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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission File Number: 1-33682
FIRST ADVANTAGE BANCORP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (931) 552-6176
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ___ No X
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ___ No X
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes X No ___
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web Site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes X No ___
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ___ No X
As of June 30, 2011, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of common stock held by non-affiliates, based upon the closing price per share of the registrant’s common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market, was approximately $40.27 million.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of March 8, 2012 was 4,406,535.
DOCUMENT INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of First Advantage Bancorp, to be held on May 16, 2012, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
This annual report contains forward-looking statements that are based on assumptions and may describe future plans, strategies and expectations of First Advantage Bancorp. These forward-looking statements are identified by use of the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project” or similar expressions. First Advantage Bancorp’s ability to predict results or the actual effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Factors which could have a material adverse effect on the operations of First Advantage Bancorp and its subsidiary include, but are not limited to, changes in interest rates, national and regional economic conditions, legislative and regulatory changes, monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. government, including policies of the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve Board, the quality and composition of the loan or investment portfolios, demand for loan products, deposit flows, competition, demand for financial services in First Advantage Bancorp’s market area, changes in real estate market values in First Advantage Bancorp’s market area, changes in relevant accounting principles and guidelines and inability of third party service providers to perform. Additional factors that may affect our results are discussed in Item 1A to this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Risk Factors” below.
These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. Except as required by applicable law or regulation, First Advantage Bancorp does not undertake, and specifically disclaims any obligation, to release publicly the result of any revisions that may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of the statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, all references in this annual report to “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to First Advantage Bancorp and its subsidiary.
Item 1. BUSINESS
First Advantage Bancorp (the “Company”) is a Tennessee chartered company incorporated in June 2007 to serve as the holding company for First Advantage Bank (the “Bank”), a Tennessee-chartered commercial bank formerly known as First Federal Savings Bank. First Advantage Bancorp’s principal business activity is the ownership of the outstanding common stock of the Bank. First Advantage Bancorp uses the premises, equipment and other property of the Bank with the payment of appropriate rental fees, as required by applicable law and regulations, under the terms of an expense allocation agreement. Accordingly, the information set forth in this annual report, including the consolidated financial statements and related financial data contained herein, relates primarily to the Bank.
About First Advantage Bank
The Bank was originally founded in 1953 and headquartered in Clarksville, Tennessee. The Bank operates as a community-oriented financial institution offering traditional financial services to customers and businesses in the Bank’s primary market area. The Bank attracts deposits from the general public and uses those funds to originate one-to-four family mortgage loans, nonresidential real estate loans, construction loans (including speculative construction loans) commercial business loans and land loans, and, to a lesser extent, multi-family loans and consumer loans.
We have posted our Code of Ethics for directors, officers and employees, and the charters of the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating Committee of our board of directors on the Investor Relations section of our website at www.firstadvantagebanking.com. The Company’s and the Bank’s executive offices are located at 1430 Madison Street, Clarksville, Tennessee and our main telephone number is (931) 552-6176. Information on our website should not be considered a part of this annual report.
Bank Charter Conversion
On November 2, 2011, the Board of Directors of the Bank approved a change of the Bank’s name to First Advantage Bank in anticipation of the Bank’s conversion from a federally-chartered savings bank to a Tennessee-chartered commercial bank. The Bank’s FDIC insurance coverage, and rates and terms of loans and deposits, did not change.
On February 2, 2012, the Bank completed its conversion from a federally chartered savings bank to a Tennessee-chartered commercial bank. On that same date, the Company became a holding company regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board”). As a result of the charter conversion, the Bank is now regulated by the Tennessee Department of Financial Institutions (the “TDFI”) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”). The Bank’s deposits continue to be insured by the FDIC. The charter conversion is not expected to have any significant financial impact or affect the Company’s and the Bank’s current activities, and no changes to the directors or officers or employees of the Bank occurred as a result of the charter conversion
We consider Montgomery County, Tennessee and the surrounding areas to be our primary market area. The top employment sectors in the county are currently the services industry, wholesale/retail trade and government and manufacturing, which are likely to continue to be supported by the projected growth in population and median household income.
The economy of Montgomery County is significantly influenced by Fort Campbell, a nearby U.S. Army installation, and Austin Peay State University, one of the county’s top employers and one of the fastest growing universities in Tennessee, with an enrollment of approximately 10,800 students, and by the county’s proximity to Nashville, Tennessee. A growing number of young military retirees from Fort Campbell and the expanding Austin Peay State University community, as well as an increased number of commuters to the Nashville metropolitan area, have created a housing demand that currently supports lending activities in our primary market area. Additionally, Hemlock Semiconductor LLC (“HSC”), a polycrystalline silicon manufacturer, is constructing a new state-of-the-art $1.2 billion manufacturing facility in Clarksville. Upon completion of the initial investment, the Clarksville site is expected to employ more than 500 people. It is anticipated that construction of the HSC facility will also employ approximately 1,000 construction workers during the next three to five years.
We face significant competition for the attraction of deposits and origination of loans. Our most direct competition for deposits has historically come from the several financial institutions operating in our primary market area and from other financial service companies such as securities and mortgage brokerage firms, credit unions and insurance companies. We also face competition for investors’ funds from money market funds, mutual funds and other corporate and government securities. This data does not reflect deposits held by credit unions with which we also compete. In addition, banks owned by large national and regional holding companies and other community-based banks also operate in our primary market area. Some of these institutions are larger than us and, therefore, may have greater resources.
Our competition for loans comes primarily from financial institutions in our primary market area and from other financial service providers, such as mortgage companies and mortgage brokers. Competition for loans also comes from the increasing number of non-depository financial service companies entering the mortgage market, such as credit unions, insurance companies, securities companies and specialty finance companies.
We expect competition to increase in the future as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. Technological advances, for example, have lowered barriers to entry, allowed banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the Internet, and made it possible for non-depository institutions to offer products and services that traditionally have been provided by banks. Changes in federal law now permit affiliation among banks, securities firms and insurance companies, which promotes a competitive environment in the financial services industry. Competition for deposits and the origination of loans could limit our growth in the future.
We believe we are not dependent upon any single industry or customer.
The largest segment of our loan portfolio is real estate mortgage loans, primarily one-to-four family residential loans and nonresidential real estate loans. The other significant segments of our loan portfolio are construction loans, primarily one-to-four family construction loans (including speculative construction loans), multi-family loans, commercial business loans and land loans. To a lesser degree, we also originate consumer loans. We originate loans for investment purposes, although we generally sell a substantial majority of our one-to-four family residential loans into the secondary market with servicing released. See note 5 to the notes to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this annual report. We originate conforming permanent mortgage loans and sell a substantial majority of our one-to-four family residential loans into the secondary market with servicing released.
We intend to continue to emphasize residential and non-residential real estate lending while concentrating on ways to expand our consumer/retail banking capabilities and our commercial banking services with a focus on serving small businesses and emphasizing relationship banking in our primary market area.
One-to-Four Family Residential Loans. Our origination of residential mortgage loans enables borrowers to purchase or refinance existing homes located in Montgomery County, Tennessee, and the surrounding areas.
Our residential lending policies and procedures conform to the secondary market guidelines as we generally sell qualifying fixed-rate loans into the secondary market. We generally offer fixed-rate mortgage loans with terms of 10 to 30 years. To a lesser extent, we also offer adjustable-rate mortgage loans. Borrower demand for adjustable-rate loans compared to fixed-rate loans is a function of the level of interest rates, the expectations of changes in the level of interest rates, and the difference between the interest rates and loan fees offered for fixed-rate mortgage loans as compared to an initially discounted interest rate and loan fees for multi-year adjustable-rate mortgages. The relative amount of fixed-rate mortgage loans and adjustable-rate mortgage loans that can be originated at any time is largely determined by the demand for each in a competitive environment. The loan fees, interest rates and other provisions of mortgage loans are determined by us based on our own pricing criteria and competitive market conditions.
Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate mortgage loans generally adjust annually after an initial fixed period that typically ranges from one to three years. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate loans generally are adjusted to a rate typically equal to a percentage above the three or five year U.S. Treasury index or indexed to prime. The maximum amount by which the interest rate may be increased or decreased is generally two percentage points per adjustment period and the lifetime interest rate cap is generally six percentage points over the initial interest rate of the loan. We sell with servicing released a substantial majority of all one-to-four family loans we originate.
While one-to-four family residential real estate loans are normally originated with up to 30-year terms, such loans typically remain outstanding for substantially shorter periods because borrowers often prepay their loans in full either upon sale of the property pledged as security or upon refinancing the original loan. Therefore, average loan maturity is a function of, among other factors, the level of purchase and sale activity in the real estate market, prevailing interest rates and the interest rates payable on outstanding loans on a regular basis. We do not offer loans with negative amortization and generally do not offer interest-only loans other than for revolving home equity lines of credit.
For the most part, we do not make conventional loans with loan-to-value ratios exceeding 95%. Loans with loan-to-value ratios in excess of 80% generally require private mortgage insurance. We generally require all properties securing mortgage loans to be appraised by a board-approved independent appraiser. We generally require title insurance on all first mortgage loans. Borrowers must obtain hazard insurance, and flood insurance is required for loans on properties located in a flood zone.
