
PART IV

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)    

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2012

or

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period From                              to                             

Commission File Number 001-13357

Royal Gold, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  84-0835164
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

1660 Wynkoop Street, Suite 1000

 

 
Denver, Colorado
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
  80202
(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (303) 573-1660

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value   NASDAQ Global Select Market

          Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None



          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o    No ý

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

          Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "accelerated filer", "large accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

(Check one):   Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

          Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

          Aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing sale price of Royal Gold common stock on December 30, 2011, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market was $3,501,458,581. There were 58,885,405 shares of the Company's common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of July 31, 2012. In addition, as of such date, there were 763,826 exchangeable shares of RG Exchangeco Inc., a subsidiary of registrant, outstanding which are exchangeable at any time into shares of the Company's common stock on a one-for-one basis and entitle their holders to dividend and other rights economically equivalent to those of the Company's common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

          Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled to be held on November 14, 2012, and to be filed within 120 days after June 30, 2012, are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

   


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INDEX

 
   
  PAGE  

PART I.

           

ITEM    1.

 

Business

   
1
 

ITEM    1A.

 

Risk Factors

   
8
 

ITEM    1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

   
22
 

ITEM    2.

 

Properties

   
22
 

ITEM    3.

 

Legal Proceedings

   
35
 

ITEM    4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosure

   
35
 

PART II.

           

ITEM    5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

   
36
 

ITEM    6.

 

Selected Financial Data

   
37
 

ITEM    7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

   
37
 

ITEM    7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

   
54
 

ITEM    8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

   
55
 

ITEM    9.

 

Changes In and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

   
92
 

ITEM    9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

   
92
 

ITEM    9B.

 

Other Information

   
94
 

PART III.

           

ITEM    10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

   
94
 

ITEM    11.

 

Executive Compensation

   
94
 

ITEM    12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

   
94
 

ITEM    13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

   
94
 

ITEM    14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

   
94
 

PART IV.

           

ITEM    15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

   
95
 

SIGNATURES

   
96
 

EXHIBIT INDEX

   
98
 

Table of Contents

        This document (including information incorporated herein by reference) contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which involve a degree of risk and uncertainty due to various factors affecting Royal Gold, Inc. and its subsidiaries. For a discussion of some of these factors, see the discussion in Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this report. In addition, please see our note about forward-looking statements included in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A"), of this report.


PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

Overview

        Royal Gold, Inc. ("Royal Gold", the "Company", "we", "us", or "our"), together with its subsidiaries, is engaged in the business of acquiring and managing precious metals royalties and similar interests. Royalties are non-operating interests in mining projects that provide the right to revenue or metal produced from the project after deducting specified costs, if any, and we use the term "royalties" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to refer to royalties, gold or silver stream interests, and other similar interests. We seek to acquire existing royalties or to finance projects that are in production or in development stage in exchange for royalties.

        We are engaged in a continual review of opportunities to acquire existing royalties, to create new royalties through the financing of mine development or exploration, or to acquire companies that hold royalties. We currently, and generally at any time, have acquisition opportunities in various stages of active review, including, for example, our engagement of consultants and advisors to analyze particular opportunities, analysis of technical, financial and other confidential information, submission of indications of interest, participation in preliminary discussions and involvement as a bidder in competitive divestitures.

        As of June 30, 2012, the Company owned royalties on 39 producing properties, 26 development stage properties and 128 exploration stage properties, of which the Company considers 40 to be evaluation stage projects. The Company uses "evaluation stage" to describe exploration stage properties that contain mineralized material and on which operators are engaged in the search for reserves. We do not conduct mining operations nor are we required to contribute to capital costs, exploration costs, environmental costs or other mining, processing or other operating costs on the properties in which we hold royalty interests. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, we focused on the management of our existing royalty interests and the acquisition of royalty interests.

        As discussed in further detail throughout this report, some significant developments to our business during fiscal year 2012 were as follows:

    (1)
    Our royalty revenues increased 22% to $263.1 million, compared with $216.5 million during fiscal year 2011;

    (2)
    We acquired the right to purchase an additional 15% of the payable gold produced from the Mt. Milligan copper-gold project located in British Columbia, Canada. In August 2012, the Company also agreed to purchase an additional 12.25% of the payable sold produced from Mt. Milligan;

    (3)
    We acquired the right to purchase specified percentages of the payable gold and silver produced from the Tulsequah Chief project located in British Columbia, Canada;

    (4)
    We acquired a 3.0% net smelter return royalty interest on all ores or minerals mined from the Ruby Hill mine located eastern Nevada;

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    (5)
    We sold 4,000,000 shares of our common stock, at a price of $67.10 per share, resulting in proceeds of approximately $268.4 million;

    (6)
    We completed an offering of $370 million aggregate principal amount of 2.875% convertible senior notes due 2019 (the "2019 Notes"), which resulted in net proceeds of approximately $359.0 million; and

    (7)
    We increased our calendar year dividend to $0.60 per basic share, which is paid in quarterly installments throughout calendar year 2012. This represents a 36% increase compared with the dividend paid during calendar year 2011.

Certain Definitions

        Additional Mineralized Material:    Additional mineralized material is that part of a mineral system that has potential economic significance but cannot be included in the proven and probable ore reserve estimates until further drilling and metallurgical work is completed, and until other economic and technical feasibility factors based upon such work have been resolved. The Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") does not recognize this term. Investors are cautioned not to assume that any part or all of the mineral deposits in these categories will ever be converted into reserves.

        Gross Proceeds Royalty (GPR):    A royalty in which payments are made on contained ounces rather than recovered ounces.

        Gross Smelter Return (GSR) Royalty:    A defined percentage of the gross revenue from a resource extraction operation, in certain cases reduced by certain contract-defined costs paid by or charged to the operator.

        g/t:    A unit representing grams per tonne.

        Gold or Silver Stream:    A gold or silver purchase agreement that provides, in exchange for an upfront deposit payment, the right to purchase all or a portion of gold or silver, as applicable, produced from a mine, at a price determined for the life of the transaction by the purchase agreement.

        Net Profits Interest (NPI):    A defined percentage of the gross revenue from a resource extraction operation, after recovery of certain contract-defined pre-production costs, and after deduction of certain contract-defined mining, milling, processing, transportation, administrative, marketing and other costs.

        Net Smelter Return (NSR) Royalty:    A defined percentage of the gross revenue from a resource extraction operation, less a proportionate share of incidental transportation, insurance, refining and smelting costs.

        Net Value Royalty (NVR):    A defined percentage of the gross revenue from a resource extraction operation, less certain contract-defined transportation costs, milling costs and taxes.

        Proven (Measured) Reserves:    Reserves for which (a) quantity is computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, workings or drill holes, and the grade is computed from the results of detailed sampling, and (b) the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are spaced so closely and the geologic character is so well defined that the size, shape, depth and mineral content of the reserves are well established.

        Probable (Indicated) Reserves:    Reserves for which the quantity and grade are computed from information similar to that used for proven (measured) reserves, but the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are farther apart or are otherwise less adequately spaced. The degree of assurance of

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probable (indicated) reserves, although lower than that for proven (measured) reserves, is high enough to assume geological continuity between points of observation.

        Payable Metal:    Ounces or pounds of metal in concentrate payable to the operator after deduction of a percentage of metal in concentrate that is paid to a third-party smelter pursuant to smelting contracts.

        Reserve:    That part of a mineral deposit which could be economically and legally extracted or produced at the time of the reserve determination.

        Royalty:    The right to receive a percentage or other denomination of mineral production from a resource extraction operation.

        Ton:    A unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds or 907.2 kilograms.

        Tonne:    A unit of weight equal to 2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms.

Recent Business Developments

        Please refer to Item 7, MD&A, for discussion on recent liquidity and capital resource developments.

Ruby Hill Royalty Acquisition

        On May 23, 2012, the Company entered into and closed a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the "Agreement") with International Minerals Corporation ("IMC") and Metallic Ventures (U.S.), Inc., a wholly-owned indirect subsidiary of IMC, pursuant to which the Company acquired a 3.0% NSR royalty interest on all ores and minerals mined or otherwise recovered from the Ruby Hill mine owned and operated by an affiliate of Barrick Gold Corporation ("Barrick") in Eureka County, Nevada, for a purchase price of $38 million.

        Barrick reported that, as of December 31, 2011, proven and probable reserves at the Ruby Hill mine include 16.8 million tons of ore, at an average grade of 0.058 ounces per ton, containing approximately 978,000 ounces of gold. In addition, Barrick estimates additional mineralization of 107.6 million tons, at a grade of 0.021 ounces per ton. Barrick is a Canadian issuer and reports resources under National Instrument 43-101, Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, of the Canadian Securities Administrators. The additional mineralization is reported by Barrick as measured and indicated resources and is in addition to mineral reserves. Calendar year 2011 production was 127,000 ounces of gold. The Company began accruing royalty revenue for the Ruby Hill royalty interest during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012 and received its first royalty payment in July 2012.

Tulsequah Chief Gold and Silver Stream Acquisition

        On December 22, 2011, Royal Gold, through one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries, entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the "Tulsequah Agreement") with Chieftain Metals, Inc. ("Chieftain") whereby Royal Gold, among other things, agreed to purchase specified percentages of the payable gold and the payable silver produced from the Tulsequah Chief project in British Columbia from Chieftain. Consideration for the transaction is comprised of payment advances totaling $60 million, of which $10 million was paid on December 28, 2011, and, when production is reached, cash payments for each gold and silver ounce delivered to Royal Gold, as discussed further below.

        Following the initial $10 million payment advance, upon satisfaction of certain conditions set forth in the Tulsequah Agreement, Royal Gold will make additional payments (each, an "Additional Payment") to Chieftain in an amount not to exceed $50 million in the aggregate. Chieftain will use these payment advances to fund a portion of the development costs of the Tulsequah Chief project.

