|• MODINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY 10-K 3-31-2012 • EXHIBIT 4.10 • EXHIBIT 10.16 • EXHIBIT 10.17 • EXHIBIT 10.18 • EXHIBIT 10.19 • EXHIBIT 21 • EXHIBIT 23 • EXHIBIT 31.1 • EXHIBIT 31.2 • EXHIBIT 32.1 • EXHIBIT 32.2 • XBRL INSTANCE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY SCHEMA DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY LABEL LINKBASE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission file number 1-1373
MODINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code (262) 636-1200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No þ
Approximately 68 percent of the outstanding shares are held by non-affiliates. The aggregate market value of these shares was approximately $424 million based on the market price of $9.06 per share on September 30, 2011, the last day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person known to beneficially own more than 5 percent of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. The determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock, $0.625 par value, was 46,767,162 at June 12, 2012.
An Exhibit Index appears at pages 91-94 herein.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the following documents are incorporated by reference into the parts of this Form 10-K designated to the right of the document listed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY - FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31, 2012
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Modine Manufacturing Company (Modine or the Company) specializes in thermal management systems and components, bringing heating and cooling technology and solutions to diversified global markets. We are a leading global developer, manufacturer and marketer of heat exchangers and systems for use in on-highway and off-highway original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicular applications, and to a wide array of building, industrial and refrigeration markets. Product lines include radiators and radiator cores, vehicular air conditioning, oil coolers, charge air coolers, heat-transfer packages and modules, building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers. Our primary customers across the globe are:
- Truck, automobile, bus, and specialty vehicle OEMs;
- Agricultural, industrial and construction OEMs;
- Heating and cooling OEMs;
- Construction contractors; and
- Wholesalers of plumbing and heating equipment.
We focus our development efforts on solutions that meet the pressing heat transfer needs of OEMs and other customers within the commercial vehicle, construction, agricultural, industrial and commercial HVAC industries and, more selectively, within the automotive industry. Our products and systems typically are aimed at solving complex heat transfer challenges requiring effective thermal management. The typical demands are for products and systems that are lighter weight, more compact, more efficient and more durable to meet ever increasing customer standards as they work to ensure compliance with increasingly stringent global emissions, fuel economy and energy efficiency requirements. Our Company’s heritage provides a depth and breadth of expertise in thermal management, which, when combined with our global manufacturing presence, standardized processes, and state-of-the-art technical centers and wind tunnels, enables us to rapidly bring customized solutions to customers at the best value.
Modine was incorporated under the laws of the State of Wisconsin on June 23, 1916 by its founder, Arthur B. Modine. Mr. Modine’s “Spirex” radiators became standard equipment on the famous Ford Motor Company Model T. When he died at the age of 95, A.B. Modine had been granted a total of 120 U.S. patents for heat transfer innovations. The standard of innovation exemplified by A.B. Modine remains the cornerstone of Modine today.
Terms; Year References
When we use the terms “Modine,” “we,” “us,” the “Company,” or “our” in this report, unless the context requires otherwise, we are referring to Modine Manufacturing Company and its subsidiaries. Our fiscal year ends on March 31. All references to a particular year mean the fiscal year ended March 31 of that year, unless indicated otherwise.
Business Strategy and Results
Modine focuses on thermal management leadership and highly engineered product and service innovations for diversified, global markets and customers. We are committed to enhancing our presence around the world and serving our customers where they are located. We create value by focusing on customer partnerships and providing innovative solutions for our customers' thermal problems. With the appointment of Tom Marry to the role of Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer during fiscal 2012, Modine has reintroduced the Chief Operating Officer position to enhance focus on our business operations and help ensure long-range leadership stability. His appointment will ensure operational continuity across all of our segments, allowing consistent execution and continuous improvement of our business processes across the globe.