Nonresidential Real Estate Loans. We offer fixed- and adjustable-rate mortgage loans secured by nonresidential real estate. Our nonresidential real estate loans are generally secured by small to moderately-sized office, retail and industrial properties located in our primary market area and are typically made to small business owners and professionals such as developers, physicians, attorneys and accountants.
We originate a variety of fixed- and adjustable-rate nonresidential real estate loans, generally for terms of one to seven years and with payments based on an amortization schedule of 15 to 25 years. Our adjustable-rate loans generally adjust based on either the prime lending rate or the First Advantage Base Rate every three to five years. Loans are secured by first mortgages, generally are originated with a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80% and generally require specified debt service coverage ratios depending on the characteristics of the project. Rates and other terms on such loans generally depend on our assessment of credit risk after considering such factors as the borrower’s financial condition and credit history, loan-to-value ratio, debt service coverage ratio and other factors.
At December 31, 2011, our largest nonresidential real estate loan had an outstanding balance of $6.0 million. This loan, which was originated in February 2011, is secured by a deed of trust and was performing in accordance with its original terms at December 31, 2011.
Construction Loans. We originate construction loans for one-to-four family homes and commercial, multi-family and other nonresidential purposes. Interest rates on these loans are generally tied to the prime lending rate or the First Advantage Bank base rate. We generally may finance up to 75% to 80% of the appraised value of the completed property. We also offer construction loans for the financing of one-to-four family and multiple family homes, which may convert into permanent loans at the end of the construction period. We generally require a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80% for construction loans on owner occupied homes. We generally disburse funds on a percentage-of-completion basis following an inspection by a third party inspector. At December 31, 2011, our largest non-speculative construction loan commitment was for $1.8 million, with an outstanding balance of $1.5 million. This loan commitment was originated in May 2011 and the loan is performing as agreed.
We also originate speculative construction loans to builders who have not identified a buyer for the completed property at the time of origination. In contrast to many markets across the country, the bank’s primary market area had no sharp price increases prior to the recession. Consequently, property values have remained relatively stable and speculative housing has continued to sell, although at a somewhat slower pace. The proximity of Fort Campbell, Kentucky continues to drive a large part of the speculative housing demand in the area. At December 31, 2011, we had approved commitments for speculative construction loans of $24.0 million, of which $16.0 million was outstanding. We require a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80% for speculative construction loans. We believe we have implemented strict underwriting requirements for speculative construction loans to help ensure that loans are made to a limited group of reputable, financially sound builders and for feasible projects having an adequate demand to facilitate the sale of the properties within an acceptable period of time. Each month we monitor the total number of speculative units under construction, the number of units with each builder, and the number of units within each subdivision. At December 31, 2011, our largest aggregate speculative construction loan commitment to a single builder was for $2.6 million, of which $868,000 was outstanding. The origination dates for these loans were from August 2010 through December 2011and are secured by eleven single family residences under construction and the underlying lots. At December 31, 2011, these loans were performing in accordance with their original terms.
Land Loans. We originate loans to developers for the purpose of developing vacant land in our primary market area, typically for residential subdivisions. Land loans are generally interest-only loans for a term of up to three years (one year to develop the property and approximately two years to liquidate the lots with a minimum principal reduction required annually and with repayment in full resulting from the sale of the improved property. At December 31, 2011, our largest land loan had an outstanding balance of $1.7 million. This loan, which was originated August 2010 and is secured by approximately 37 acres, was performing in accordance with its original terms at December 31, 2011.
Multi-Family Real Estate Loans. We offer multi-family mortgage loans that are generally secured by apartment buildings in our primary market area. We originate a variety of fixed- and adjustable-rate multi-family real estate loans, generally for terms of one to seven years and with payments based on an amortization schedule of 15 to 25 years. Our adjustable-rate loans generally adjust based on the prime lending rate or the First Advantage Base Rate every three to five years. Loans are secured by first mortgages and generally are originated with a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80% and generally require specified debt service coverage ratios depending on the characteristics of the project. Rates and other terms on such loans generally depend on our assessment of the credit risk after considering such factors as the borrower’s financial condition and credit history, loan-to-value ratio, debt service coverage ratio and other factors.
Consumer Loans. Although we offer a variety of consumer loans, our consumer loan portfolio consists primarily of home equity loans, both fixed-rate amortizing term loans and variable rate lines of credit. Consumer loans typically have shorter maturities and higher interest rates than traditional one-to-four family lending. When combined with a first mortgage loan, we will typically make home equity loans up to a loan-to-value ratio of 90%. The procedures for underwriting consumer loans include an assessment of the applicant’s payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although the applicant’s creditworthiness is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral, if any, to the proposed loan amount.
Commercial Business Loans. We typically offer commercial business loans to small businesses located in our primary market area. Commercial business loans are generally secured by equipment, inventory or accounts receivable of the borrower. Key loan terms vary depending on the collateral, the borrower’s financial condition, credit history and other relevant factors, and personal guarantees are typically required as part of the loan commitment.
Loan Underwriting Risks
Adjustable-Rate Loans. While we anticipate that adjustable-rate loans will better offset the adverse effects of an increase in interest rates as compared to fixed-rate mortgages, an increased monthly mortgage payment required of adjustable-rate loan borrowers in a rising interest rate environment could cause an increase in delinquencies and defaults. The marketability of the underlying property also may be adversely affected in a high interest rate environment. In addition, although adjustable-rate mortgage loans make our asset base more responsive to changes in interest rates, the extent of this interest sensitivity is limited by the annual and lifetime interest rate adjustment limits.
Multi-Family and Nonresidential Real Estate Loans. Loans secured by multi-family and nonresidential real estate generally have larger balances and involve a greater degree of risk than one-to-four family residential mortgage loans. Of primary concern in multi-family and nonresidential real estate lending is the borrower’s creditworthiness and the feasibility and cash flow potential of the project. Payments on loans secured by income properties often depend on successful operation and management of the properties. As a result, repayment of such loans may be subject, to a greater extent than residential real estate loans, to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. To monitor cash flows on income properties, we require borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, to provide annual financial statements on multi-family and nonresidential real estate loans. In reaching a decision on whether to make a multi-family or nonresidential real estate loan, we consider and review a global cash flow analysis of the borrower and consider the net operating income of the property, the borrower’s expertise, credit history and profitability, and the value of the underlying property. An environmental survey or environmental risk insurance is obtained when the possibility exists that hazardous materials may have existed on the site, or the site may have been impacted by adjoining properties that handled hazardous materials.
Construction and Land Loans. Construction financing is generally considered to involve a higher degree of risk of loss than long-term financing on improved, occupied real estate. Risk of loss on a construction loan depends largely upon the accuracy of the initial estimate of the property’s value at completion of construction and the estimated cost of construction. During the construction phase, a number of factors could result in delays and cost overruns. If the estimate of construction costs proves to be inaccurate, we may be required to advance funds beyond the amount originally committed to permit completion of the building. If the estimate of value proves to be inaccurate, we may be confronted, at or before the maturity of the loan, with a building having a value which is insufficient to assure full repayment if liquidation is required. If we are forced to foreclose on a building before or at completion due to a default, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover all of the unpaid balance of, and accrued interest on, the loan as well as related foreclosure and holding costs. In addition, speculative construction loans, which are loans made to home builders who, at the time of loan origination, have not yet secured an end buyer for the home under construction, typically carry higher risks than those associated with traditional construction loans. These increased risks arise because of the risk that there will be inadequate demand to ensure the sale of the property within an acceptable time. As a result, in addition to the risks associated with traditional construction loans, speculative construction loans carry the added risk that the builder will have to pay the property taxes and other carrying costs of the property until an end buyer is found. Land loans have substantially similar risks to speculative construction loans.
Consumer Loans. Consumer loans may entail greater risk than do residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans that are secured by assets that depreciate rapidly, such as motor vehicles. In such cases, repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and a small remaining deficiency often does not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. Consumer loan collections depend on the borrower’s continuing financial stability and, therefore, are likely to be adversely affected by various factors, including job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on such loans.
Commercial Business Loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from his or her employment income or other income, and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial business loans are of higher risk and typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the borrower’s business. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial business loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself. Further, any collateral securing such loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value.
Loan Approval Procedures and Authority. Our lending activities follow written, non-discriminatory underwriting standards and loan origination procedures established by our board of directors and management.
Loans to One Borrower. At December 31, 2011, our largest lending relationship and our largest outstanding loan balance to one borrower was $7.6 million, which was comprised of a developed subdivision, an adjacent tract for future development, a farm and a construction loan for a personal residence. These loans were performing according to their original terms at December 31, 2011.
Loan Commitments. We issue commitments for fixed- and adjustable-rate mortgage loans conditioned upon the occurrence of certain events. Commitments to originate mortgage loans are legally binding agreements to lend to our customers. Generally, our loan commitments expire after 30 to 45 days. See note 16 to the notes to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this annual report.