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Upon commencement of production at the Tulsequah Chief project, Royal Gold will purchase (i) 12.50% of the payable gold with a cash payment equal to the lesser of $450 or the prevailing market price for each payable ounce of gold until 48,000 ounces have been delivered to Royal Gold and 7.50% of the payable gold with a cash payment equal to the lesser of $500 or the prevailing market price for each additional ounce of payable gold thereafter, and (ii) 22.50% of the payable silver with a cash payment equal to the lesser of $5.00 or the prevailing market price for each payable ounce of silver until 2,775,000 ounces have been delivered to Royal Gold and 9.75% of the payable silver with a cash payment equal to the lesser of $7.50 or the prevailing market price for each additional ounce of payable silver thereafter. As of June 30, 2012, Royal Gold has $50 million remaining in Additional Payments to Chieftain.

        Under the circumstances described in the Tulsequah Agreement, Royal Gold has the right to suspend its obligations to make all Additional Payments. Upon such a suspension, the streaming percentages for payable gold and payable silver described above will each be reduced to 6.50% for all payable gold and payable silver from the Tulsequah Chief project, although the per ounce cash payment prices will remain the same.

        The Tulsequah Chief project is a high grade polymetallic deposit located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, approximately 40 miles northeast of Juneau, Alaska. Chieftain is completing a feasibility study, following a June 2011 Preliminary Economic Assessment ("PEA") filed on the System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval ("SEDAR") under Chieftain's profile on July 29, 2011, and anticipates that the project will be operational in calendar 2015. In the PEA, Chieftain has reported indicated mineralization totaling 6.0 million tonnes at an average grade of 2.63 grams of gold per tonne 96 grams of silver per tonne, 1.42% copper, 6.44% zinc and 1.23% lead. The reported mineralization will support a 9-year mine life.

Mt. Milligan II and III Gold Stream Acquisitions

        On December 14, 2011, Royal Gold and one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries entered into an Amended and Restated Purchase and Sale Agreement (the "Milligan II Agreement") with Thompson Creek Metals Company Inc. ("Thompson Creek") and one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Among other things, Royal Gold agreed to purchase an additional 15% of the payable ounces of gold from the Mt. Milligan copper-gold project in exchange for payment advances totaling $270 million, of which $112 million was paid on December 19, 2011, and, when production is reached, cash payments for each payable ounce of gold delivered to Royal Gold, as discussed further below (the "Milligan II Acquisition").

        On August 8, 2012, Royal Gold and one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries entered into a First Amendment to Amended and Restated Purchase and Sale Agreement (the "Milligan III Agreement") with Thompson Creek and one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Among other things and subject to certain conditions, Royal Gold agreed to purchase an additional 12.25% of the payable ounces of gold from the Mt. Milligan project in exchange for payment advances totaling $200 million, of which $75 million will be paid shortly after the effectiveness of the Milligan III Agreement (the "Milligan III Acquisition"). Thompson Creek intends to use the proceeds from the Milligan II Acquisition and the Milligan III Acquisition to finance a portion of the construction of the Mt. Milligan project and related costs.

        The Milligan III Agreement will not become effective until the satisfaction of various conditions set forth therein, including, among other things, Thompson Creek amending certain provisions of its senior secured revolving credit agreement and approval of the lenders thereunder to the Milligan III Agreement. Royal Gold may terminate the Milligan III Agreement if the conditions are not satisfied within 30 days of the date of the Milligan III Agreement. If Royal Gold terminates the Milligan III

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Agreement, or if the Milligan III Agreement otherwise fails to become effective, the Milligan II Agreement will continue as currently in effect.

        In the original Mt. Milligan gold stream transaction (the "Milligan I Acquisition"), which Royal Gold completed in October 2010, Royal Gold agreed to purchase 25% of the payable ounces of gold produced from the Mt. Milligan project in exchange for a total of $311.5 million, $226.5 million of which was paid at closing. In addition and also part of the Milligan I Acquisition, Royal Gold was to pay Thompson Creek a cash payment equal to the lesser of $400 or the prevailing market price for each payable ounce of gold until 550,000 ounces have been delivered to Royal Gold and the lesser of $450 or the prevailing market price for each additional ounce thereafter. Under the Milligan II Agreement, Royal Gold increased its aggregate investment (including amounts previously funded pursuant to the Milligan I Acquisition and commitments for future funding) from $311.5 million to $581.5 million, and agreed to purchase a total of 40% of the payable ounces of gold produced from the Mt. Milligan project at a cash purchase price equal to the lesser of $435, with no inflation adjustment, or the prevailing market price for each payable ounce of gold (regardless of the number of payable ounces delivered to Royal Gold). Upon effectiveness of the Milligan III Agreement, Royal Gold will increase its aggregate investment from $581.5 million to $781.5 million and will be entitled to purchase a total of 52.25% of the payable ounces of gold produced from the Mt. Milligan project at the same purchase price set forth in the Milligan II Agreement.

        In addition to the $112 million payment made on December 19, 2011 and the payments totaling $252.6 million made by Royal Gold pursuant to the Milligan I Acquisition, the Milligan II Agreement requires Royal Gold to make future scheduled payments to Thompson Creek in the aggregate amount of $216.9 million, which are to be paid on a quarterly basis and commenced on March 6, 2012, with a payment of $45 million. The amount of each quarterly payment to be made in calendar year 2012 is $45 million (representing an aggregate of $180 million in calendar year 2012), and the amount of each quarterly payment to be made in calendar year 2013 is $12 million for each of the first two quarters of calendar year 2013 and $12.9 million in the third quarter of calendar year 2013 (representing an aggregate of $36.9 million in calendar year 2013). Upon the effectiveness of the Milligan III Agreement, the amount of future scheduled payments to Thompson Creek will increase to $326.9 million, with $75 million due three business days after effectiveness and the future scheduled quarterly payments being revised to total $251.9 million, with $45 million due September 1, 2012, $95 million due December 1, 2012, $62 million due March 1, 2013, $37 million due June 1, 2013 and $12.9 million due September 1, 2013.

        Royal Gold's obligation to make these quarterly payments is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions included in the Milligan II Agreement and the Milligan III Agreement (including that the aggregate amount of historical payments made by Royal Gold plus the applicable quarterly payment is less than the aggregate costs of developing the Mt. Milligan project incurred or accrued by Thompson Creek as of the date of the applicable quarterly payment). In the event that a quarterly payment is postponed as a result of the failure by Thompson Creek to satisfy a condition precedent, all subsequent quarterly payments will be adjusted forward one full calendar quarter until such time as all conditions precedent have been satisfied for the next scheduled quarterly payment. As of June 30, 2012, Royal Gold had a remaining commitment of $126.9 million to Thompson Creek, which amount would have been $326.9 million had the Milligan III Agreement been effective as of such date.

        According to a National Instrument 43-101 technical report regarding the Mt. Milligan project filed on SEDAR under Thompson Creek's profile on October 13, 2011, proven and probable reserves total 482 million tonnes (0.20% copper; 0.39 g/t gold), containing 2.1 billion pounds of copper and 6.0 million ounces of gold, which reserves are estimated to support a mine life of approximately 22 years, with the project estimated to produce approximately 194,000 ounces of gold per year over the life of the mine, including estimated average production of 262,500 ounces of gold annually during the first six years of operation.

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Our Operational Information

Operating Segments, Geographical and Financial Information

        We manage our business under a single operating segment, consisting of the acquisition and management of royalties. Royal Gold's royalty revenue and long-lived assets (royalty interests in mineral properties, net) are geographically distributed as shown in the following table.

 
  Royalty Revenue   Royalty Interests in
Mineral Property, net
 
 
  Fiscal Year Ended
June 30,
  Fiscal Year Ended
June 30,
 
 
  2012   2011   2010   2012   2011   2010  

Chile

    25 %   21 %   4 %   35 %   40 %   42 %

Canada

    24 %   19 %   4 %   43 %   36 %   27 %

Mexico

    20 %   18 %   15 %   9 %   11 %   13 %

United States

    18 %   24 %   40 %   5 %   3 %   5 %

Africa

    4 %   9 %   29 %   1 %   2 %   2 %

Australia

    5 %   5 %   5 %   3 %   5 %   6 %

Other

    4 %   4 %   3 %   4 %   3 %   5 %

        Please see "Operations in foreign jurisdictions are subject to many risks, which could decrease our royalty revenues," under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this report for a description of the risks attendant to foreign operations.

        Our financial results are primarily tied to the price of gold and, to a lesser extent, the price of silver, copper, and nickel, together with the amounts of production from our producing stage royalty interests as discussed further herein. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, we derived approximately 75% of our royalty revenue from precious metals (including 68% from gold and 7% from silver), 11% from copper and 11% from nickel.

Competition

        The mining industry in general and the royalty segment in particular are competitive. We compete with other royalty companies, mine operators, and financial buyers in efforts to acquire existing royalties and with the lenders, investors, and royalty and streaming companies providing financing to operators of mineral properties in our efforts to create new royalties. Many of our competitors in the lending and mining business are larger than we are and have greater resources and access to capital than we have. Key competitive factors in the royalty acquisition and financing business include the ability to identify and evaluate potential opportunities, transaction structure and consideration, and access to capital.

Regulation

        Like all mining operations, the operators of the mines that are subject to our royalties must comply with environmental laws and regulations promulgated by federal, state and local governments including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act; the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act; and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Mines located on public lands in the United States are subject to the General Mining Law of 1872 and are subject to comprehensive regulation by either the United States Bureau of Land Management (an agency of the United States Department of the Interior) or the United States Forest Service (an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture). The mines also are subject to regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"), the United States Mine Safety and Health

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Administration and similar state and local agencies. Operators of mines that are subject to our royalties in other countries are obligated to comply with similar laws and regulations in those jurisdictions. Although we are not responsible as a royalty owner for ensuring compliance with these laws and regulations, failure by the operators of the mines on which we have royalties to comply with applicable laws, regulations and permits can result in injunctive action, damages and civil and criminal penalties on the operators which could reduce or eliminate production from the mines and thereby reduce or eliminate the royalties we receive and negatively affect our financial condition.

Corporate Information

        We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on January 5, 1981. Our executive offices are located at 1660 Wynkoop Street, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80202; our telephone number is (303) 573-1660.

Available Information

        Royal Gold maintains an internet website at www.royalgold.com. Royal Gold makes available, free of charge, through the Investor Relations section of its website, its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our SEC filings are available from the SEC's internet website at www.sec.gov which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically. These reports, proxy statements and other information may also be inspected and copied at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room. The charters of Royal Gold's key committees of the Board of Directors and Royal Gold's Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are also available on the Company's website. Any of the foregoing information is available in print to any stockholder who requests it by contacting Royal Gold's Investor Relations Department at (303) 573-1660.