Modine’s strategy for improved profitability is grounded in diversifying our markets and customer base, differentiating our products and services, technically and commercially, and partnering with customers to deliver the right products in the right markets. Modine’s top five customers are in three different markets – automotive, truck and off-highway – and its ten largest customers accounted for approximately 61 percent of the Company’s fiscal 2012 sales, compared to 58 percent in fiscal 2011. In fiscal 2012, 64 percent of total revenues were generated from sales to customers outside of the U.S., 58 percent of which were generated by Modine’s international operations and 6 percent of which were generated by exports from the U.S. In fiscal 2011, 61 percent of total revenues were generated from sales to customers outside of the U.S., with 56 percent generated by Modine’s international operations and 5 percent generated by exports from the U.S.
During fiscal 2012, the Company reported revenues from continuing operations of $1.58 billion, a 9 percent increase from $1.45 billion in fiscal 2011. The Company’s end markets showed improvement from the deep recession experienced during 2009 and 2010. This improvement was seen across most of Modine’s end markets, including the commercial vehicle and off-highway markets. The commercial HVAC markets showed modest market demand growth. The Company’s business volumes improved in fiscal 2012 and were close to the pre-recessionary annual sales of approximately $1.6 billion. Over the last several years, the Company has implemented a number of cost and operational efficiency measures designed to improve our longer-term competitiveness, including the realignment of our manufacturing facilities, portfolio rationalization, capital allocation and selling, general and administrative (SG&A) cost containment. As volumes improve and the benefits of these actions translated into in the Company’s gross margin, which improved from 16.0 percent in fiscal 2011 to 16.3 percent in fiscal 2012. In addition, SG&A as a percentage of sales has declined from 13.1 percent in fiscal 2011 to 12.0 percent in fiscal 2012. With these improvements, the Company reported $67.5 million of earnings from operations in fiscal 2012, which exceeds the earnings from operations of $42.9 million reported in fiscal 2011.
The improved sales volumes and lower cost structure of the Company, along with the absence of the loss on debt extinguishment, resulted in the improvement of earnings from continuing operations to $38.0 million, or $0.80 per fully diluted share during fiscal 2012. This represents an improvement from the earnings from continuing operations of $8.3 million, or $0.18 per fully diluted share reported during fiscal 2011.
The Company measures its performance based on a return on average capital employed (ROACE) metric. The Company defines ROACE as income from operations, less a 30 percent income tax rate, less minority interest; divided by the average of debt plus Modine shareholders’ equity. The Company has established a goal of achieving a ROACE of 11 to 12 percent in the next few years with a longer term goal of 15 percent. ROACE is not a measure derived under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and should not be considered as a substitute for any measure derived in accordance with GAAP. Management believes that ROACE provides investors with helpful information about the Company’s performance, and ability to provide an acceptable return on all the capital utilized by the Company, and fund growth. This measure may be inconsistent with similar measures presented by other companies. The following schedule provides a reconciliation of ROACE to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP for the years ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011:
ROACE improved from 6.3 percent in fiscal 2011 to 9.5 percent in fiscal 2012 primarily due to the 57 percent improvement in income from operations. As the Company looks forward into fiscal 2013, it anticipates that weaker economic conditions in several key markets, including Europe, South America, and Asia, along with planned wind downs of automotive programs may impact net sales unfavorably year over year. This, coupled with the restructuring plans in Europe, will make fiscal 2013 a transitional year.
Revision to Prior Period Financial Statements
The Company revised its fiscal 2010 and fiscal 2011 results in this report for errors identified relating to prior periods. See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the revision.
The Company offers a broad line of products that can be categorized generally as a percentage of net sales as follows:
*Typically include components such as radiators, oil coolers, charge air coolers, condensers and other purchased components.