We have legal authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including U.S. Treasury obligations, securities of various government-sponsored agencies and of state and municipal governments, collateralized mortgage obligations and mortgage-backed securities. Within certain regulatory limits, we may also invest a portion of our assets in other permissible securities. As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati, we also are required to maintain an investment in Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati stock.
At December 31, 2011, our investment portfolio consisted primarily of mortgage-backed securities, U.S. government and agency securities, including debt securities issued by government sponsored enterprises, municipal and other bonds, collateralized mortgage obligations and corporate debt securities.
We invest in callable securities. Our callable securities, with a fair market value of $17.0 million at December 31, 2011, consist of U.S. government agency bonds and securities that are callable within one year, corporate debt securities that are callable at periods ranging from one to three years, and state and political subdivision bonds that are callable beginning in periods ranging from two to ten years. We face reinvestment risk with callable securities, particularly during periods of falling market interest rates when issuers of callable securities tend to call or redeem their securities. Reinvestment risk is the risk that we may have to reinvest the proceeds from called securities at lower rates of return than the rates paid on the called securities.
Our investment objectives are to provide and maintain liquidity, to establish an acceptable level of interest rate and credit risk, and to provide an alternate source of low-risk investments at a favorable return when loan demand is weak. Our board of directors has the overall responsibility for the investment portfolio, including approval of the investment policy. Our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Executive Officer are responsible for implementation of the investment policy and monitoring our investment performance. Our board of directors receives monthly reports on investment activity and, as part of the monthly financial report, is informed as to the mix of investments, yields by category of investment and the overall yield on the portfolio, as well as any gains or losses incurred during the prior month.
Deposit Activities and Other Sources of Funds
Deposits, borrowings, loan repayments, mortgage-backed security repayments and called investments are the major sources of our funds for lending and other investment purposes. Scheduled loan and mortgage-backed security repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, while deposit inflows and outflows and loan prepayments and security calls are significantly influenced by general interest rates and money market conditions.
Deposit Accounts. Substantially all of our depositors are residents of Tennessee. Deposits are attracted from within our primary market area through the offering of a broad selection of deposit instruments, including non-interest-bearing demand deposits (such as checking accounts), interest-bearing demand accounts (such as NOW and money market accounts), regular savings accounts and certificates of deposit. Deposit account terms vary according to the minimum balance required, the time periods the funds must remain on deposit and the interest rate, among other factors. In determining the terms of our deposit accounts, we consider the rates offered by our competition, our liquidity needs, profitability to us, matching deposit and loan products and customer preferences and concerns. We review our deposit mix and pricing weekly. Our deposit pricing strategy has typically been to offer competitive rates on all types of deposit products, and to regularly offer special rates in order to attract deposits of a specific type or term.
In addition to accounts for individuals, we also offer deposit accounts designed for the businesses operating in our primary market area. Our business banking deposit products include commercial checking accounts and money market accounts.
Borrowings. We use advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati and Federal Reserve Bank through the Discount Window to supplement our investable funds. The Federal Home Loan Bank functions as a central reserve bank providing credit for member financial institutions. As a member, we are required to own capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank and are authorized to apply for advances on the security of such stock and certain of our mortgage loans, non-residential real estate loans and other assets (principally securities which are obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States), provided certain standards related to creditworthiness have been met. Advances are made under several different programs, each having its own interest rate and range of maturities. Depending on the program, limitations on the amount of advances are based either on a fixed percentage of an institution’s net worth or on the Federal Home Loan Bank’s assessment of the institution’s creditworthiness.
As of December 31, 2011, we had 87 full-time employees and 8 part-time employees, none of whom is represented by a collective bargaining unit. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good.
First Advantage Bank has one subsidiary, First Financial Mortgage Corp., which was inactive at December 31, 2011. On December 19, 2007, First Financial Mortgage Corp. conveyed its only remaining tangible asset, the Blue Hole Lodge, to First Advantage Bancorp for the sum of $200,000. Acquired in 2001 as a meeting and training center, the Blue Hole Lodge property consists of approximately five acres with an improved lodge building. Acquisition and improvement costs totaled approximately $1.3 million. As of December 31, 2011, the property had been written down to $200,000, which is the estimated fair market value of the property.
REGULATION AND SUPERVISION
The Bank is a Tennessee commercial bank and its deposit accounts are insured by the FDIC. The Bank is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. The Bank is subject to supervision, examination and regulation by the TDFI and the FDIC. The Bank is required to file regulatory reports concerning its activities and financial condition and is required to obtain regulatory approvals prior to entering into certain transactions, including mergers with, or acquisitions of, other depository institutions.
The system of regulation and supervision applicable to the Bank establishes a comprehensive framework for the operations of the Bank and is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC and the depositors of the Bank. Changes in the regulatory framework could have a material effect on the Bank and its respective operations that in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The Company registered with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve as a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. As a result, it is subject to supervisory regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Bank Holding Company Act, and other federal laws subject bank holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations
Certain of the regulatory requirements that are applicable to First Advantage Bancorp and the Bank are described below. This description of statutes and regulations is not intended to be a complete explanation of such statutes and regulations and their effects on First Advantage Bancorp and the Bank and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual statutes and regulations.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
On July 21, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 ( the “Dodd-Frank Act”). The Dodd-Frank Act will continue to have a broad impact on the financial services industry as a result of the significant regulatory and compliance changes including, among other things, (i) enhanced resolution authority over troubled and failing banks and their holding companies; (ii) increased capital and liquidity requirements; (iii) increased regulatory examination fees; (iv) changes to assessments to be paid to the FDIC for federal deposit insurance; and (v) numerous other provisions designed to improve supervision and oversight of, and strengthening safety and soundness for, the financial services sector. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act establishes a new framework for systemic risk oversight within the financial system to be distributed among new and existing federal regulatory agencies, including the Financial Stability Oversight Council, the Federal Reserve, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the FDIC. A summary of certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act is set forth below, along with information set forth in applicable sections of this “Regulation and Supervision” section.
Although a significant number of the rules and regulations mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act have been finalized, many of the new requirements called for have yet to be implemented and will likely be subject to implementing regulations over the course of several years. Given the uncertainty associated with the manner in which the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented by the various regulatory agencies, the full extent of the impact such requirements will have on financial institutions’ operations is unclear. The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities, require changes to certain of our business practices, impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage ratio requirements or otherwise adversely affect our business. These changes may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes in order to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements.
Bank Holding Company and Tennessee Commercial Bank Regulation
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act modernized the U.S. banking system by: (i) allowing bank holding companies that qualify as “financial holding companies” to engage in a broad range of financial and related activities; (ii) allowing insurers and other financial service companies to acquire banks; (iii) removing restrictions that applied to bank holding company ownership of securities firms and mutual fund advisory companies; and (iv) establishing the overall regulatory scheme applicable to bank holding companies that also engage in insurance and securities operations. The general effect of the law was to establish a comprehensive framework to permit affiliations among commercial banks, insurance companies, securities firms, and other financial service providers. Activities that are financial in nature are broadly defined to include not only banking, insurance, and securities activities, but also merchant banking and additional activities that the Federal Reserve, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, determines to be financial in nature, incidental to such financial activities, or complementary activities that do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally.
In contrast to financial holding companies, bank holding companies are limited to managing or controlling banks, furnishing services to or performing services for its subsidiaries, and engaging in other activities that the Federal Reserve determines by regulation or order to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve must consider whether the performance of such an activity reasonably can be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects. Possible benefits include greater convenience, increased competition, and gains in efficiency. Possible adverse effects include undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, and unsound banking practices. Despite prior approval, the Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable cause to believe that a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company may result from such an activity.
Changes in Control.
Subject to certain exceptions, the Bank Holding Company Act and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with the applicable regulations, promulgated thereunder, require Federal Reserve approval (or, depending on the circumstances, no notice of disapproval) prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank or bank holding company. A conclusive presumption of control exists if an individual or company acquires the power, directly or indirectly, to direct the management or policies of an insured depository institution or to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities of any insured depository institution. A rebuttable presumption of control exists if a person or company acquires 10% or more but less than 25% of any class of voting securities of an insured depository institution and either the institution has registered securities under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), or no other person will own a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the acquisition. The Company’s common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.
The Federal Reserve maintains a policy statement on minority equity investments in banks and bank holding companies, that generally permits investors to (i) acquire up to 33 percent of the total equity of a target bank or bank holding company, subject to certain conditions, including (but not limited to) that the investing firm does not acquire 15 percent or more of any class of voting securities, and (ii) designate at least one director, without triggering the various regulatory requirements associated with control.
As a bank holding company, we are required to obtain prior approval from the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of a bank or bank holding company, (ii) acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the outstanding voting stock of any bank or bank holding company (unless we own a majority of such bank’s voting shares), or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank or bank holding company. In determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition, federal bank regulators will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, the public benefits expected to be received from the acquisition, the projected capital ratios and levels on a post-acquisition basis, and the acquiring institution’s record of addressing the credit needs of the communities it serves, including the needs of low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operation of the bank, under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977.
Capital; Dividends; Source of Strength.