Company Personnel

        We currently have 19 employees, all of whom are located in Denver, Colorado. Our employees are not subject to a labor contract or a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our employee relations to be good.

        We also retain independent contractors to provide consulting services, relating primarily to geologic and geophysical interpretations and also relating to such metallurgical, engineering, environmental, and other technical matters as may be deemed useful in the operation of our business.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

        You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The market or trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks. In addition, please see our note about forward-looking statements included in Part II, Item 7, MD&A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Please note that additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business and operations.

Risks Related to Our Business

We own passive interests in mining properties, and it is difficult or impossible for us to ensure properties are operated in our best interest.

        All of our current revenue is derived from royalties on properties operated by third parties. The holder of a royalty interest typically has no authority regarding the development or operation of a mineral property. Therefore, we are not in control of decisions regarding development or operation of any of the properties on which we hold a royalty interest, and we have limited or no legal rights to influence those decisions.

        Our strategy of having others operate properties on which we retain a royalty interest puts us generally at risk to the decisions of others regarding all operating matters, including permitting, feasibility analysis, mine design and operation, processing, plant and equipment matters and temporary or permanent suspension of operations, among others. These decisions are likely to be motivated by the best interests of the operator rather than to maximize royalty payments to us. Although we attempt to secure contractual rights, such as audit or access rights when we create new royalties, that will permit us to protect our interests to a degree, there can be no assurance that such rights will always be available or sufficient, or that our efforts will be successful in achieving timely or favorable results or in affecting the operation of the properties in which we have royalty interests in ways that would be beneficial to our stockholders.

Volatility in gold, silver, copper, nickel and other metal prices may have an adverse impact on the value of our royalty interests and may reduce our royalty revenues. Certain of our royalty contracts have features that may amplify the negative effects of a drop in metals prices.

        The profitability of our royalty interests is directly related to the market price of gold, silver, copper, nickel and other metals. Market prices may fluctuate widely and are affected by numerous factors beyond the control of Royal Gold or any mining company, including metal supply, industrial and jewelry fabrication and investment demand, expectations with respect to the rate of inflation, the relative strength of the dollar and other currencies, interest rates, gold purchases, sales and loans by central banks, forward sales by metal producers, global or regional political, economic or banking conditions, and a number of other factors. If gold, silver, copper, nickel and certain other metal prices drop dramatically, we might not be able to recover our initial investment in royalty interests or properties. Moreover, the selection of a property for exploration or development, the determination to construct a mine and place it into production, and the dedication of funds necessary to achieve such purposes are decisions that must be made long before the first revenues from production will be received. Price fluctuations between the time that decisions about exploration, development and construction are made and the commencement of production can have a material adverse effect on the economics of a mine and can eliminate or have a material adverse impact on the value of royalty interests.

        Furthermore, if the market price of gold, silver, copper, nickel or certain other metals declines, then our royalty revenues would also fall. Our sliding-scale royalties, such as Cortez, Holt, Mulatos, Wolverine and other properties, amplify this effect. When metal prices fall below certain thresholds in a

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sliding-scale royalty, a lower royalty rate is applied to production. In addition, certain of our royalty agreements, such as those relating to our interests in the Andacollo, Robinson, Peñasquito and Voisey's Bay properties, are based on the operator's concentrate sales to smelters, which include price adjustments between the operator and the smelter based on metals prices at a later date, typically three to five months after shipment to the smelter. In such cases, our royalty payments from the operator include a component of these later price adjustments, which can result in decreased royalty revenue in later periods if metals prices have fallen.

        Volatility in gold, silver, copper and nickel prices is demonstrated by the annual high and low prices for those metals from selected years during the past decade.

    High and low gold prices per ounce, based on the London Bullion Market Association P.M. fix, have ranged from $293 to $256 in 2001, from $537 to $411 in 2005, from $1,212 to $810 in 2009, from $1,895 to $1,319 in 2011, and from $1,781 to $1,540 year to date.

    High and low silver prices per ounce, based on the London Bullion Market Association fix, have ranged from $4.82 to $4.07 in 2001, from $9.23 to $6.39 in 2005, from $19.18 to $10.51 in 2009, from $48.70 to $26.68 in 2011, and from $37.23 to $26.67 year to date.

    High and low copper prices per pound, based on the London Metal Exchange cash settlement price for Grade A copper, have ranged from $0.81 to $0.62 in 2001, from $2.08 to $1.44 in 2005, from $3.33 to $1.38 in 2009, from $4.60 to $3.08 in 2011, and from $3.93 to $3.29 year to date.

    High and low nickel prices per pound, based on the London Metal Exchange cash settlement price for nickel, have ranged from $3.40 to $1.97 in 2001, from $8.12 to $5.22 in 2005, from $9.31 to $4.25 in 2009, from $13.17 to $7.68 in 2011, and from $9.90 to $7.08 year to date.

Our revenues are subject to operational and other risks faced by operators of our mining properties.

        Although we are not required to pay capital costs (except for transactions where we finance mine development) or operating costs, our financial results are indirectly subject to hazards and risks normally associated with developing and operating mining properties where we hold royalty interests. Some of these risks include:

    insufficient ore reserves;

    increases in production costs incurred by operators or third parties that may impact the amount of reserves available to be mined, cause an operator to delay or curtail mining operations or render mining of ore uneconomical and cause an operator to close operations;

    declines in the price of gold, silver, copper, nickel and other metals;

    mine operating and ore processing facility problems;

    economic downturns and operators' insufficient financing;

    insolvency or bankruptcy of the operator;

    significant environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements and restrictions and any changes in those regulations;

    challenges by non-mining interests to existing permits and mining rights, and to applications for permits and mining rights;

    community or civil unrest;

    labor shortages, increased labor costs, and labor disputes, strikes or work stoppages at mines;

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    geological problems, unanticipated metallurgical characteristics and unanticipated ground or water conditions;

    pit wall or tailings dam failures or any underground stability issues;

    fires, explosions and other industrial accidents;

    environmental hazards and natural catastrophes such as floods, earthquakes or inclement or hazardous weather conditions;

    injury to persons, property or the environment;

    the ability of the operators to maintain or increase production or to replace reserves as properties are mined; and

    uncertain domestic and foreign political and economic environments.

        The occurrence of any of the above mentioned risks or hazards could result in an interruption, suspension or termination of operation of any of the properties in which we hold a royalty interest and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We depend on our operators for the calculation of royalty payments. We may not be able to detect errors and later payment calculations may call for retroactive adjustments.

        Our royalty payments are calculated by the operators of the properties on which we have royalties based on their reported production. Each operator's calculation of our royalty payments is subject to and dependent upon the adequacy and accuracy of its production and accounting functions, and, given the complex nature of mining and ownership of mining interests, errors may occur from time to time in the allocation of production and the various other calculations made by an operator. Any of these errors may render calculations of our royalty payments inaccurate. Certain royalty agreements require the operators to provide us with production and operating information that may, depending on the completeness and accuracy of such information, enable us to detect errors in the calculation of royalty payments that we receive. We do not, however, have the contractual right to receive production information for all of our royalty interests. As a result, our ability to detect royalty payment errors through our royalty monitoring program and its associated internal controls and procedures is limited, and the possibility exists that we will need to make retroactive royalty revenue adjustments. Some of our royalty contracts provide us the right to audit the operational calculations and production data for the associated royalty payments; however, such audits may occur many months following our recognition of the royalty revenue and may require us to adjust our royalty revenue in later periods, which could require us to restate our financial statements.

Development and operation of mines is very capital intensive and any inability of the operators of our royalty properties to meet liquidity needs, obtain financing or operate profitably could have material adverse effects on the value of and revenue from our royalty interests.

        The development and operation of mines is very capital intensive, and if operators of our royalty properties do not have the financial strength or sufficient credit or other financing capability to cover the costs of developing or operating a mine, the operator may curtail, delay or cease development or operations at a mine site. Operators' ability to raise and service sufficient capital may be affected by, among other things, macroeconomic conditions, future commodity prices of metals to be mined, or a further downturn in the U.S. or global financial markets as has been experienced in recent years. If any of the operators of the properties on which we have royalties suffer these material adverse effects, then our royalty interests and the value of and revenue from our royalty interests may be materially adversely affected. In addition, a continued economic downturn or credit crisis could adversely affect

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the ability of operators to obtain debt or equity financing for the exploration, development and operation of their properties.

Acquired royalty interests, particularly on development stage properties, are subject to the risk that they may not produce anticipated royalty revenues.

        The royalty interests we acquire may not produce anticipated royalty revenues. The success of our royalty acquisitions is based on our ability to make accurate assumptions regarding the valuation, timing and amount of royalty payments, particularly with respect to acquisitions of royalties on development stage properties. If an operator does not bring a property into production and operate in accordance with feasibility studies, technical or reserve reports or other plans due to lack of capital, inexperience, unexpected problems, or otherwise, then the acquired royalty interest may not yield sufficient royalty revenues to be profitable. Furthermore, operators of development stage properties must obtain all necessary environmental permits and access to water, power and other raw materials needed to begin production, and there can be no assurance operators will be able to do so. The Pascua-Lama mining project in Chile and Argentina and the Mt. Milligan mining project in Canada are among our cornerstone development stage royalty acquisitions. The failure of any of our cornerstone or principal royalty properties to produce anticipated royalty revenues could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and the other benefits we expect to achieve from the acquisition of royalty interests. Further, as mines on which we have royalties or other interests mature, we can expect overall declines in production over the years unless operators are able to replace reserves that are mined through mine expansion or successful new exploration. There can be no assurance that the operators of our royalty properties will be able to maintain or increase production or replace reserves as they are mined.

Certain of our royalty interests are subject to payment or production caps or rights in favor of the operator or third parties that could reduce the revenues generated from the royalty assets.