We compete with several manufacturers of heat transfer and HVAC products, some of which are divisions of larger companies. The markets for the Company's products are increasingly competitive and have changed significantly in the past few years. The Company's traditional OEM customers in the U.S. and Europe are faced with dramatically increased international competition and have expanded their worldwide sourcing of parts to compete more effectively with lower cost imports and have expanded their global footprint to compete in local markets. Some of these market changes have caused the Company to experience competition from suppliers in other parts of the world that enjoy economic advantages such as lower labor costs, lower healthcare costs, and lower tax rates. In addition, the Company has expanded its own geographic footprint in part to allow us to serve our original equipment customers more flexibly across the globe. Our customers also continue to ask the Company, as well as their other primary suppliers, to participate in research and development (R&D), design, and validation responsibilities. This combined work effort often results in stronger customer relationships and more partnership opportunities for the Company.
The Company has assigned specific businesses to a segment based principally on defined markets and geographic locations. Each Modine segment is managed at the segment vice president or managing director level and has separate financial results reviewed by its chief operating decision makers. These results are used by management in evaluating the performance of each business segment, and in making decisions on the allocation of resources among our various businesses. Our chief operating decision makers evaluate segment performance with an emphasis on gross margin, and secondarily based on operating income of each segment, including certain allocations of Corporate SG&A expenses. Financial information related to the Company’s segments is included in Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Original Equipment – Asia, Europe and North America Segments and South America Segment
The continuing globalization of the Company's OEM customer base has led to the necessity of viewing Modine’s strategic approach, product offerings and competitors on a global basis. This trend offers significant opportunities for Modine with its market positioning, including presence in key global markets (U.S., Europe, China, India, South Korea, Mexico and Brazil) and a global product-based organization with expertise to solve technical challenges. Modine is recognized as having strong technical support, product breadth and the ability to support global standard designs for its customers.
The Company's main competitors, AKG (Autokühler Gmbh & Co. KG), Behr GmbH & Co. K.G., Dana Corporation, Dayco Ensa SA, Visteon Corporation, Denso Corporation, Delphi Corporation, T.Rad Co. Ltd., Honeywell Thermal Div., Valeo SA and TitanX (former Valeo Heavy Duty group now owned by EQT), have a multi-regional or worldwide presence. Increasingly, the Company faces heightened competition as these competitors expand their product offerings and manufacturing footprints through expansion into low cost countries and low cost country sourcing initiatives. In addition, competitors from some of the low cost regions are expanding their presence in OEM markets in their home countries and abroad.
Specifically, the Original Equipment – Asia, Europe and North America segments and the South America segment serve the following markets:
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling modules, radiators, charge-air-coolers, condensers, oil coolers, fan shrouds, and surge tanks); on-engine cooling (exhaust gas recirculation (“EGR”) coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge-air-coolers and intake air coolers); oil coolers (transmission oil coolers and power steering coolers); and fuel coolers
Customers – Commercial, medium and heavy duty truck and engine manufacturers; bus and specialty vehicle manufacturers
Market Overview – During fiscal 2012, we continued to see a recovery of the commercial vehicles market, especially within Europe and the U.S., as these markets recovered from the recession experienced during fiscal 2009 and 2010. Heavy-duty trucks recovered at the fastest pace, while medium-duty trucks recovered more modestly.
Other trends influencing the market include the consolidation of major customers into global entities emphasizing the development of global vehicle platforms in order to leverage and reduce development costs and distribution methods. OEMs expect greater supplier support at lower prices and seek high technology/low cost solutions for their thermal management needs. In general, this drives a deflationary price environment.
Emissions regulations and timelines are driving the advancement of product development worldwide and creating demand for incremental thermal transfer products. Proposed fuel economy standards in the U.S. are driving the development of new products and product platforms, such as those relating to waste heat recovery.
Primary Competitors – Behr GmbH & Co. K.G.; TitanX, T.Rad Co. Ltd.; Honeywell Thermal Div.; Dayco Ensa SA
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling modules, radiators, condensers, charge-air-coolers, fuel coolers, oil coolers); auxiliary coolers (power steering coolers and transmission oil coolers); and on-engine cooling (EGR coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge-air-coolers and intake air coolers)
Customers – Construction and agricultural equipment, engine manufacturers and industrial manufacturers of material handling equipment, generator sets and compressors
Market overview – The agricultural market is leveling with changes in the crop prices, especially corn. Mining equipment markets are showing signs of slowing growth due to the continued global economic uncertainty. Construction markets showed modest improvement consistent with the global economic recovery from the recessionary environment experienced over the past several years.