The Federal Reserve imposes certain capital requirements on bank holding companies under the Bank Holding Company Act, including a minimum leverage ratio and a minimum ratio of “qualifying” capital to risk-weighted assets. These requirements are described below under “Capital Regulations.” Subject to its capital requirements and certain other restrictions, we are able to borrow money to make a capital contribution to the Bank, and such loans may be repaid from dividends paid from the Bank to us.
A substantial source of the Company’s income from which it can pay dividends is the receipt of dividends from the Bank. The availability of the Bank to pay dividends to the Company is limited by applicable Tennessee law, which provides that the Bank may not declare dividends in any calendar year that exceeds the total of its net income of that year combined with its retained net income of the preceding two years without the prior approval of the TDFI. It is also possible, depending upon the financial condition of the Bank, and other factors, that the applicable regulatory authorities could assert that payment of dividends or other payments is an unsafe or unsound practice. In the event that the Bank is unable to pay dividends to the Company, the Company may not be able to pay dividends on its common stock. See note 12 to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this annual report.
In accordance with Federal Reserve policy, which has been codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, we are expected to act as a source of financial strength to the Bank and to commit resources to support the Bank in circumstances in which we might not otherwise do so.
Insurance of Accounts and Other Assessments.
We pay our deposit insurance assessments to the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is determined through a risk-based assessment system. Our deposit accounts are currently insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund generally up to a maximum of $250,000 per separately insured depositor.
In addition, in November 2008, the FDIC issued a final rule under its Transaction Account Guarantee Program (“TAGP”), pursuant to which the FDIC fully guarantees all non-interest bearing transaction deposit accounts, including all personal and business checking deposit accounts that do not earn interest, attorney trust accounts where interest does not accrue to the account owner (IOLTA), and NOW accounts with interest rates no higher than 0.25%. Thus, under the TAGP, these accounts are fully insured by the FDIC regardless of dollar amount. This second increase to coverage was originally in effect through December 31, 2009, but was extended until June 30, 2010 and then again until December 31, 2010, unless we elected to “opt out” of participating, which we did not do. The Dodd-Frank Act extended full deposit coverage for non-interest bearing transaction deposit accounts for an additional two years beginning on December 31, 2010, and all financial institutions are required to participate in this extended program.
Under the FDIC’s previous risk-based assessment system, insured institutions were assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors, with less risky institutions paying lower assessments. An institution’s assessment rate depended upon the category to which it is assigned and, effective April 1, 2009, assessment rates range from seven to 77.5 basis points. On February 7, 2011, the FDIC approved a final rule that implemented changes to the deposit insurance assessment system mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act. The final rule, which became effective on April 1, 2011, revised the base on which deposit insurance assessments are charged from one that is based on domestic deposits to one that is based on average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity. Under the final rule, insured depository institutions are required to report their average consolidated total assets on a daily basis, using the regulatory accounting methodology established for reporting total assets. For purposes of the final rule, tangible equity is defined as Tier 1 capital.
On May 22, 2009, the FDIC imposed a special assessment of five basis points on each FDIC-insured depository institution’s assets, minus its Tier I capital, as of June 30, 2009. This special assessment was collected on September 30, 2009. Finally, on November 12, 2009, the FDIC adopted a new rule requiring insured institutions to prepay on December 30, 2009, estimated quarterly risk-based assessments for the fourth quarter of 2009 and for all of 2010, 2011, and 2012. We prepaid an assessment of $1.1 million, which incorporated a uniform 3.00 basis point increase effective January 1, 2011 and assumed 5% annual deposit growth.
In addition, all FDIC insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC at an annual rate of approximately one basis point of insured deposits to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, an agency of the federal government established to recapitalize the predecessor to the Savings Association Insurance Fund. These assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation bonds mature in 2017 through 2019.
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the “FDIA”), the FDIC may terminate deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.
Transactions With Affiliates.
Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation W, the authority of the Bank to engage in transactions with related parties or “affiliates” or to make loans to insiders is limited. Loan transactions with an “affiliate” generally must be collateralized and certain transactions between the Bank and its “affiliates”, including the sale of assets, the payment of money or the provision of services, must be on terms and conditions that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing for comparable nonaffiliated transactions. In addition, the Bank generally may not purchase securities issued or underwritten by affiliates.
Loans to executive officers, directors or to any person who directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls or has the power to vote more than 10% of any class of voting securities of a bank, which we refer to as “10% Shareholders”, or to any political or campaign committee the funds or services of which will benefit those executive officers, directors, or 10% Shareholders or which is controlled by those executive officers, directors or 10% Shareholders, are subject to Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and their corresponding regulations (Regulation O) and Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act relating to the prohibition on personal loans to executives (which exempts financial institutions in compliance with the insider lending restrictions of Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act). Among other things, these loans must be made on terms substantially the same as those prevailing on transactions made to unaffiliated individuals and certain extensions of credit to those persons must first be approved in advance by a disinterested majority of the entire board of directors. Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act prohibits loans to any of those individuals where the aggregate amount exceeds an amount equal to 15% of an institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus in the case of loans that are fully secured by readily marketable collateral, or when the aggregate amount on all of the extensions of credit outstanding to all of these persons would exceed the Bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Section 22(g) identifies limited circumstances in which the Bank is permitted to extend credit to executive officers.
Community Reinvestment Act.
The Community Reinvestment Act and its corresponding regulations are intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their service area, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operations of the banks. These regulations provide for regulatory assessment of a bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of its service area. Federal banking agencies are required to make public a rating of a bank’s performance under the Community Reinvestment Act. The Federal Reserve considers a bank’s Community Reinvestment Act rating when the bank submits an application to establish banking centers, merge, or acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of another bank. In the case of a financial holding company, the Community Reinvestment Act performance record of all banks involved in the merger or acquisition are reviewed in connection with the filing of an application to acquire ownership or control of shares or assets of a bank or to merge with any other financial holding company. An unsatisfactory record can substantially delay or block the transaction. The Bank received a satisfactory rating on its most recent Community Reinvestment Act assessment.
The Federal Reserve and FDIC have adopted risk-based capital adequacy guidelines for bank holding companies and state-chartered banks, respectively. The risk-based capital guidelines are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure, to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets, and to achieve greater consistency in evaluating the capital adequacy of major banks throughout the world. Under these guidelines, assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories each with designated weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance sheet items.
The current guidelines require all bank holding companies and state-chartered banks to maintain a minimum risk-based total capital ratio equal to 8%, of which at least 4% must be Tier I Capital. Tier I Capital, which includes common shareholders’ equity, noncumulative perpetual preferred stock, and a limited amount of cumulative perpetual preferred stock and certain trust preferred securities, less certain goodwill items and other intangible assets, is required to equal at least 4% of risk-weighted assets. The remainder (“Tier II Capital”) may consist of (i) an allowance for loan losses of up to 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, (ii) excess of qualifying perpetual preferred stock, (iii) hybrid capital instruments, (iv) perpetual debt, (v) mandatory convertible securities, and (vi) subordinated debt and intermediate-term preferred stock up to 50% of Tier I Capital. Total capital is the sum of Tier I and Tier II Capital less reciprocal holdings of other banking organizations’ capital instruments, investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries and any other deductions as determined by the appropriate regulator (determined on a case by case basis or as a matter of policy after formal rule making).
In computing total risk-weighted assets, bank and financial holding company assets are given risk-weights of 0%, 20%, 50% and 100%. In addition, certain off-balance sheet items are given similar credit conversion factors to convert them to asset equivalent amounts to which an appropriate risk-weight will apply. Most loans will be assigned to the 100% risk category, except for performing first mortgage loans fully secured by 1- to 4-family and certain multi-family residential property, which carry a 50% risk rating. Most investment securities (including, primarily, general obligation claims on states or other political subdivisions of the United States) will be assigned to the 20% category, except for municipal or state revenue bonds, which have a 50% risk-weight, and direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury or obligations backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which have a 0% risk-weight. In covering off-balance sheet items, direct credit substitutes, including general guarantees and standby letters of credit backing financial obligations, are given a 100% conversion factor. Transaction-related contingencies such as bid bonds, standby letters of credit backing non-financial obligations, and undrawn commitments (including commercial credit lines with an initial maturity of more than one year) have a 50% conversion factor. Short-term commercial letters of credit are converted at 20% and certain short-term unconditionally cancelable commitments have a 0% factor.
The federal bank regulatory authorities have also adopted regulations that supplement the risk-based guidelines. These regulations generally require banks and financial holding companies to maintain a minimum level of Tier I Capital to total assets less goodwill of 4% (the “leverage ratio”). The Federal Reserve permits a bank to maintain a minimum 3% leverage ratio if the bank achieves a 1 rating under the CAMELS rating system in its most recent examination, as long as the bank is not experiencing or anticipating significant growth. The CAMELS rating is a non-public system used by bank regulators to rate the strength and weaknesses of financial institutions. The CAMELS rating is comprised of six categories: capital adequacy, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk.
Banking organizations experiencing or anticipating significant growth, as well as those organizations which do not satisfy the criteria described above, will be required to maintain a minimum leverage ratio ranging generally from 4% to 5%. The bank regulators also continue to consider a “tangible Tier I leverage ratio” in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activities.