        Some of our principal royalty interests are subject to limitations, such that the royalty will extinguish after threshold production is achieved or royalty payments at stated thresholds are made. For example, a portion of our royalty at Pascua-Lama and our royalty at Mulatos are subject to production caps. Furthermore, certain of our other royalty agreements contain rights that favor the operator or third parties. For example, Osisko, the operator of Canadian Malartic, one of our principal producing properties, exercised its buy-down right that reduced our royalty interest from a 3% NSR royalty to a 1.5% NSR royalty in fiscal year 2011. Also, certain individuals from whom we purchased portions of our royalty interest at Pascua-Lama, another of our cornerstone development properties, are entitled to one-time payments if the price of gold exceeds certain thresholds. If any of these thresholds are met or similar rights are exercised or we fail to make the required payment, our future royalty revenue could be reduced.

We may enter into acquisitions or other material royalty transactions at any time.

        We are engaged in a continual review of opportunities to acquire existing royalties, to create new royalty interests through the financing of mining projects or to acquire companies that hold royalties. We currently, and generally at any time, have acquisition opportunities in various stages of active review, including, for example, our engagement of consultants and advisors to analyze particular opportunities, technical, financial and other confidential information, submission of indications of interest and participation in discussions or negotiations for acquisitions. We also often consider obtaining or providing debt commitments for acquisition financing. Any such acquisition could be material to us. We could issue common stock or incur additional indebtedness to fund our acquisitions. Issuances of common stock may dilute existing stockholders and reduce some or all of our financial measures on a per share basis. In addition, any such acquisition or other royalty transaction may have

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other transaction specific risks associated with it, including risks related to the completion of the transaction, the project, its operators, or the jurisdictions in which the project is located.

        In addition, we may consider opportunities to restructure our royalties where we believe such restructuring would provide a long-term benefit to the Company, though such restructuring may reduce near-term revenues or result in the incurrence of transaction related costs. We could enter into one or more acquisition or restructuring transactions at any time.

We may be unable to successfully acquire additional royalty interests at appropriate valuations.

        Our future success largely depends upon our ability to acquire royalty interests at appropriate valuations, including through royalties and corporate acquisitions, gold and silver streaming and other financing transactions. Most of our revenues are derived from royalty interests that we acquire or finance, rather than through exploration of properties. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify and complete the acquisition of such royalty interests or businesses that own desired interests, at reasonable prices or on favorable terms, or, if necessary, that we will have, or be able to obtain, sufficient financing on reasonable terms to complete such acquisitions. A continued economic downturn or credit crisis could adversely affect our ability to obtain debt or equity financing for additional royalty acquisitions. In addition, we face competition in the acquisition of royalty interests. We have competitors that are engaged in the acquisition of royalty interests, including companies with greater financial resources, and we may not be able to compete successfully against these companies in acquiring new royalty interests. If we are unable to successfully acquire additional royalties, the reserves subject to our royalties will decline as the producing properties on which we have such interests are mined or payment or production caps on certain of our royalties are met. We also may experience negative reactions from the financial markets or operators of properties on which we seek royalties if we are unable to successfully complete acquisitions of royalty interests or businesses that own desired royalty interests. Each of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Estimates of reserves and mineralization by the operators of mines in which we have royalty interests are subject to significant revision.

        There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating proven and probable reserves and mineralization, including many factors beyond our control and the control of the operators of properties on which we have royalty interests. Reserve estimates for our royalty interests are prepared by the operators of the mining properties. We do not participate in the preparation or verification of such reports and have not independently assessed or verified the accuracy of such information. The estimation of reserves and of other mineralized material is a subjective process, and the accuracy of any such estimates is a function of the quality of available data and of engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. Results of drilling, metallurgical testing and production, and the evaluation of mine plans subsequent to the date of any estimate, may cause a revision of such estimates. The volume and grade of reserves recovered and rates of production may be less than anticipated. Assumptions about gold and other precious metal prices are subject to great uncertainty, and such prices have fluctuated widely in the past. Declines in the market price of gold, silver, copper, nickel or other metals also may render reserves or mineralized material containing relatively lower ore grades uneconomical to exploit. Changes in operating costs and other factors including short-term operating factors, the processing of new or different ore grades, geotechnical characteristics and metallurgical recovery, may materially and adversely affect reserves. Finally, it is important to note that our royalties generally give us interests in only a small portion of the production from the operators' aggregate reserves, and the size of those interests varies widely based on the individual royalty documents.

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Estimates of production by the operators of mines in which we have royalty interests are subject to change, and actual production may vary materially from such estimates.

        Production estimates are prepared by the operators of mining properties. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating anticipated production attributable to our royalty interests, including many factors beyond our control and the control of the operators of the properties in which we have royalty interests. We do not participate in the preparation or verification of production estimates and have not independently assessed or verified the accuracy of such information. The estimation of anticipated production is a subjective process and the accuracy of any such estimates is a function of the quality of available data, reliability of production history, variability in grade encountered, mechanical or other problems encountered, engineering and geological interpretation and operator judgment. Rates of production may be less than expected. Results of drilling, metallurgical testing and production, changes in commodity prices, and the evaluation of mine plans subsequent to the date of any estimate may cause actual production to vary materially from such estimates.

If title to properties is not properly maintained by the operators, or is successfully challenged by third parties, our royalty interests could become invalid.

        Our business includes the risk that operators of mining projects and holders of mining claims, tenements, concessions, mining licenses or other interests in land and mining rights may lose their exploration or mining rights, or have their rights to mining properties contested by private parties or the government. Internationally, mining tenures are subject to loss for many reasons, including expiration, failure of the holder to meet specific legal qualifications, failure to pay maintenance fees, reduction in geographic extent upon passage of time or upon conversion from an exploration tenure to a mining tenure, failure of title and similar risks. Unpatented mining claims, for example, which constitute a significant portion of the properties on which we hold royalties in the United States, and which are generally considered subject to greater title risk than real property interests held by absolute title, are often uncertain and subject to contest by third parties and the government. If title to unpatented mining claims or other mining tenures subject to our royalty interests has not been properly established or is not properly maintained, or is successfully contested, our royalty interests could be adversely affected.

Royalty interests are subject to title and other defects and contest by operators of mining projects and holders of mining rights, and these risks may be hard to identify in acquisition transactions.

        While we seek to confirm the existence, validity, enforceability and geographic extent of the royalties we acquire, there can be no assurance that disputes over these and other matters will not arise. Confirming these matters, as well as the title to mining property on which we hold or seek to acquire a royalty, is a complex matter, and is subject to the application of the laws of each jurisdiction to the particular circumstances of each parcel of mining property. Similarly, our royalty interests generally are subject to uncertainties and complexities arising from the application of contract and property laws governing private parties and/or local or national governments in the jurisdiction where mining projects are located. Furthermore, royalties in many jurisdictions are contractual in nature, rather than interests in land, and therefore may be subject to change of control, bankruptcy or insolvency of operators, nonperformance and to challenges of various kinds brought by operators or third parties. We do not usually have the protection of security interests over property that we could liquidate to recover all or part of our royalty investment. Even if we retain our royalty interests in a mining project after any change of control, bankruptcy or insolvency of the operator, the project may end up under the control of a new operator, who may or may not operate the project in a similar manner to the current operator, which may positively or negatively impact us. In addition, operators and other parties to our royalty agreements may not abide by their contractual obligations and we could be forced to take legal action to enforce our contractual rights. Disputes also could arise

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challenging, among other things, the existence or geographic extent of the royalty, third party claims to the same royalty interest or to the property on which we have a royalty, various rights of the operator or third parties in or to the royalty, methods for calculating the royalty, production and other thresholds and caps applicable to royalty payments, the obligation of an operator to make royalty payments, and various defects or ambiguities in the royalty agreement itself. Unknown defects in, non-performance of, or disputes relating to, the royalties we acquire may prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits from the acquisition, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Operations in foreign jurisdictions are subject to many risks, which could decrease our royalty revenues.

        We derived approximately 82% of our revenues from foreign sources during fiscal 2012, compared to approximately 76% in fiscal year 2011 and 60% in fiscal year 2010. Our principal producing royalties on properties outside of the United States are located in Canada, Chile, Mexico and Spain. We currently have interests in mines and projects in other countries, including Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Finland, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Russia and Tunisia. In addition, future acquisitions may expose us to new jurisdictions. Our foreign activities are subject to the risks normally associated with conducting business in foreign countries. These risks include, depending on the country, such things as:

    volatile exchange and currency controls and fluctuations;

    expropriation or nationalization of property;

    limitations on foreign exchange and repatriation of earnings;

    increased foreign taxation or imposition of new or increased mining royalties;

    enforcement of unfamiliar or uncertain foreign real estate, mineral tenure, contract, water use, mine safety and environmental laws and policies;

    restrictions on mineral production and price controls;

    high rates of inflation;

    labor practices and disputes;

    import and export regulations, including restrictions on the export of gold, silver, copper, nickel or other metals;

    changes in legislation, including changes related to taxation, royalties, imports, exports, duties, currency, foreign ownership, foreign trade and foreign investment;

    renegotiation, nullification or forced modification of existing contracts, licenses, permits, approvals, concessions or the like;

    war, crime, terrorism, sabotage, civil unrest and uncertain political and economic environments;

    corruption;

    exposure to liabilities under anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar laws and regulations in other jurisdictions to which we, but not necessarily our competitors, may be subject;

    suspension of the enforcement of creditors' rights and shareholders' rights; and

    risk of loss due to disease and other potential endemic health issues.

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        For example, in recent years Argentina, where a portion of the Pascua-Lama project is located, has experienced significant economic turmoil and its government has taken several actions that have troubled foreign investors, including the nationalization of YPF S.A., the largest oil and gas company in Argentina, and the enactment of a federal glacier protection law that restricts mining activities in areas on or near the nation's glaciers (as discussed below in "The mining industry is subject to significant environmental risks"). Our royalty interests in the Pascua-Lama project, which straddles the border between Chile and Argentina, are on the Chilean side of the project. These actions, or similar future actions, could have a material adverse effect on the feasibility of new mine development and the profitability of existing mining operations in Argentina.

        As another example, in March 2012, the Australian federal government adopted new tax legislation that imposes a 30% tax on iron ore and coal mine profits. Similar legislation could be adopted in other foreign jurisdictions that could impose new or larger tax obligations or royalties on operators. Such legislation could have a material adverse effect on the feasibility of new mine development and the profitability of existing mining operations.