Overall market trends include a migration toward global machine platforms, driving the multi-region assembly of a common design platform with low cost country sourcing for certain components. Additionally, fixed emissions regulations and timelines are driving the advancement of product development, including the current adoption of Tier IV emissions requirements in the mature region construction markets. OEMs are rapidly expanding into Asia and prefer global suppliers with local production capabilities. Modine is recognized as having strong technical support, product breadth, and the ability to support global standard designs of its customers.
Primary Competitors – Adams Thermal Systems Inc.; AKG; Delphi Corporation; Denso Corporation; Honeywell Inc.; Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co., Ltd.; ThermaSys Corp.; Doowon; Valeo SA , Donghwan, TRad Co. Ltd. and RAAL.
Products – Powertrain cooling (engine cooling modules, radiators, condensers, charge-air-coolers, auxiliary cooling (power steering coolers and transmission oil coolers), component assemblies, radiators for special applications) and on-engine cooling (EGR coolers, engine oil coolers, fuel coolers, charge-air-coolers and intake air coolers)
Customers – Automobile, light truck and engine manufacturers
Market Overview – Modine supports the automotive marketplace with components where complementary Modine technology can be applied to an automotive environment at reasonable returns. Modine continues the process of deemphasizing our focus on automotive modules due to the cost and risk of enormous capital outlays to maintain a scale cost position, the inherent over-capacity in this market segment, and the anticipation of better returns in other markets.
Primary Competitors – Behr GmbH & Co. K.G.; Dana Corporation; Delphi Corporation; Denso Corporation; Visteon Corporation, Showa, and Dayco Ensa SA.
Products – Unit heaters (gas-fired, hydronic, electric and oil-fired); duct furnaces (indoor and outdoor); infrared units (high intensity and low intensity); hydronic products (commercial fin-tube radiation, cabinet unit heaters, and convectors); roof mounted direct- and indirect-fired makeup air units; commercial packaged rooftop ventilation units; unit ventilators; single packaged vertical units; geo-thermal heat pumps; precision air conditioning units for data center applications; chillers; ceiling cassettes; condensing units
Customers –Construction contractors; HVAC wholesalers; installers; and end users in a variety of commercial and industrial applications, including banking and finance, education, hospitality, telecommunications, entertainment arenas, pharmaceuticals, hospitals, warehousing, manufacturing, and food and beverage processing
Market Overview – Commercial Products has strong sales in gas unit heaters, data center air conditioning products, and room heating and cooling units. Efficiency legislation, indoor air quality, lower noise requirements, growth in data centers, and higher energy costs are driving opportunities in these market areas.
Primary Competitors – Lennox International Inc. (ADP); ABB (Reznor); Mestek Inc. (Sterling); Emerson Electric Company (Liebert Hiross); Stulz; United Technologies Corporation (Carrier); Johnson Controls, Inc. (York); and Daikin (McQuay International)
We maintain administrative organizations in three regions - North America, Europe and Asia - to facilitate financial and statutory reporting and tax compliance on a worldwide basis and to support the business units. We operate in the following countries:
Our non-U.S. subsidiaries and affiliates manufacture and sell a number of vehicular and industrial products similar to those produced in the U.S. In addition to normal business risks, operations outside the U.S. are subject to other risks such as changing political, economic and social environments, changing governmental laws and regulations, currency revaluations and volatility, and market fluctuations.
The Company exports from North America to foreign countries and receives royalties from foreign licensees. Export sales from the U.S. as a percentage of net sales were 6 percent for fiscal 2012, 5 percent for fiscal 2011 and 4 percent for fiscal 2010. Royalties from foreign licenses were $1.2 million, $1.6 million and $3.3 million for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Modine believes its international presence has positioned the Company to share profitably in the anticipated long-term growth of the global vehicular, commercial and industrial markets. Modine is committed to increasing its involvement and investment in international markets in the years ahead.