The tangible Tier I leverage ratio is the ratio of a banking organization’s Tier I Capital, less deductions for intangibles otherwise includable in Tier I Capital, to total tangible assets.
Federal law and regulations establish a capital-based regulatory scheme designed to promote early intervention for troubled banks and require the FDIC to choose the least expensive resolution of bank failures. The capital-based regulatory framework contains five categories of compliance with regulatory capital requirements, including “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” To qualify as a “well-capitalized” institution, a bank must have a leverage ratio of no less than 5%, a Tier I Capital ratio of no less than 6%, and a total risk-based capital ratio of no less than 10%, and the bank must not be under any order or directive from the appropriate regulatory agency to meet and maintain a specific capital level. Generally, a financial institution must be “well capitalized” before the Federal Reserve will approve an application by a bank holding company to acquire or merge with a bank or bank holding company.
Under the regulations, the applicable agency can treat an institution as if it were in the next lower category if the agency determines (after notice and an opportunity for hearing) that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition or is engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice. The degree of regulatory scrutiny of a financial institution will increase, and the permissible activities of the institution will decrease, as it moves downward through the capital categories. Institutions that fall into one of the three undercapitalized categories may be required to (i) submit a capital restoration plan; (ii) raise additional capital; (iii) restrict their growth, deposit interest rates, and other activities; (iv) improve their management; (v) eliminate management fees; or (vi) divest themselves of all or a part of their operations. Financial holding companies controlling financial institutions can be called upon to boost the institutions’ capital and to partially guarantee the institutions’ performance under their capital restoration plans.
It should be noted that the minimum ratios referred to above are merely guidelines and the bank regulators possess the discretionary authority to require higher capital ratios.
As of December 31, 2011, we exceeded the requirements contained in the applicable regulations, policies and directives pertaining to capital adequacy to be classified as “well capitalized”, and are unaware of any material violation or alleged violation of these regulations, policies or directives. Rapid growth, poor loan portfolio performance, or poor earnings performance, or a combination of these factors, could change our capital position in a relatively short period of time, making additional capital infusions necessary.
Prompt Corrective Action.
Immediately upon becoming undercapitalized, a depository institution becomes subject to the provisions of Section 38 of the FDIA, which: (i) restrict payment of capital distributions and management fees; (ii) require that the appropriate federal banking agency monitor the condition of the institution and its efforts to restore its capital; (iii) require submission of a capital restoration plan; (iv) restrict the growth of the institution’s assets; and (v) require prior approval of certain expansion proposals. The appropriate federal banking agency for an undercapitalized institution also may take any number of discretionary supervisory actions if the agency determines that any of these actions is necessary to resolve the problems of the institution at the least possible long-term cost to the deposit insurance fund, subject in certain cases to specified procedures. These discretionary supervisory actions include: (i) requiring the institution to raise additional capital; (ii) restricting transactions with affiliates; (iii) requiring divestiture of the institution or the sale of the institution to a willing purchaser; and (iv) any other supervisory action that the agency deems appropriate. These and additional mandatory and permissive supervisory actions may be taken with respect to significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions.
On December 17, 2009, the Basel Committee proposed significant changes to bank capital and liquidity regulation, including revisions to the definitions of Tier I Capital and Tier II Capital applicable to Basel III.
The short-term and long-term impact of the new Basel III capital standards and the forthcoming new capital rules to be proposed for non-Basel III U.S. banks is uncertain. As a result of the recent deterioration in the global credit markets and the potential impact of increased liquidity risk and interest rate risk, it is unclear what the short-term impact of the implementation of Basel III may be or what impact a pending alternative standardized approach to Basel III option for non-Basel III U.S. banks may have on the cost and availability of different types of credit and the potential compliance costs of implementing the new capital standards.
On September 12, 2010, the oversight body of the Basel Committee announced a package of reforms which will increase existing capital requirements substantially over the next four years. These capital reforms were endorsed by the G20 at the summit held in Seoul, South Korea in November 2010. On December 20, 2011, the Federal Reserve announced its intention to implement substantially all of the Basel III rules which would generally be applicable to institutions with greater than $50 billion in assets.
Interstate Banking and Branching.
The Bank Holding Company Act was amended by the Interstate Banking Act. The Interstate Banking Act provides that adequately capitalized and managed financial and bank holding companies are permitted to acquire banks in any state.
State laws prohibiting interstate banking or discriminating against out-of-state banks are preempted. States are not permitted to enact laws opting out of this provision; however, states are allowed to adopt a minimum age restriction requiring that target banks located within the state be in existence for a period of years, up to a maximum of five years, before a bank may be subject to the Interstate Banking Act. The Interstate Banking Act, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, establishes deposit caps which prohibit acquisitions that result in the acquiring company controlling 30% or more of the deposits of insured banks and thrift institutions held in the state in which the target maintains a branch or 10% or more of the deposits nationwide. States have the authority to waive the 30% deposit cap. State-level deposit caps are not preempted as long as they do not discriminate against out-of-state companies, and the federal deposit caps apply only to initial entry acquisitions.
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, national banks and state banks are able to establish branches in any state if that state would permit the establishment of the branch by a state bank chartered in that state. Tennessee law permits a state bank to establish a branch of the bank anywhere in the state. Accordingly, under the Dodd-Frank Act, a bank with its headquarters outside the State of Tennessee may establish branches anywhere within Tennessee.
The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”), provides the federal government with additional powers to address terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers, increased information sharing and broadened anti-money laundering requirements. By way of amendments to the Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”), the USA PATRIOT Act puts in place measures intended to encourage information sharing among bank regulatory and law enforcement agencies. In addition, certain provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act impose affirmative obligations on a broad range of financial institutions.
Among other requirements, the USA PATRIOT Act and the related Federal Reserve regulations require banks to establish anti-money laundering programs that include, at a minimum:
Additionally, the USA PATRIOT Act requires each financial institution to develop a customer identification program (“CIP”) as part of our anti-money laundering program. The key components of the CIP are identification, verification, government list comparison, notice and record retention. The purpose of the CIP is to enable the financial institution to determine the true identity and anticipated account activity of each customer. To make this determination, among other things, the financial institution must collect certain information from customers at the time they enter into the customer relationship with the financial institution. This information must be verified within a reasonable time through documentary and non-documentary methods. Furthermore, all customers must be screened against any CIP-related government lists of known or suspected terrorists. We and our affiliates have adopted policies, procedures and controls to comply with the BSA and the USA PATRIOT Act.
Regulatory Enforcement Authority.
Federal and state banking laws grant substantial enforcement powers to federal and state banking regulators. This enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease and desist or removal orders and to initiate injunctive actions against banking organizations and institution-affiliated parties. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices. Other actions or inactions may provide the basis for enforcement action, including misleading or untimely reports filed with regulatory authorities.
Federal Home Loan Bank System.
First Advantage Bank is a member of the FHLB of Cincinnati, which is one of 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. Each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. It is funded primarily from funds deposited by member institutions and proceeds from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. It makes loans to members (i.e. advances) in accordance with policies and procedures established by the board of trustees of the FHLB. As a member of the FHLB of Cincinnati, the Bank is required to own capital stock in the FHLB.
Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, federal banking regulators adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. The rules require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to nonaffiliated third parties.
Consumer Laws and Regulations.
The Bank is also subject to other federal and state consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks. While the list set forth below is not exhaustive, these laws and regulations include the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair and Accurate Transactions Act, the Mortgage Disclosure Improvement Act, and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, among others. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits or making loans to such customers. The Bank must comply with the applicable provisions of these consumer protection laws and regulations as part of its ongoing customer relations.
Future Legislative Developments.
Various legislative acts are from time to time introduced in Congress and the Tennessee legislature. This legislation may change banking statutes and the environment in which our banking subsidiary and we operate in substantial and unpredictable ways. We cannot determine the ultimate effect that potential legislation, if enacted, or implementing regulations with respect thereto, would have upon our financial condition or results of operations or that of our banking subsidiary.
Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies.
The commercial banking business in which First Advantage Bank engages is affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the monetary policies of the Federal Reserve. Changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowing, availability of borrowing at the “discount window,” open market operations, the imposition of changes in reserve requirements against member banks’ deposits and assets of foreign banking centers and the imposition of and changes in reserve requirements against certain borrowings by banks and their affiliates are some of the instruments of monetary policy available to the Federal Reserve. These monetary policies are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distributions of bank loans, investments and deposits, and this use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve are influenced by various factors, including inflation, unemployment, and short-term and long-term changes in the international trade balance and in the fiscal policies of the U.S. Government. Future monetary policies and the effect of such policies on the future business and earnings of the Bank cannot be predicted.
Federal Securities Laws
First Advantage Bancorp’s common stock is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. First Advantage Bancorp is subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements imposed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Federal Income Taxation
General. We report our income on a calendar year basis using the accrual method of accounting. The federal income tax laws apply to us in the same manner as to other corporations with some exceptions, including particularly our reserve for bad debts discussed below. The following discussion of tax matters is intended only as a summary and does not purport to be a comprehensive description of the tax rules applicable to us. Our federal income tax returns have been either audited or closed under the statute of limitations through tax year 2006. For 2011, First Advantage Bancorp’s maximum federal income tax rate was 34.0%.