        In addition, many of our operators are organized outside of the United States. Our royalty interests may be subject to the application of foreign laws to our operators, and their stockholders, including laws relating to foreign ownership structures, corporate transactions, creditors' rights, bankruptcy and liquidation. Foreign operations also could be adversely impacted by laws and policies of the United States affecting foreign trade, investment and taxation.

        These risks may limit or disrupt operating mines or projects on which we hold royalties, restrict the movement of funds, or result in the deprivation of contract rights or the taking of property by nationalization or expropriation without fair compensation, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Certain of these risks may increase in an environment of relatively high metal prices.

Changes in U.S. federal and state legislation, including changes in mining taxes and royalties payable to governments, could decrease our royalty revenues.

        A number of our royalty properties are located on U.S. federal lands that are subject to federal mining and other public land laws. Changes in federal or state laws or the regulations promulgated under them could affect mine development and expansion, significantly increase regulatory obligations and compliance costs with respect to mine development and mine operations, increase the cost of holding mining claims or impose additional taxes on mining operations, all of which could adversely affect our royalty revenue from such properties. In recent years, the United States Congress has considered a number of proposed major revisions to the General Mining Law of 1872 (the "General Mining Law"), which governs the creation, maintenance and possession of mining claims and related activities on federal public lands in the United States. Congress also has recently considered bills, which if enacted, would impose royalties payable to the government on hardrock production, increase land holding fees, impose federal reclamation fees, impose additional environmental operating standards and afford greater public involvement and regulatory discretion in the mine permitting process. Such legislation, if enacted, could adversely affect the development of new mines and the expansion of existing mines, as well as increase the cost of all mining operations on federal lands, and could materially and adversely affect mine operators and our royalty revenue from mines located on federal lands in the United States.

The mining industry is subject to significant environmental risks.

        Mining is subject to potential risks and liabilities associated with pollution of the environment and the disposal of waste products occurring as a result of mineral exploration and production. Laws and regulations in the United States and abroad intended to ensure the protection of the environment are

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constantly changing and evolving in a manner expected to result in stricter standards and enforcement, larger fines and liability, and potentially increased capital expenditures and operating costs. Furthermore, mining may be subject to significant environmental and other permitting requirements regarding the use of raw materials needed for operations, particularly water and power. Compliance with such laws and regulations can require significant expenditures and a breach may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, which may be material. If an operator is forced to incur significant costs to comply with environmental regulations or becomes subject to environmental restrictions that limit its ability to continue or expand operations, or if an operator were to lose its right to use or access water or other raw materials necessary to operate a mine, our royalty revenues could be reduced, delayed or eliminated. These risks are most salient with regard to our development stage royalty properties where permitting may not be complete and/or where new legislation and regulation can lead to delays, interruptions and significant unexpected cost burdens for mine operators. For example, Argentina recently passed a federal glacier protection law that restricts mining activities in areas on or near the nation's glaciers. We have royalty interests on the Chilean side of the Pascua-Lama project, which straddles the border between Chile and Argentina, and the glacier law could affect aspects of the design, development and operation of the Pascua-Lama project. In July 2012, the National Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina overturned preliminary injunctions suspending the application of the glacier law in the San Juan Province, where a portion of the Pascua-Lama project is located, but the Supreme Court must still rule on the constitutionality of the glacier law. Further, to the extent that we become subject to environmental liabilities for the time period during which we were operating properties, the satisfaction of any liabilities would reduce funds otherwise available to us and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Regulations and pending legislation governing issues involving climate change could result in increased operating costs to the operators of the properties on which we have royalties.

        A number of governments or governmental bodies have introduced or are contemplating regulatory changes in response to the potential impacts of climate change. The December 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which ends at the end of 2012, established a set of greenhouse gas emission targets for countries that have ratified the Protocol, which include Ghana, Australia and Peru. Canada ratified the Protocol but renounced its ratification in December 2011. Furthermore, the U.S. Congress and several states have initiated legislation regarding climate change that will affect energy prices and demand for carbon intensive products. Additionally, the Australian government recently implemented a national emissions trading scheme and renewable energy targets. Legislation and increased regulation regarding climate change could impose significant costs on the operators of our royalty properties, including increased energy, capital equipment, environmental monitoring and reporting and other costs to comply with such regulations. If an operator of a property on which we have royalty interests is forced to incur significant costs to comply with climate change regulation or becomes subject to environmental restrictions that limit its ability to continue or expand operations, our royalty revenues from that property could be reduced, delayed or eliminated.

We depend on the services of our President and Chief Executive Officer and other key employees and on the participation of our Chairman.

        We believe that our success depends on the continued service of our key executive management personnel. Tony Jensen has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since July 2006. Mr. Jensen's extensive commercial experience, mine operations background and industry contacts give us an important competitive advantage. Furthermore, our Chairman, Stanley Dempsey, who served as our Executive Chairman until his retirement as an officer of the Company in January 2009, has extensive knowledge of the royalty business and maintains long-standing relationships with the mining industry, both of which are important to our success. The loss of the services of Mr. Jensen, other key

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members of management or other key employees could jeopardize our ability to maintain our competitive position in the industry. From time to time, we may also need to identify and retain additional skilled management and specialized technical personnel to efficiently operate our business. The number of persons skilled in the acquisition, exploration and development of royalties is limited and competition for such persons is intense. Recruiting and retaining qualified personnel is critical to our success and there can be no assurance of such success. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, our ability to execute our business model and growth strategy could be affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We currently do not have key person life insurance for any of our officers or directors.

Our disclosure controls and internal control over our financial reporting are subject to inherent limitations.

        Management has concluded that as of June 30, 2012, our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting were effective. Such controls and procedures, however, may not be adequate to prevent or identify existing or future internal control weaknesses due to inherent limitations therein, which may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to, our dependence on operators for the calculations of royalty payments as discussed above in "We depend on our operators for the calculation of royalty payments. We may not be able to detect errors and later payment calculations may call for retroactive adjustments". Given our dependence on third party calculations, there is a risk that material misstatements in results of operations and financial condition may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by our internal controls over financial reporting and may require us to restate our financial statements.

We have incurred indebtedness in connection our business and could incur additional indebtedness that could limit cash flow available for our operations, limit our ability to borrow additional funds and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

        As of June 30, 2012, we had $370 million aggregate principal amount of our 2019 Notes outstanding. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in connection with financing acquisitions, strategic transactions or for other purposes. As of June 30, 2012, we had $350 million available for borrowing under our revolving credit facility. Our indebtedness increases the risk that we may be unable to generate enough cash to pay amounts due in respect of our indebtedness.

        Our indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. For example, it could:

    make it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt obligations;

    increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

    require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund royalty acquisitions, working capital and other general corporate purposes;

    limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

    restrict us from exploiting business opportunities;

    place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less indebtedness;

    dilute our existing stockholders if we elect to issue common stock instead of paying cash in the event the holders convert the 2019 Notes, or any other convertible securities issued in the future; and

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    limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other general corporate purposes.

We may be required to pay a significant amount of money or issue a significant amount of shares of our common stock or both upon the exercise of any put, redemption or call right and conversion of the 2019 Notes, which could dilute existing shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

        Holders of the 2019 Notes may convert their 2019 Notes at their option prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding March 15, 2019, but only under the following circumstances: (1) during any fiscal quarter commencing after June 30, 2012 (and only during such fiscal quarter), if the last reported sale price of our common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding fiscal quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the applicable conversion price on each applicable trading day; (2) during the five consecutive business day period after any five consecutive trading day period (the "measurement period") in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of such measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of our common stock and the applicable conversion rate on each such trading day; (3) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events; or (4) if we call any 2019 Notes for redemption, at any time until the close of business on the business day preceding the redemption date. On or after March 15, 2019 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the June 15, 2019, maturity date, holders may convert their 2019 Notes at any time, regardless of the foregoing circumstances.

        On or after June 15, 2015, if the last reported sale price of our common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending within 10 trading days immediately prior to the date we provide the notice of redemption exceeds 130% of the applicable conversion price of the 2019 Notes on each applicable trading day, subject to certain limited exceptions, we may redeem any or all of the 2019 Notes. The redemption price for the 2019 Notes to be redeemed on any redemption date will equal 100% of the principal amount of the 2019 Notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date, plus $90 per each $1,000 principal amount of 2019 Notes being redeemed. If we call any 2019 Notes for redemption, holders may convert their 2019 Notes at any time until the close of business on the business day preceding the redemption date.

        Upon conversion of any of the 2019 Notes, whether upon maturity, the exercise of any put, call or redemption right, or otherwise, we will be required to pay or deliver, at our election, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock. Any such payment or delivery of cash, shares or a combination of cash and shares upon conversion of the 2019 Notes could dilute existing shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may not be able to satisfy our debt obligations which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

        We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our cash flows will be insufficient to meet required principal and interest payments and the risk that we will be unable to refinance our indebtedness when it becomes due, or that the terms of such refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of our indebtedness. As of June 30, 2012, our annual debt service obligation on the 2019 Notes was approximately $10.6 million. In addition, the 2019 Notes include provisions providing for the lump sum payment of significant amounts of principal, whether upon maturity, upon the exercise of any applicable put, redemption or call rights or otherwise and all

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amounts, if any, due under our revolving credit facility are due at maturity. We cannot assure you that we will continue to maintain sufficient cash reserves or that our business will continue to generate cash flow from operations at levels sufficient to permit us to pay principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness when due, or that our cash needs will not increase. Our ability to make these payments when due will depend upon several factors, which may not be in our control. These factors include our liquidity or our ability to convert assets owned by us into liquidity on or prior to such put, redemption, call or maturity dates and the amount by which we have been able to reduce indebtedness prior to such date though exchanges, refinancing, extensions, collateralization or other similar transactions (any of which transactions may also have the effect of reducing liquidity or liquid assets). In addition, our revolving credit facility contains, and the agreements that may govern any future indebtedness that we may incur may contain, financial and other restrictive covenants that will limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. Among other restrictions, our revolving credit facility contains covenants limiting our ability to make certain investments, consummate certain mergers, incur certain debt or liens and dispose of assets.