Foreign and Domestic Operations
Financial information relating to the Company's foreign and domestic operations is included in Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Ten customers accounted for approximately 61 percent of the Company's sales in fiscal 2012. These customers, listed alphabetically, were: BMW; Caterpillar Inc.; Daimler AG; Deere & Company; Denso Corporation; Ford Motor Co.; MAN Truck & Bus; Navistar; Volkswagen AG and Volvo Group. In fiscal 2012, no one customer accounted for ten percent or more of the total Company sales, while in fiscal 2011 and 2010, BMW was the only customer that accounted for ten percent or more of total Company sales. Generally, goods are supplied to these customers on the basis of individual purchase orders received from them. When it is in the customer's and the Company's best interests, the Company utilizes long-term sales agreements with customers to minimize investment risks and to provide the customer with a proven source of competitively priced products. These contracts are on average three years in duration and may include built-in pricing adjustments. In certain cases, our customers have requested additional pricing adjustments beyond those included in these long-term contracts.
Backlog of Orders
The Company's operating units maintain their own inventories and production schedules. Current production capacity is capable of handling the sales volumes expected in fiscal 2013.
Aluminum, nickel, brass and steel, are purchased from several domestic and foreign producers. In general, the Company does not rely on any one supplier for these materials which are, for the most part, available from numerous sources in quantities required by the Company. The supply of fabricated copper products is highly concentrated between two global suppliers. All purchases of fabricated copper are currently from one of these suppliers. The Company normally does not experience material shortages and believes that our suppliers’ production of these materials will be adequate throughout the next fiscal year. In addition, when possible, Modine has made material pass-through arrangements with its key customers, which allows the Company to pass material cost increases and decreases to its customers. However, where these pass-through arrangements are utilized, there is a time lag between the time of the material increase or decrease and the time of price adjustment. This time lag can range from three months to one year. To further mitigate the Company’s exposure to fluctuating material prices, the Company enters into forward contracts to hedge a portion of our forecasted aluminum and copper purchases. At March 31, 2012, the Company had forward contracts outstanding that hedge approximately 50 percent of North American and European aluminum requirements anticipated to be purchased over the next 24 months.
The Company owns outright or has a number of licenses to produce products under patents. These patents and licenses have been obtained over a period of years expire at various times. Because the Company has many product lines, it believes that its business as a whole is not materially dependent upon any particular patent or license, or any particular group of patents or licenses. Modine considers each of its patents, trademarks and licenses to be of value and aggressively defends its rights throughout the world against infringement. Modine has been granted and/or acquired more than 2,000 patents worldwide over the life of the Company.
Research and Development
The Company remains committed to its vision of creating value through technology. Company-sponsored R&D activities support the development and improvement of new products, processes and services. R&D expenditures were $70.2 million, $67.0 million and $56.9 million in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Over the last three years, R&D expenditures have averaged between 4 and 5 percent of sales. This level of investment reflects the Company’s continued commitment to R&D in an ever-changing market. Our current R&D is focused primarily on company-sponsored development in the areas of powertrain cooling, engine products and commercial HVAC products. The Company is involved with several industry-, university- and government-sponsored research organizations that conduct research and provide data on technical topics deemed to be of interest to the Company for practical applications in the markets the Company serves. The research developed as a result is generally shared among the member organizations.
To achieve efficiencies and lower developmental costs, Modine's research and engineering groups work closely with our customers on special projects and systems designs. In addition, the Company is participating in U.S. government-funded projects, including dual purpose programs in which the Company retains commercial intellectual property rights in technology it develops for the government, such as the design and demonstration of waste heat recovery systems and research and testing directed at the enhancement of EGR cooler performance.