First Advantage Bancorp and the Bank have entered into a tax allocation agreement. Because First Advantage Bancorp owns 100% of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Bank, First Advantage Bancorp and the Bank are members of an affiliated group within the meaning of Section 1504(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, of which group First Advantage Bancorp is the common parent corporation. As a result of this affiliation, the Bank may be included in the filing of a consolidated federal income tax return with First Advantage Bancorp and, if a decision to file a consolidated tax return is made, the parties agree to compensate each other for their individual share of the consolidated tax liability and/or any tax benefits provided by them in the filing of the consolidated federal income tax return.
Tennessee. Tennessee imposes franchise and excise taxes. The franchise tax ($0.25 per $100) is applied either to apportioned net worth or the value of property owned and used in Tennessee, whichever is greater, as of the close of a company’s fiscal year. The excise tax (6.5%) is applied to net earnings derived from business transacted in Tennessee. Under Tennessee regulations, bad debt deductions are deductible from the excise tax. There have not been any audits of our state tax returns during the past five years.
Any cash dividends, in excess of a certain exempt amount, that would be paid with respect to First Advantage Bancorp common stock to a stockholder (including a partnership and certain other entities) who is a resident of Tennessee will be subject to the Tennessee income tax (6%). Any distribution by a corporation from earnings according to percentage ownership is considered a dividend, and the definition of a dividend for Tennessee income tax purposes may not be the same as the definition of a dividend for federal income tax purposes. A corporate distribution may be treated as a dividend for Tennessee tax purposes if it is paid from funds that exceed the corporation’s earned surplus and profits under certain circumstances.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following individuals serve as executive officers of the Company and the Bank:
Below is information regarding our executive officers who are not also directors. Ages presented are as of December 31, 2011.
Bonita H. Spiegl has served as Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary of the Company and the Bank since June 2011. Prior to being appointed Chief Financial Officer, Ms. Spiegl served as Controller of the Bank from November 2007 to June 2011. Before joining First Advantage Bank, in November 2007, Ms. Spiegl held several positions with 1st Source Bank, located in South Bend, Indiana, including Assistant Vice President and Accounting Manager. Age 50.
Jon R. Clouser has served as the Chief Lending Officer of First Advantage Bank since March 2007. From March 2003 to March 2007, Mr. Clouser was an Executive Vice President of Cumberland Bank and Trust. Mr. Clouser also served as a Senior Vice President of Old National Bank (formerly Heritage Bank) from 1990 to March 2003. Age 58
Cindy D. Smith has served as Chief Operations Officer of First Advantage Bank since March 2011. Prior to that time, Ms. Smith had served as Vice President of the Bank since September 2010. Before joining First Advantage Bank, in September 2010, Ms. Smith was the Vice President of sales and marketing, mobile payments for Bling Nation located in Palo Alto, California. Age 48.
Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in the Company’s common stock is subject to risks inherent to the Company’s business. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect the Company are described below. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this report. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or focused on or that management currently deems immaterial may also impair the Company’s business operations. This report is qualified in its entirety by these risk factors.
If any of the following risks actually occur, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the market price of the Company’s common stock could decline significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Our business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.
Since December 2007 through June 2009, the United States economy was in a recession. Business activity across a wide range of industries and regions in the United States was greatly reduced and local governments and many businesses are still experiencing serious difficulty due to lower consumer spending and decreased liquidity in the credit markets. Unemployment has continued to remain at high levels.
Market conditions also led to the failure or merger of several prominent financial institutions and numerous regional and community-based financial institutions. These failures, as well as projected future failures, have had a significant negative impact on the capitalization level of the deposit insurance fund of the FDIC, which, in turn, has led to a significant increase in deposit insurance premiums paid by financial institutions.
Our financial performance, in particular the ability of borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans, as well as demand for loans and other products and services we offer, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets where we operate, the State of Tennessee and the United States as a whole.
Concerns about the European Union’s sovereign debt crisis have also caused uncertainty for financial markets globally. Such risks could indirectly affect us by affecting our customers with European businesses or assets denominated in the euro or companies in our market with European businesses or affiliates.
Overall, during 2011, the business environment has been adverse for many households and businesses in the United States and worldwide. While the business environment in Montgomery County, Tennessee, and the markets in which we operate have been less adverse than in the United States as a whole, there can be no assurances that a continued overall economic downturn could eventually have a negative effect in our market area. Such conditions could adversely affect the credit quality of our loans, results of operations and our financial condition.
If our allowance for loan losses is not sufficient to cover actual loan losses, our earnings could decrease.
In the event that our loan customers do not repay their loans according to the terms of the loans, and the collateral securing the repayment of these loans is insufficient, or a ready market is not available, to cover any remaining loan balance, we could experience significant loan losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of our borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets, if any, serving as collateral for the repayment of our loans. In determining the amount of our allowance for loan losses, we rely on our loan quality reviews, our experience and our evaluation of economic conditions, among other factors. If our assumptions are incorrect, our allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover probable losses inherent in our loan portfolio, which may require additions to our allowance. Although we are unaware of any specific problems with our loan portfolio that would require any increase in our allowance at the present time, our allowance for loan losses may need to be increased further in the future due to our emphasis on loan growth and on increasing our portfolio of commercial business and commercial real estate loans. Any material additions to our allowance for loan losses would materially decrease our net income.
In addition, our regulators periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our provisions for loan losses or recognize further loan charge-offs. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses or loan charge-offs as required by regulatory authorities could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and financial condition.
Our concentrations in construction loans, including speculative construction loans, nonresidential real estate loans and land loans may expose us to increased credit risk.
Speculative construction loans are loans made to builders who have not identified a buyer for the completed property at the time of loan origination. Although our origination of these types of loans has slowed as the local economy has slowed, over time, we intend to continue to emphasize the origination of these loan types. These loan types expose a lender to greater risk of non-payment and loss than one-to-four family mortgage loans because the repayment of such loans often depends on the successful operation or sale of the property and the income stream of the borrowers and such loans typically involve larger balances to a single borrower or groups of related borrowers. In addition, many borrowers of these types of loans have more than one loan outstanding with us so an adverse development with respect to one loan or credit relationship can expose us to significantly greater risk of non-payment and loss. Furthermore, we may need to increase our allowance for loan losses through future charges to income as the portfolio of these types of loans grows, which would hurt our earnings. For more information about the credit risk we face, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Risk Management.”
Noncore funding represents a large component of our funding base.
In addition to the traditional core deposits, such as demand deposit accounts, interest checking, money market savings and certificates of deposits, we utilize several noncore funding sources, such as Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati advances, the Federal Reserve Discount Window, federal funds purchased and other sources. We utilize these noncore funding sources to fund our ongoing operations and growth. The availability of these noncore funding sources are subject to broad economic conditions and, as such, the pricing on these sources may fluctuate significantly and/or be restricted at any point in time, thus impacting our net interest income, our immediate liquidity and/or our access to additional liquidity. Should the FHLB system deteriorate to the point of not being able to fund future advances to banks, including the Bank, this would place increased pressure on other wholesale funding sources.
Fluctuations in interest rates may hurt our earnings and asset value.
The Company’s earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon its net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and securities and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowed funds. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the Company’s control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest the Company receives on loans and securities and the amount of interest it pays on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect (i) the Company’s ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, (ii) the fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, and (iii) the average duration of the Company’s mortgage-backed securities portfolio. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, the Company’s net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings.
Although management believes it has implemented effective asset and liability management strategies to reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on the Company’s results of operations, any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Our balance sheet leverage transactions are subject to reinvestment and interest rate risks.
On April 30, 2008 we entered into two balance sheet leverage transactions, utilizing structured repurchase agreements, which totaled $35 million. $25 million of the borrowings have call options ranging from two to three years after origination, with final maturities ranging from five to ten years if they are not called. Collateral for the borrowings consists of U. S. Agency pass-through Mortgage Backed Securities (the “Securities”). Borrowing rates as of the report date are substantially lower than when the leverage transaction was originated. If borrowing rates remain at or near current low levels for two to three years it is possible that the structured repurchase agreement borrowings will not be called and the bank will be paying above market rates for borrowings for an extended period of time. Additionally, the recent decrease in mortgage rates has increased the amount of mortgages being refinanced. Prepayment of the mortgages that are collateral for the securities used in the structured repurchase agreement could require us to substitute additional collateral if the minimum collateral level is not maintained. The Bank may not have suitable collateral in the portfolio to substitute at the time and would have to purchase additional securities at market prices. Additional purchases would likely be reinvested in much lower yielding investments. Both factors discussed here could contribute to a mismatch in terms of the effective duration of both the borrowings and the Securities and would negatively impact the anticipated spread on the leverage transaction.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. The Company has exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose the Company to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, the Company’s credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by the Company cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit due to the Company. Any such losses could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, the Company may implement new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company’s system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
A further downturn in the local economy or a continued decline in real estate values could hurt our profits.