        If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or otherwise obtain funds necessary to make required payments, or if we fail to comply with the various covenants and requirements of the 2019 Notes, our revolving credit facility or any indebtedness which we may incur in the future, this could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our debt. Any default under the 2019 Notes, our revolving credit facility or any indebtedness which we may incur in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the 2019 Notes, could have a material effect on our reported net loss, net working capital or other financial results.

        Under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") Accounting Standards Codification Section 470-20, Debt with Conversion and other Options ("ASC 470-20"), an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of the convertible debt instruments (such as the 2019 Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer's economic interest cost. The effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for the 2019 Notes is that the equity component is required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders' equity on our consolidated balance sheet and the value of the equity component is treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the 2019 Notes. As a result, we are required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense as a result of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of the 2019 Notes to their face amount over the term of the 2019 Notes. We report lower net income in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require interest to include both the current period's amortization of the debt discount and the instrument's coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the market price of our common stock and the trading price of the 2019 Notes.

        In addition, under certain circumstances, convertible debt instruments (such as the 2019 Notes) that may be settled entirely or partly in cash are currently accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the shares issuable upon conversion of the 2019 Notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of the 2019 Notes exceeds their principal amount. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares, are issued. We cannot be sure that the accounting standards in the future will continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of the 2019 Notes, then our diluted earnings per share would be adversely affected.

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Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our stock price may continue to be volatile and could decline. Future fluctuations in our stock price may also impact the trading price of the outstanding 2019 Notes and make them more difficult to resell.

        The market price of our common stock has fluctuated and may decline in the future. The high and low sale prices of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market were $55.96 and $37.35 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2010, $62.33 and $42.15 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011 and $83.87 and $57.00 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2012. The fluctuation of the market price of our common stock has been affected by many factors that are beyond our control, including:

    market prices of gold, silver, copper, nickel and other metals;

    interest rates;

    expectations regarding inflation;

    ability of operators to produce precious metals and develop new reserves;

    currency values;

    credit market conditions;

    general stock market conditions; and

    global and regional political and economic conditions.

        Because the 2019 Notes are convertible into shares of our common stock, volatility or depressed market prices of our common stock could have a similar effect on the trading price of the outstanding 2019 Notes. Holders who receive shares of our common stock upon conversion of the 2019 Notes will also be subject to the risk of volatility and depressed market prices of our common stock.

Additional issuances of equity securities by us could dilute our existing stockholders, reduce some or all of our financial measures on a per share basis, reduce the trading price of our common stock and the 2019 Notes or impede our ability to raise future capital. Substantial sales of shares may negatively impact the market price of our common stock and the trading price of the outstanding 2019 Notes.

        We may issue equity in the future in connection with acquisitions, strategic transactions or for other purposes. To the extent we issue additional equity securities, our existing stockholders could be diluted and some or all of our financial measures on a per share basis could be reduced. In addition, the shares of common stock that we issue in connection with an acquisition may not be subject to resale restrictions. The market price of our common stock and, in turn, the trading price of the 2019 Notes, could decline if our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock, including shares issued upon the conversion of the outstanding 2019 Notes or are perceived by the market as intending to sell these shares other than in an orderly manner. In addition, the existence of the 2019 Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the 2019 Notes could depress the price of our common stock. These sales also could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the then-prevailing market price of our common stock and the trading price of the outstanding 2019 Notes.

Conversion of the 2019 Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing shareholders, including holders who had previously converted their 2019 Notes.

        At our election, we may settle the 2019 Notes tendered for conversion entirely or partly in shares of our common stock. An aggregate of approximately 3.5 million shares of our common stock are issuable upon conversion of the outstanding 2019 Notes at the initial conversion rate of 9.4955 shares

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of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $105.31 per share of common stock). In addition, the number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the 2019 Notes, and therefore the dilution of existing common stockholders, could increase under certain circumstances described in the indenture under which the 2019 Notes are governed. We may issue all of these shares without any action or approval by our stockholders. As a result, the conversion of some or all of the 2019 Notes may dilute the ownership interests of existing shareholders. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock and, in turn, the trading price of the 2019 Notes.

We may change our practice of paying dividends.

        We have paid a cash dividend on our common stock for each fiscal year beginning in fiscal year 2000. Our board of directors has discretion in determining whether to declare a dividend based on a number of factors, including prevailing gold prices, economic market conditions, future earnings, cash flows, financial condition, and funding requirements for future opportunities or operations. In addition, there may be corporate law limitations or future contractual restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. If our board of directors declines or is unable to declare dividends in the future or reduces the current dividend level, our stock price could fall, and the success of an investment in our common stock would depend largely upon any future stock price appreciation. We have increased our dividends in prior years. There can be no assurance, however, that we will continue to do so or that we will pay any dividends at all.

Certain provisions of Delaware law, our organizational documents, our rights plan, the 2019 Notes and the indenture governing the 2019 Notes could impede, delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover or takeover attempt of us.

        Certain provisions of Delaware law, our organizational documents, our rights plans, the 2019 Notes and the indenture governing the 2019 Notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our stockholders. Delaware law prohibits, subject to certain exceptions, a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any "interested stockholder," which is generally defined as a stockholder who becomes a beneficial owner of 15% or more of a Delaware corporation's voting stock, for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder. Additionally, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could similarly delay, defer or discourage a change in control of us or management. These provisions could also discourage a proxy contest and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. Such provisions provide for the following, among other things: (i) the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of common stock and preferred stock without stockholder approval, (ii) the ability of our board of directors to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued preferred stock, (iii) a board of directors divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three year terms, (iv) permitting only the chairman of the board of directors, chief executive officer, president or board of directors to call a stockholders' meeting and (v) requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals and related information. Furthermore, we have a stockholder rights plan that may have the effect of discouraging unsolicited takeover proposals. The rights issued under the stockholder rights plan could cause significant dilution to a person or group that attempts to acquire us on terms not approved in advance by our board of directors. In addition, if an acquisition event constitutes a fundamental change, holders of the 2019 Notes will have the right to require us to purchase their 2019 Notes in cash. If an acquisition event constitutes a make-whole fundamental change, we may be required to increase the conversion rate for holders who convert their 2019 Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change. These provisions could increase the cost of acquiring us or otherwise

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discourage a third party from acquiring us or removing incumbent management, which may cause the market price of our common stock and the trading price of the 2019 Notes to decline.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        None.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

        We do not own or operate the properties in which we have royalty interests and therefore much of the information disclosed in this Form 10-K regarding these properties is provided to us by the operators. For example, the operators of the various properties provide us information regarding metals production, estimates of mineral reserves and additional mineralized material and production estimates. A list of our producing and development stage royalties, as well their respective reserves are summarized below in Table 1 within this Item 2. More information is available to the public regarding certain properties in which we have royalties, including reports filed with the SEC or with the Canadian securities regulatory agencies available at www.sec.gov or www.sedar.com, respectively.

        The description of our principal royalties set forth below includes the location, operator, royalty rate, access and any material current developments at the property. For any reported production amounts discussed below, the Company considers reported production to relate to the amount of metal sales subject to our royalty interests. Please refer to Item 7, MD&A, for discussion on production estimates, historical production and revenue for our principal properties. The map below illustrates the location of our principal producing and development stage properties.

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Principal Royalties on Producing Properties

        The Company considers both historical and future potential revenues in determining which royalties in our portfolio are principal to our business. Estimated future potential royalty revenues from both producing and development properties are based on a number of factors, including reserves subject to our royalty interests, production estimates, feasibility studies, metal price assumptions, mine life, legal status and other factors and assumptions, any of which could change and could cause Royal Gold to conclude that one or more of such royalties are no longer principal to our business. As of June 30, 2012, the Company considers the properties discussed below (listed alphabetically) to be principal to our business.

GRAPHIC

Andacollo (Region IV, Chile)

        We own a royalty on all gold produced from the sulfide portion of the Andacollo copper and gold deposit. The Andacollo royalty equals 75% of the gold produced from the sulfide portion of the deposit at the Andacollo mine until 910,000 payable ounces of gold have been sold, and 50% of the gold produced in excess of 910,000 payable ounces of gold. As of June 30, 2012, approximately 98,000 payable ounces of gold have been sold.

        Andacollo is an open-pit copper mine and milling operation located in central Chile, Region IV in the Coquimbo Province and is operated by Compañía Minera Teck Carmen de Andacollo ("Teck"). Andacollo is located in the foothills of the Andes Mountains approximately 1.5 miles southwest of the town of Andacollo. The regional capital of La Serena and the coastal city of Coquimbo are approximately 34 miles northwest of the Andacollo project by road, and Santiago is approximately 215 miles south by air. Access to the mine is provided by Route 43 (R-43) south from La Serena to El Peñon. From El Peñon, D-51 is followed east and eventually curving to the south to Andacollo. Both R-43 and D-51 are paved roads.

        Reported production at Andacollo increased approximately 21% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The increase in reported production is partially due to additional mill throughput as a result of mill modification enhancements completed earlier in calendar 2012. Teck is in the process of installing a two-stage crushing circuit to

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increase throughput to 55,000 tonnes per day. Teck has reported that the 20,000 tonnes per day pre-crushing plant will be ramped-up during the third quarter of calendar 2012, and is expected to further increase plant throughput. Further circuit configuration and economic evaluation for the expansion will be undertaken based on the performance of the new 20,000 tonnes per day pre-crushing plan during the third quarter of calendar 2012.

Canadian Malartic (Quebec, Canada)

        We own a 1.0% to 1.5% sliding-scale NSR royalty ($0.00 to $350.00—1.0%; above $350—1.5%) on the Canadian Malartic open-pit gold mine and milling operation located in Quebec, Canada, and owned by Osisko Mining Corporation ("Osisko"). The Canadian Malartic gold property is located in the Abitibi Gold Belt in Quebec, Canada, immediately south of the town of Malartic, Quebec, approximately 16 miles west of the town of Val d'Or. The northern extent of the Canadian Malartic property can be accessed directly from the Trans Canadian Highway 117.