Through Modine’s global Quality Management System (“QMS”), the manufacturing facilities in our Original Equipment – Asia, Europe and North America segments and our South America segment are registered to ISO 9001:2008 or ISO/TS 16949:2009 standards, helping to ensure that our customers receive high quality products and services from every Modine facility. While customer expectations for performance, quality and service have risen continuously over the past years, our QMS has allowed Modine to drive improvements in quality performance and enabled the ongoing delivery of products and services that meet or exceed customer expectations.
The global QMS operates in the context of the Modine Operating System (“MOS”), which focuses on leadership and rapid continuous improvement. Sustainable continuous improvement is driven throughout all functional areas and operating regions of the organization by the principles, processes and behaviors that are core to these systems.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
Modine is committed to preventing pollution, eliminating waste and reducing environmental risks. The Company’s facilities maintained Environmental Management System (“EMS”) certification to the international ISO14001 standard through independent third-party audits. All Modine locations have established specific environmental improvement targets and objectives for the coming fiscal year.
In fiscal 2012, Modine recorded a 2.2 percent decrease (normalized for sales) in carbon emissions resulting from its on-site use of natural gas and propane, and from its use of electricity generated by off-site sources. This year-over-year improvement can be attributed to the optimization of the manufacturing footprint resulting from restructuring activities of previous years and from the Company’s fiscal 2012 achievements in conserving energy. In fiscal 2012, Modine defined a scope for measuring and reporting its global carbon emissions, and will be using that baseline data in its continued effort to reduce carbon emissions in fiscal 2013. Specific carbon reduction projects will be identified and implemented when feasible over the coming fiscal year.
Air emissions, hazardous wastes, and solid wastes decreased 5.0 percent (when normalized for sales) in fiscal 2012, and water consumption decreased slightly by 1.3 percent. As in previous years, Modine continues to systematically identify opportunities and implement measures to reduce waste and conserve natural resources through its EMS.
Modine's commitment to environmental stewardship is reflected in its reporting of chemical releases as monitored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory program. The Company's U.S. locations decreased their reported chemical releases by 86 percent from calendar year 2009 to 2010, with a 99 percent decline from 2000 to 2010. This long-term and sustained improvement is the result of Modine’s transition to more environmentally friendly manufacturing technologies and raw materials within the Original Equipment – North America segment and South America segment.
Modine’s product portfolio reflects its sense of environmental responsibility. The Company continues its development and refinement of environmentally friendly product lines including oil, fuel, and EGR coolers for diesel applications, and light weight and high performance powertrain cooling heat exchangers. These products provide increased fuel economies and enable combustion technologies that reduce harmful gas emissions. Modine’s Commercial Products segment offerings, including the Airedale Schoolmate geo-thermal heat pump, the Effinity93, the most efficient gas-fired unit heater in North America, and the new AtherionTM Commercial Packaged Ventilation System, are helping commercial, industrial and residential users achieve high energy efficiencies and reduce utility costs.
An obligation for remedial activities may arise at Modine-owned facilities due to past practices or as a result of a property purchase or sale. These expenditures most often relate to sites where past operations followed practices that were considered acceptable under then-existing regulations, but now require investigative and/or remedial work to ensure appropriate environmental protection or where the Company is a successor to the obligations of prior owners and current laws and regulations require investigative and/or remedial work to ensure sufficient environmental compliance. Three of the Company's currently owned manufacturing facilities and one formerly owned property have been identified as requiring soil and/or groundwater remediation. Environmental liabilities recorded as of March 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010 to cover the investigative work and remediation for sites in the United States, Brazil, and The Netherlands were $6.9 million, $7.4 million, and $3.0 million, respectively.
Modine continued its strong safety performance in fiscal 2012 with a global Recordable Incident Rate (“RIR”) of 1.56 representing a 21 percent year over year improvement and the lowest injury rate in the Company’s history. Four of the Company’s locations ended the year with no recordable injuries. Over the past several years, Modine has consistently out-performed the private industry RIR average which, by comparison, was 3.50 in 2010.