A large majority of our loans are secured by real estate in Montgomery County, Tennessee, and the surrounding areas. As a result of this concentration, a further downturn in the local economy could significantly increase nonperforming loans, which would hurt our profits. Historically, Fort Campbell, a nearby U.S. Army installation, has played a significant role in the economy of our primary market area. Future deployments would dampen economic activity. Furthermore, a continued decline in real estate values could lead to some of our mortgage loans becoming inadequately collateralized, which would expose us to greater risk of loss. Additionally, a decline in real estate values could hurt our portfolio of construction loans, nonresidential real estate loans, and land loans and could reduce our ability to originate such loans. For a discussion of our primary market area, see Item 1, “Business—Market Area.”
Strong competition within our primary market area could hurt our profits and slow growth.
We face intense competition both in making loans and attracting deposits. This competition has made it more difficult for us to make new loans and attract deposits. Price competition for loans and deposits might result in us earning less on our loans and paying more on our deposits, which would reduce net interest income. Competition also makes it more difficult to grow loans and deposits. Some of the institutions with which we compete have substantially greater resources and lending limits than we have and may offer services that we do not provide. We expect competition to increase in the future as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to compete successfully in our primary market area. See Item 1, “Business—Market Area” and “Business—Competition” for more information about our primary market area and the competition we face.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and we may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve, the TDFI and the FDIC. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on our operations, the classification of our assets and determination of the level of our allowance for loan losses. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory action, may have a material impact on our operations.
Recently enacted regulatory reform may have a material impact on our operations.
The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted in July 2010, instituted major changes to the banking and financial institutions regulatory regimes in light of the recent performance of and government intervention in the financial services sector. Other changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject the Company to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products the Company may offer and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on our business and operations will not be known for years until regulations implementing the statute are written and adopted. However, the Dodd-Frank Act may have a material impact on our operations, particularly through increased regulatory burden and compliance costs.
Increased and/or special FDIC assessments will hurt our earnings.
The recent economic recession has caused a high level of bank failures, which has dramatically increased Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation resolution costs and led to a significant reduction in the balance of the Deposit Insurance Fund. As a result, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has significantly increased the initial base assessment rates paid by financial institutions for deposit insurance. Increases in the base assessment rate have increased our deposit insurance costs and negatively impacted our earnings. In addition, in May 2009, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation imposed a special assessment on all insured institutions. Our special assessment, which was reflected in earnings for the quarter ended June 30, 2009, was $536,000. In lieu of imposing an additional special assessment, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation required all institutions to prepay their assessments for all of 2010, 2011 and 2012, which for us totaled $1.1 million. Additional increases in the base assessment rate or additional special assessments would negatively impact our earnings.
Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.
The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in the Company’s customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the failure, interruption or security breach of its information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures, interruptions or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failures, interruptions or security breaches of the Company’s information systems could damage the Company’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
We continually encounter technological change.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. The Company’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in the Company’s operations. Many of the Company’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. The Company may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and, in turn, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations rely on certain external vendors.
The Company is reliant upon certain external vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain day-to-day operations of the Company. Accordingly, the Company’s operations are exposed to risk that these vendors will not perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service level agreements. The failure of an external vendor to perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service level agreements could be disruptive to the Company’s operations, which could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and, in turn, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Even though our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Stock Market’s Global Market, it has less liquidity than many other stocks quoted on a national securities exchange.
The trading volume in our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market has been relatively low when compared with larger companies listed on the Nasdaq Global Market or other stock exchanges. Because of this, it may be more difficult for shareholders to sell a substantial number of shares for the same price at which shareholders could sell a smaller number of shares.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of our common stock in the market, or the availability of shares of common stock for sale in the market, will have on the market price of our common stock. We can give no assurance that sales of substantial amounts of common stock in the market, or the potential for large amounts of sales in the market, would not cause the price of our common stock to decline or impair our future ability to raise capital through sales of our common stock.
The market price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past, and may fluctuate in the future. These fluctuations may be unrelated to our performance. General market or industry price declines or overall market volatility in the future could adversely affect the price of our common stock, and the current market price may not be indicative of future market prices.
We may not continue to pay dividends on our common stock in the future.
Holders of First Advantage Bancorp common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as its board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Although First Advantage has established a pattern of declaring quarterly cash dividends on its common stock, it is not required to do so and may reduce or eliminate its common stock dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of First Advantage Bancorp’s common stock. Also, First Advantage Bancorp is a bank holding company, and its ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations.
A substantial source of the Company’s income from which it can pay dividends is the receipt of dividends from the Bank. The availability of the Bank to pay dividends to the Company is limited by applicable Tennessee law, which provides that the Bank may not declare dividends in any calendar year that exceeds the total of its net income of that year combined with its retained net income of the preceding two years without the prior approval of the TDFI. It is also possible, depending upon the financial condition of the Bank, and other factors, that the applicable regulatory authorities could assert that payment of dividends or other payments is an unsafe or unsound practice. In the event that the Bank is unable to pay dividends to the Company, the Company may not be able to pay dividends on its common stock.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit.
The Company’s common stock is not a bank deposit and, therefore, is not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in the Company’s common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report and is subject to the same market forces that affect the price of common stock in any company. As a result, if you acquire the Company’s common stock, you could lose some or all of your investment.
Financial services companies depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties and material misrepresentations could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, the Company may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements, credit reports and other financial information. The Company may also rely on representations of those customers, counterparties or other third parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other financial information could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and, in turn, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Consumers may decide not to use banks to complete their financial transactions.
Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions that historically have involved banks through alternative methods. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts or mutual funds. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
The recent repeal of federal prohibitions on payment of interest on demand deposits could increase our interest expense.
All federal prohibitions on the ability of financial institutions to pay interest on demand deposit accounts were repealed as part of the Dodd-Frank Act. As a result, beginning on July 21, 2011, financial institutions could commence offering interest on demand deposits to compete for clients. The Company does not yet know what interest rates other institutions may offer. The Company’s interest expense will increase and its net interest margin will decrease if it begins offering interest on demand deposits to attract additional customers or maintain current customers, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Item 2. PROPERTIES
We conduct our business through our main office and branch offices. The following table sets forth certain information relating to these facilities as of December 31, 2011.
(1) The Riverbend Branch opened in March 2009. The premise is leased from a related party (a partnership whose partners include one director of the Company).
(2) Former branch office location.
Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Periodically, there have been various claims and lawsuits against us, such as claims to enforce liens, condemnation proceedings on properties in which we hold security interests, claims involving the making and servicing of real property loans and other issues incident to our business. We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
The Company’s common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “FABK.” The following table sets forth the high and low intra-day sales prices of First Advantage Bancorp’s common stock for each quarter of 2011 and 2010, as reported by Nasdaq, and the quarterly cash dividends paid per share.
As of December 31, 2011, there were 4,459,135 shares of the Company’s common stock issued and 4,038,260 shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding. Such outstanding shares were held by approximately 605 holders of record as of December 31, 2011. The closing price per share of the Company’s common stock on December 30, 2011, the last trading day of the Company’s fiscal year, was $12.87.
Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s board of directors has authorized four stock repurchase programs. The stock repurchase programs allow the Company to proactively manage its capital position and return excess capital to shareholders. Under the first stock repurchase program, which was approved on December 17, 2008, the Company was authorized to repurchase up to 263,234 shares or 5.0%, of the Company’s issued common stock, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors. The first stock repurchase program was completed during the first quarter of 2010. On March 4, 2010, a second repurchase program was approved which authorized the repurchase of up to 252,319 or 5.0% of the Company’s issued common stock, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors. The second stock repurchase program was completed during the third quarter of 2010. On June 9, 2010, a third repurchase program was approved which authorized the repurchase of up to 240,524 or 5.0% of the Company’s issued common stock, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors. The third stock repurchase program was completed during the fourth quarter of 2011. On November 17, 2010, a fourth repurchase program was approved which authorized the repurchase of up to 231,624 or 5.0% of the Company’s issued common stock, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors. On February 15, 2011, a fifth repurchase program was approved which authorized the repurchase of up to 220,706 or 5.0% of the Company’s issued common stock, through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors. There is no guarantee as to the exact number of shares to be repurchased by the Company.
The following table provides information with respect to purchases made by or on behalf of the Company or any “affiliated purchaser” (as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934), of the Company’s common stock during the fourth quarter of 2011.
Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Forward-Looking Statements and Factors that Could Affect Future Results
Certain statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not statements of historical fact constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “Act”), notwithstanding that such statements are not specifically identified as such. In addition, certain statements may be contained in the Company’s future filings with the SEC, in press releases, and in oral and written statements made by or with the approval of the Company that are not statements of historical fact and constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Act. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: (i) projections of revenues, expenses, income or loss, earnings or loss per share, the payment or nonpayment of dividends, capital structure and other financial items; (ii) statements of plans, objectives and expectations of First Advantage Bancorp or its management or Board of Directors, including those relating to products or services; (iii) statements of future economic performance; and (iv) statements of assumptions underlying such statements. Words such as “believes”, “anticipates”, “expects”, “intends”, “targeted”, “continue”, “remain”, “will”, “should”, “may” and other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those in such statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made. The Company undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
The following discussion and analysis presents the more significant factors affecting the Company’s financial condition as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 and results of operations for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2011. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Company’s consolidated financial statements, notes thereto and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this report.