        Reported production at Canadian Malartic increased during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as the operations at Canadian Malartic continue to ramp-up. Osisko plans to achieve mill throughput of 55,000 tonnes per day with the installation of two cone crushers. Construction, installation and commissioning of the first cone crusher were completed during the six months ended June 30, 2012. Osisko also reported that installation of the second cone crusher was completed in July 2012 and that this will continue to improve towards the designed rate of 55,000 tonnes per day.

Cortez (Nevada, USA)

        Cortez is a large open-pit and underground mine, utilizing mill and heap leach processing. The operation is located approximately 60 air miles southwest of Elko, Nevada, in Lander County. The site is reached by driving west from Elko on Interstate 80 approximately 46 miles, and proceeding south on State Highway 306 approximately 23 miles. Our royalty interest at Cortez is subject to the Pipeline, South Pipeline, Gap and Crossroads deposits and is operated by subsidiaries of Barrick.

        The royalty interests we hold at Cortez include:

    (a)
    Reserve Claims ("GSR1").    This is a sliding-scale GSR royalty for all products from an area originally known as the "Reserve Claims," which includes the majority of the Pipeline and South Pipeline deposits. The GSR royalty rate on the Reserve Claims is tied to the gold price as shown in the table below and does not include indexing for inflation or deflation.

    (b)
    GAS Claims ("GSR2").    This is a sliding-scale GSR royalty for all products from an area outside of the Reserve Claims, originally known as the "GAS Claims," which encompasses approximately 50% of the Gap deposit and all of the Crossroads deposit. The GSR royalty rate on the GAS Claims, as shown in the table below, is tied to the gold price, without indexing for inflation or deflation.

    (c)
    Reserve and GAS Claims Fixed Royalty ("GSR3").    The GSR3 royalty is a fixed rate GSR royalty of 0.7125% and covers the same cumulative area as is covered by our two sliding-scale GSR royalties, GSR1 and GSR2, except mining claims that comprise the undeveloped Crossroads deposit.

    (d)
    Net Value Royalty ("NVR1").    This is a fixed 1.25% NVR on production from the GAS Claims located on a portion of Cortez that excludes the Pipeline open pit. The Company owns 31.6% of the 1.25% NVR (or 0.39%) while limited partners (including certain directors of the Company) in the partnership, which is consolidated in our financial statements, own the remaining portion of the 1.25% NVR. Our 0.39% portion of the NVR1 royalty does not cover the mining claims that comprise the undeveloped Crossroads deposit.

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        We also own three other royalties in the Cortez area where there is currently no production and no reserves attributed to these royalty interests.

        The following shows the current sliding-scale GSR1 and GSR2 royalty rates under our royalty agreement with Cortez:

London P.M. Quarterly Average
Price of Gold Per Ounce ($U.S.)
  GSR1 and GSR2
Royalty Percentage
 
Below $210.00     0.40 %
$210.00 - $229.99     0.50 %
$230.00 - $249.99     0.75 %
$250.00 - $269.99     1.30 %
$270.00 - $309.99     2.25 %
$310.00 - $329.99     2.60 %
$330.00 - $349.99     3.00 %
$350.00 - $369.99     3.40 %
$370.00 - $389.99     3.75 %
$390.00 - $409.99     4.00 %
$410.00 - $429.99     4.25 %
$430.00 - $449.99     4.50 %
$450.00 - $469.99     4.75 %
$470.00 - and above     5.00 %

        Reported production at Cortez decreased approximately 39% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as Barrick continues to prioritize production from their higher grade Cortez Hills operation that is not covered by our royalty interest. The Company expects production to remain at these lower levels until Barrick returns to steady state mining at the Pipeline Complex.

Dolores (Chihuahua, Mexico)

        We own a 3.25% NSR royalty on gold and a 2.0% NSR royalty on silver from the Dolores open-pit mine and heap leach operation located in Chihuahua, Mexico. On March 30, 2012, Pan American Silver Corp. ("Pan American") and Minefinders Corporation Ltd. ("Minefinders") announced they completed a plan of arrangement whereby Pan American acquired all of the issued and outstanding common shares of Minefinders and now operates the Dolores mine. The Dolores mine is located approximately 155 miles west of the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. The property can be accessed by approximately 56 miles of recently upgraded access road from Yepachi, Chihuahua, to the mine site. Access to the property can also be achieved by light aircraft landing on a dirt strip located about five miles from the mine site.

        Pan American has reported that their first capital project priority at Dolores is the construction of the new Leach Pad 3. Earthworks for the new leach pad are underway and the engineering design is being finalized. Pan American has also reported that mill and underground potential are being evaluated.

Holt (Ontario, Canada)

        We own a sliding-scale NSR royalty on the Holt portion of the Holloway-Holt mining project located in Ontario, Canada and owned 100% by St Andrew Goldfields Ltd. ("St Andrew"). The Holloway-Holt project straddles Ontario Provincial Highway 101 for approximately 25 miles beginning east of Matheson, Ontario, Canada and extending to the Quebec, Canada border. The sliding-scale NSR royalty rate on gold produced from the Holt portion of the mining project is calculated by

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multiplying 0.00013 by the quarterly average gold price. For example, at a quarterly average gold price of $1,600 per ounce, the effective royalty rate payable would be 20.8%.

        Reported production at Holt increased during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as the operations at Holt continue to ramp-up. With the expected ramp-up, St Andrew is projecting higher levels of production in the second half of calendar 2012.

Las Cruces (Andalucía, Spain)

        We own a 1.5% NSR royalty on the Las Cruces copper mine and milling operation located in Andalucía, Spain and operated by a subsidiary of Inmet Mining Corporation ("Inmet"). The Las Cruces mine is located in the Seville Province of southern Spain, about 12 miles northwest of the Provincial capital city of Seville. Access to the site is by well-maintained paved roads.

        Reported production at Las Cruces increased approximately 59% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The increase in reported production is primarily due to Inmet's continued work on process optimization that included improved plant reliability associated with plant design enhancements, improved planned maintenance and improved wear materials. Inmet expects Las Cruces to achieve approximately 90% of design capacity for the remainder of calendar 2012.

Leeville (Nevada, USA)

        We own a carried working interest, equal to a 1.8% NSR royalty, which covers a portion of the Leeville underground mine, in Eureka County, Nevada. Leeville is approximately 19 air miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada, and is operated by a subsidiary of Newmont Mining Corporation ("Newmont"). The property is accessed by driving north from Carlin on Nevada State Highway 766 for 19 miles and then on an improved gravel road for two miles.

        Reported production at Leeville decreased approximately 31% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The decrease in reported production was partially due to a portion of Leeville mine production being derived from an area outside of our royalty area. Newmont also remediated ground conditions in a ventilation shaft at Leeville, which also contributed to the decrease in our reported production.

Mulatos (Sonora, Mexico)

        We own a 1.0% to 5.0% sliding-scale NSR royalty on the Mulatos open-pit mine and heap leach operation in southeastern Sonora, Mexico. The Mulatos mine is located approximately 137 miles east of the city of Hermosillo and 186 miles south of the border with the United States and is operated by a subsidiary of Alamos Gold, Inc. ("Alamos"). Access to the mine from the city of Hermosillo can be made via private chartered flight or paved and gravel road.

        The sliding-scale NSR royalty is based on the gold price as shown in the following table:

London Bullion Market Association P.M. Monthly Average Price of
Gold per Ounce (US$)
  NSR
Royalty
Percentage
 
$0.00 - $299.99     1.00 %
$300.00 - $324.99     1.50 %
$325.00 - $349.99     2.00 %
$350.00 - $374.99     3.00 %
$375.00 - $399.99     4.00 %
$400 or greater     5.00 %

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        The Mulatos royalty is capped at 2.0 million gold ounces of production. As of June 30, 2012, approximately 901,000 cumulative ounces of gold have been produced.

        Reported production at Mulatos increased approximately 12% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The increase in reported production was primarily due to the addition of a gravity mill that was commissioned in March 2012 and continued improvements in heap leach crusher throughput. Alamos reported that based on production in the first half of calendar 2012 and the continuing ramp-up of the gravity mill to design recoveries, they expect full year calendar 2012 production will likely be toward the lower end of their production guidance range of 200,000 to 220,000 ounces of gold.

Peñasquito (Zacatecas, Mexico)

        We own a production payment equivalent to a 2.0% NSR royalty on all metal production from the Peñasquito open-pit mine, located in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico, and operated by a subsidiary of Goldcorp Inc. ("Goldcorp"). The Peñasquito project is located approximately 17 miles west of the town of Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas, Mexico. The project, composed of two main deposits called Peñasco and Chile Colorado, hosts large silver, gold, zinc and lead reserves. The deposits contain both oxide and sulfide material, resulting in heap leach and mill processing. Access to the site is via either paved or cobbled roads west out of Concepcion del Oro nine miles to the town of Mazapil and then further approximately seven miles west from Mazapil. Direct access to the mine site can also be achieved via chartered flight.

        Reported production for all metals at Peñasquito increased during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as operations at Peñasquito continue to ramp-up. Goldcorp reported that mill throughput during the second quarter of calendar 2012 was affected by inadequate water supply in the month of June 2012. The reduced water supply was a result of prolonged drought conditions in the region. Goldcorp stated that they hold permits for sufficient quantities of water and are currently working to drill additional wells to increase water production. Goldcorp also stated that due to the current water deficit, they expect plant throughput to be impacted for the remainder of calendar 2012. The limitation on plant throughput, as a result of the water condition, is expected to result in gold production of between 370,000 to 390,000 ounces for calendar 2012 compared to previous guidance of 425,000 ounces. Production of silver at Peñasquito is expected to total 23 to 24 million ounces; zinc production is expected to total 310 to 325 million pounds and lead production is expected to total 155 to 160 million pounds in 2012.

Robinson Mine (Nevada, USA)

        We own a 3.0% NSR royalty on all mineral production from the Robinson open-pit mine and mill operation operated by a subsidiary of KGHM International Ltd. ("KGHM"). Access to the property is via Nevada State Highway 50, 6.5 miles west of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County.

        Reported copper production at Robinson increased approximately 12% during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as KGHM worked during the period to improve pit access, improve operating flexibility in the pit and improve equipment availability.

Voisey's Bay (Labrador, Canada)

        We own an effective 2.7% NSR royalty on the Voisey's Bay nickel-copper-cobalt mine located in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and operated by Vale Newfoundland & Labrador Limited ("Vale"). The Company owns 90% of a 3.0% NSR (or 2.7%) while a non-controlling interest owns the remainder. The Voisey's Bay project is located on the northeast coast of Labrador, on a peninsula bordered to the north by Anaktalak Bay and to the south by Voisey's Bay. The property is 560 miles

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north-northwest of St. John's, the capital of the Province. Access to the property is primarily by helicopter or small aircraft. We have disputed the manner of calculation of our royalty payments. Please refer to Note 17 of the notes to consolidated financial statements for more information regarding the dispute.

        Reported nickel and copper production at Voisey's Bay increased approximately 17% and 58%, respectively, during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The increases in reported production were primarily due to the operations at Voisey's Bay returning to normalcy after the labor strike, which ended in January 2011. Variability in Vale's shipping schedule may continue to be reflected in uneven metal sales period over period and also contributed to the overall increase in reported production during our fiscal year 2012.

Wolverine (Yukon Territory, Canada)

        We own a 0.00% to 9.445% sliding-scale NSR royalty on all gold and silver produced from the Wolverine underground mine and milling operation located in Yukon Territory, Canada, and operated by Yukon Zinc Corporation ("Yukon Zinc"). The Wolverine property is located 106 miles north-northwest of Watson Lake in south central Yukon Territory. Access to the property is provided by a 17 mile gravel road heading south and then northeast to the Robert Campbell Highway at a point approximately 120 miles north of Watson Lake. Direct access to the mine site can also be achieved via chartered flight.

        The sliding-scale NSR royalty on all gold and silver is based on the silver price as shown in the following table:

London Bullion Market Association Monthly Average Price of Silver
per Ounce (US$)
  NSR
Royalty
Percentage
 
less than $5.00     0 %
$5.00 - $7.50     3.778 %
$7.51 or greater     9.445 %

        Reported production at Wolverine increased during our fiscal year ended June 30, 2012, when compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, as the operations at Wolverine continue to ramp-up. Yukon Zinc continues to ramp-up towards their design capacity of 1,700 tonnes per day of mill throughput at Wolverine.

Principal Royalties on Development Stage Properties

        The following is a description of our principal royalty interests on development stage properties (listed alphabetically). Reserves for our development stage properties are summarized below in Table 1 as part of this Item 2, Properties.

Mt. Milligan (British Columbia, Canada)

        We own the right to purchase 40% of the payable gold produced from the Mt. Milligan copper-gold project in British Columbia, Canada, and operated by Thompson Creek. Upon effectiveness of the Milligan III Agreement, we will own the right to purchase an additional 12.25%, for a total of 52.25%, of the payable gold produced from the Mt. Milligan project. The Mt. Milligan project is located within the Omenica Mining Division in North Central British Columbia, approximately 96 miles northwest of Prince George, 53 miles north of Fort St. James, and 59 miles west of Mackenzie. The Mt. Milligan project is accessible by commercial air carrier to Prince George, British Columbia, then by vehicle from the east via Mackenzie on the Finlay Philip Forest Service Road and the North Philip Forest Service Road.

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        Upon commencement of production at the Mt. Milligan project, RGLD Gold AG, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, will purchase 40% of the payable ounces of gold at a cash purchase price equal to the lesser of $435, with no inflation adjustment, or the prevailing market price for each payable ounce of gold.

        Thompson Creek reported that as of June 30, 2012, engineering progress on the Mt. Milligan project was 99% complete, procurement was 94% complete, construction was 51% complete and overall progress was 69% complete. Thompson Creek also reported that the Mt. Milligan project remains on schedule and on budget, with commissioning and start-up expected to commence in the third quarter of calendar 2013, and commercial production of copper and gold expected in the fourth quarter of calendar 2013.

Pascua-Lama Project (Region III, Chile)

        As of June 30, 2012, we own a 0.78% to 5.23% sliding-scale NSR royalty on the Pascua-Lama project, which straddles the border between Argentina and Chile, and is being developed by Barrick. The Company owns an additional royalty equivalent to 1.05% of proceeds from copper produced from the Chilean portion of the project, net of allowable deductions, sold on or after January 1, 2017. The Pascua-Lama project is located within 7 miles of Barrick's operating Veladero mine. Access to the project is from the city of Vallenar, Region III, Chile, via secondary roads C-485 to Alto del Carmen, Chile, and C-489 from Alto del Carmen to El Corral, Chile.

        Our royalty interest is applicable to all gold production from the portion of the Pascua-Lama project lying on the Chilean side of the border. In addition, our interest at Pascua-Lama contains certain contingent rights and obligations. Specifically, (i) if gold prices exceed $600 per ounce for any six month period during the first 36 months of commercial production from the project, the Company would make a one-time payment of $8.4 million, (ii) approximately 20% of the royalty is limited to 14.0 million ounces of gold produced from the project, while 24% of the royalty can be extended beyond 14.0 million ounces of gold produced for a one-time payment of $4.4 million; and (iii) Royal Gold also increased its interest in two one-time payments from $0.5 million to $1.5 million, which are payable by Barrick upon the achievement of certain production thresholds at Pascua-Lama.

        The sliding-scale NSR royalty is based upon the gold price as shown in the following table:

London Bullion Market Association P.M. Monthly Average Price of
Gold per Ounce (US$)
  NSR
Royalty
Percentage
 
less than $325     0.78 %
$400     1.57 %
$500     2.72 %
$600     3.56 %
$700     4.39 %
$800 or greater     5.23 %

Note:    Royalty rate is interpolated between the upper and lower endpoints.

        In July 2012, Barrick revised the date for initial gold production from the Pascua-Lama project. Initial gold production, previously expected in mid-calendar 2013, is now expected in mid-calendar 2014, with an approximate 50-60 percent increase in capital costs from the top end of its previously announced estimate of $4.7-$5.0 billion. Royal Gold is not required to contribute to any Pascua-Lama capital costs.

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Table of Contents

Reserve Information

        Table 1 below summarizes proven and probable reserves for gold, silver, copper, nickel, zinc, lead, cobalt and molybdenum that have been reported to us by the operators of our royalty interests as of December 31, 2011. Properties are currently in production unless noted as development ("DEV") within the table. The exploration royalties we own do not contain proven and probable reserves as of December 31, 2011. Please refer to pages 33-35 for the footnotes to Table 1.


Table 1

Proven and Probable Gold Reserves
As of December 31, 2011(1)

Gold(2)  
 
   
   
   
  PROVEN + PROBABLE
RESERVES(3)(4)(5)
 
PROPERTY
  ROYALTY   OPERATOR   LOCATION   Tons of Ore
(M)
  Average
Gold Grade
(opt)
  Gold Contained
Ozs(6)
(M)
 

Bald Mountain

  3.5% - 5.0% NSR(7)   Barrick   United States     98.03     0.019     1.852  

Cortez (Pipeline) GSR1

  0.40 - 5.0% GSR(8)   Barrick   United States     61.90     0.026     1.611 (9)

Cortez (Pipeline) GSR2

  0.40 - 5.0% GSR(8)   Barrick   United States     120.75     0.033     3.936 (9)

Cortez (Pipeline) GSR3

  0.71% GSR   Barrick   United States     96.84     0.023     2.267 (9)

Cortez (Pipeline) NVR1

  0.39% NVR   Barrick   United States     66.60     0.023     1.545 (9)

Gold Hill (DEV)

  1.0 - 2.0% NSR(10)(11)   Kinross/Barrick   United States     24.61     0.015     0.371  

  0.9% NSR(12)   Kinross/Barrick   United States              

Goldstrike (SJ Claims)

  0.9% NSR   Barrick   United States     52.33     0.101     5.285  

Leeville

  1.8% NSR   Newmont   United States     3.81     0.232     0.882  

Marigold

  2.0% NSR   Goldcorp/Barrick   United States     204.56     0.015     3.105  

Pinson

  5.9% NSR(13)   Atna   United States     1.75     0.369     0.645  

Relief Canyon (DEV)(14)

  2.0% NSR   Pershing Gold   United States              

Ruby Hill

  3.0% NSR   Barrick   United States     16.78     0.058     0.978  

Robinson

  3.0% NSR   KGHM   United States     143.09     0.006     0.812  

Soledad Mountain (DEV)

  3.0% NSR   Golden Queen   United States     53.34     0.021     1.102  

Twin Creeks

  2.0% GPR   Newmont   United States     1.62     0.093     0.150  

Wharf

  0.0 - 2.0% NSR(15)   Goldcorp   United States     24.10     0.024     0.586  

Bousquet-Cadillac-Joannes (DEV)

  2.0% NSR   Agnico-Eagle   Canada     3.49     0.055     0.191  

Canadian Malartic

  1.0 - 1.5% NSR(16)   Osisko   Canada     166.08     0.029     4.756  

Holt

  0.00013 × quarterly avg. gold price   St Andrew   Canada     2.65     0.156     0.415  

Kutcho Creek (DEV)

  1.6% NSR   Capstone Mining   Canada     11.51     0.011     0.124  

Mt. Milligan (DEV)

  40% of payable gold(17)   Thompson Creek   Canada     531.75     0.011     6.020  

Pine Cove (DEV)

  7.5% NPI   Anaconda Mining   Canada     2.90     0.060     0.175  

Schaft Creek (DEV)(18)

  3.5% NPI   Copper Fox   Canada     905.00     0.006     5.570  

Tulsequah Chief (DEV)(14)

  12.5% payable gold(19)   Chieftian Metals   Canada              

Williams

  0.97% NSR   Barrick   Canada     16.62     0.069     1.139  

Wolverine

  0.0 - 9.445% NSR(20)   Yukon Zinc   Canada     4.14     0.047     0.193  

Dolores

  3.25% NSR   Pan American Silver   Mexico     109.50     0.017     1.849  

El Chanate

  2.0 - 4.0% NSR(21)   AuRico   Mexico     67.82     0.019     1.284  

Mulatos

  1.0 - 5.0% NSR(22)   Alamos   Mexico     71.66     0.033     2.388  

Peñasquito(23)

  2.0% NSR (Oxide)   Goldcorp   Mexico     138.25     0.004     0.530  

  2.0% NSR (Sulfide)   Goldcorp   Mexico

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