Dollar amounts in tables are stated in thousands, except per share amounts.
Income. Our primary source of pre-tax income is net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income, which is the income that we earn on our loans and investments, and interest expense, which is the interest that we pay on our deposits and borrowings. Other significant sources of pre-tax income are service charges (mostly from service charges on deposit accounts and loan servicing fees), fees from sale of mortgage loans originated for sale in the secondary market, and commissions on sales of securities and insurance products. We also recognize income and loss from the sale of securities.
Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is a valuation allowance for probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio. We evaluate the need to establish allowances against losses on loans on a quarterly basis. When additional allowances are necessary, a provision for loan losses is charged to earnings.
Expenses. The non-interest expenses we incur in operating our business consist of salaries and employee benefits expenses, occupancy expenses, federal deposit insurance premiums, data processing expenses and other miscellaneous expenses.
Salaries and employee benefits consist primarily of: salaries and wages paid to our employees; payroll taxes; and expenses for health insurance, retirement plans and other employee benefits. We recognize additional annual employee compensation expenses related to the equity incentive plan which was approved by shareholders and adopted in 2008.
Occupancy expenses, which are the fixed and variable costs of buildings and equipment, consist primarily of depreciation charges, furniture and equipment expenses, maintenance, real estate taxes and costs of utilities. Depreciation of premises and equipment is computed using the straight-line method based on the useful lives of the related assets, which range from three to forty years.
Data processing expenses are the fees we pay to third parties for processing customer information, deposits and loans.
Federal deposit insurance premiums are payments we make to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for insurance of our deposit accounts.
Other expenses include expenses for professional services, advertising, office supplies, postage, telephone, insurance, regulatory assessments and other miscellaneous operating expenses.
Critical Accounting Policies
The accounting and reporting policies followed by the Company conform, in all material respects, to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and to general practices within the financial services industry. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. While the Company bases estimates on historical experience, current information and other factors deemed to be relevant, actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company considers accounting estimates to be critical to reported financial results if (i) the accounting estimate requires management to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain and (ii) different estimates that management reasonably could have used for the accounting estimate in the current period, or changes in the accounting estimate that are reasonably likely to occur from period to period, could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is the amount estimated by management as necessary to cover losses inherent in the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. The allowance is established through the provision for loan losses, which is charged to income. Determining the amount of the allowance for loan losses necessarily involves a high degree of judgment. Among the material estimates required to establish the allowance are: loss exposure at default; the amount and timing of future cash flows on impacted loans; value of collateral; and determination of loss factors to be applied to the various elements of the portfolio. All of these estimates are susceptible to significant change. Management reviews the level of the allowance at least quarterly and establishes the provision for loan losses based upon an evaluation of the portfolio, past loss experience, current economic conditions and other factors related to the collectability of the loan portfolio. Although we believe that we use the best information available to establish the allowance for loan losses, future adjustments to the allowance may be necessary if economic or other conditions differ substantially from the assumptions used in making the evaluation. In addition, the TDFI and FDIC, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically reviews our allowance for loan losses and may require us to recognize adjustments to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of an examination. A large loss could deplete the allowance and require increased provisions to replenish the allowance, which would adversely affect earnings. See note 5 to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this annual report.
Other-Than-Temporary Impairment. Management periodically evaluates the Company’s investment securities portfolio for other-than-temporary impairment. If a security is considered to be other-than-temporarily impaired, the related unrealized loss is charged to earnings, and a new cost basis is established. Factors considered include the reasons for the impairment, the severity and duration of the impairment, changes in value subsequent to period-end, and forecasted performance of the security issuer. Impairment is considered other-than-temporary unless the Company has both the intent and ability to hold the security until the fair value recovers and evidence supporting the recovery outweighs evidence to the contrary. However, for equity securities, which typically do not have a contractual maturity with a specified cash flow on which to rely, the ability to hold an equity security indefinitely, by itself, does not allow for avoidance of other-than-temporary impairment. Future changes in management’s assessment of other-than-temporary impairment on its securities could result in significant charges to earnings in future periods. See note 4 to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this annual report.
Balance Sheet Analysis
Loans. Our primary lending activity is the origination of loans secured by real estate. We originate one-to-four family mortgage loans, multi-family loans, nonresidential real estate loans, commercial business loans and construction loans. To a lesser extent, we originate land loans and consumer loans.
Nonresidential real estate loans were the largest segment of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2011. These loans totaled $98.3 million, or 37.3% of total loans, at December 31, 2011. At December 31, 2010, these loans totaled $77.1 million, or 31.9% of total loans. The balance of nonresidential real estate loans increased during the year due to our emphasis on growing loans in this category, particularly with respect to small businesses. Also, during the fourth quarter of 2011 the Bank purchased approximately $14.0 million of performing loans from another financial institution. All of the loans purchased were within our market area and met the Bank’s strict underwriting guidelines for loan-to-value and debt service coverage.
At December 31, 2011, one-to-four family loans totaled $44.8 million, or 17.0% of total loans, compared to $43.7 million, or 18.1% of total loans at December 31, 2010. The balance of one-to-four family loans increased during the year primarily due to the migration of maturing one-to-four family constructions loans to permanent one-to-four family loans. Such loans were made in the typical course of business and on market terms, based on either original construction-to-permanent loan agreements with individuals or contractual curtailment terms with building contractors on speculative construction loans. The Bank also occasionally originates and retains one-to-four family loans for specific customers.
Our construction loan portfolio consists primarily of residential construction loans, including speculative residential construction loans. Construction loans totaled $27.7 million, or 10.6% of total loans, at December 31, 2011. At December 31, 2010, these loans totaled $26.7 million, or 11.0% of total loans.
Land loans totaled $25.4 million, or 9.6% of total loans, at December 31, 2011, compared to $26.4 million, or 10.9% of total loans at December 31, 2010. These loans are primarily secured by vacant land to be improved for residential development.
Multi-family real estate loans totaled $16.7 million, or 6.3% of total loans at December 31, 2011. At December 31, 2010, these loans totaled $13.6 million, or 5.6% of gross loans.
Consumer loans totaled $22.4 million, or 8.5% of total loans, at December 31, 2011 compared to $22.0 million, or 9.1% of gross loans at December 31, 2010.
Commercial business loans totaled $28.5 million, or 10.8% of total loans at December 31, 2011 compared to $32.5 million, or 13.4% of total loans at December 31, 2010.
The following table sets forth the composition of our loan portfolio at the dates indicated.
The following table sets forth certain information at December 31, 2011 regarding the dollar amount of loan principal repayments becoming due during the periods indicated. The table does not include any estimate of prepayments which may significantly shorten the average life of loans and may cause our actual repayment experience to differ from that shown below. Demand loans having no stated schedule of repayments and no stated maturity are reported as due in one year or less.
Fixed vs. Adjustable Rate Loans
The following table sets forth the dollar amount of all loans at December 31, 2011 that are due after December 31, 2012, and have either fixed interest rates or floating or adjustable interest rates. The amounts shown below exclude unearned loan origination fees.
Our adjustable-rate mortgage loans do not adjust downward below the initial discounted contract rate. When market interest rates rise, as has occurred in recent periods, the interest rates on these loans may increase based on the contract rate (the index plus the margin) exceeding the initial interest rate floor.
Securities. Our securities portfolio consists primarily of U.S. government callable federal agency bonds, U.S. government agency mortgage-backed securities, and obligations of states and political subdivisions with a relatively smaller investment in collateralized mortgage obligations and other securities. For the year ended December 31, 2011 the amortized cost of our securities decreased by $4.3 million, as excess funds were utilized to fund loan growth in lieu of investment funding.
Our callable securities, with a fair value of $17.0 million at December 31, 2011, consist of U.S. government agency bonds and securities that are callable within one year, state and political subdivisions bonds that are callable beginning in periods ranging from one to ten years, and corporate debt securities that are callable beginning in periods ranging from one to three years.
The following table sets forth the stated maturities and weighted average yields of our investment securities at December 31, 2011. Certain mortgage-backed securities have adjustable interest rates and will reprice annually within the various maturity ranges. These repricing schedules are not reflected in the table below.
Deposits. Deposit accounts, primarily obtained from individuals and businesses within our local market area, are our primary source of funds for lending and investment. Our deposit accounts are comprised of non-interest-bearing accounts, interest-bearing savings accounts, checking accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit.
The following table sets forth the balances of our deposit products at the dates indicated.
The following table indicates the amount of jumbo certificates of deposit by time remaining until maturity as of December 31, 2011. Jumbo certificates of deposit require minimum deposits of $100,000.
Short term borrowings. Short-term borrowings consist of Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) overnight advances and federal funds purchased and securities sold under agreements to repurchase. Federal funds purchased are short-term borrowings that typically mature within one to ninety days and reprice daily. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010 the balances of short-term advances from FHLB were $10,500 and $-0-, respectively. Securities sold under agreements to repurchase consist of customer funds that are invested overnight in investment securities. The following table shows the distribution of short-term borrowings, the weighted average interest rates thereon and the maximum month-end balance at the end of each of the last two years.