In fiscal 2012, Modine introduced and implemented a behavior-based safety program at its Original Equipment – North America segment and South America segment locations. Since a large percentage of injuries within the Company can be related to at-risk actions and are not associated with equipment guarding or other physical factors, the behavior based safety program was introduced to stress the importance of removing at-risk behaviors from the workplace. This program will be introduced in Europe and Asia in fiscal 2013 as a long-term component of the Company’s safety culture. It will compliment numerous preexisting safety policies and practices, and is expected to be a significant factor in driving continuous improvement in this area.
The Company employed 6,716 persons as of March 31, 2012.
Seasonal Nature of Business
The Company’s operating performance generally is not subject to a significant degree of seasonality as sales to OEMs are dependent upon the demand for new vehicles. Our Commercial Products segment does experience a degree of seasonality since the demand for HVAC products can be affected by heating and cooling seasons, weather patterns, construction, and other factors. Generally, sales volume within the Commercial Products segment is stronger in the second and third fiscal quarters, corresponding with demand for heating products.
Working Capital Items
The Company manufactures products for the original equipment segments on an as-ordered basis, which makes large inventories of such products unnecessary. In addition, the Company does not experience a significant amount of returned products. In the Commercial Products segment, the Company maintains varying levels of finished goods inventory due to certain sales programs. In these areas, the industry and the Company generally make use of extended terms of payment for customers on a limited basis.
We make available free of charge through our website, www.modine.com (Investor Relations link), our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, other Securities Exchange Act reports and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our reports are also available free of charge on the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov. Also available free of charge on our website (Investor Relations link) are the following corporate governance documents:
All of the reports and corporate governance documents referred to above and other materials relating to corporate governance may also be obtained without charge by contacting Corporate Secretary, Modine Manufacturing Company, 1500 DeKoven Avenue, Racine, Wisconsin 53403-2552. We do not intend to incorporate our internet website and the information contained therein or incorporated therein into this annual report on Form 10-K.
Our business involves risks. The following information about these risks should be considered carefully together with the other information contained in this report. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks not currently known or deemed immaterial as of the date of this report may also result in adverse results for our business.
Complexities of Global Presence
We are subject to risks related to our international operations.
We operate on five continents, in 15 countries. For fiscal 2012, approximately 58 percent of our sales were from international operations. Numerous risks and uncertainties affect our international operations. These risks and uncertainties include political and economic instability, compliance with existing and future laws, regulations and policies, including those related to tariffs, investments, taxation, trade controls, employment regulations and repatriation of earnings. Compliance with multiple and potentially conflicting laws and regulations of various countries is burdensome and expensive.
As discussed in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company has been improperly applying value added tax (VAT) for a number of complex cross-border transactions throughout our Original Equipment – Europe segment. Based upon our investigation, we currently estimate that the unpaid VAT, interest and penalties resulting from the misapplication of VAT to be approximately $10.7 million. We cannot determine, with certainty, whether we will be subject to VAT, estimated interest and penalties in excess of our current, good faith estimate.
Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Inherent limitations of internal controls impacting financial statements.
Our internal control over financial reporting and our operating internal controls may not prevent or detect misstatements because of inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement accuracy.
Management identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting during fiscal 2012. Effective internal control is necessary for appropriate financial reporting. As disclosed in Item 9A. “Control and Procedures,” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, management identified a material weakness in the misapplication of VAT within the Original Equipment – Europe segment. This material weaknesses resulted in the revision of prior period financial statements as disclosed in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. However, a risk exists that additional financial reporting errors could occur if we fail to remediate this material weakness or if we experience other internal control deficiencies. If that were to happen it could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Challenges of Product Launches
We are in the midst of launching a significant number of new programs at our facilities across the world and the success of these launches is critical to our business.
We design technologically advanced products and the processes required to bring these products into production can be difficult and complex. The Company commits significant time and financial resources to ensure the successful launch of new products and programs. The difficulty of managing the product launch process is significantly higher because we are launching many new products and programs in each segment of the Company. Due to this launch activity, we need to appropriately deploy our operational and administrative resources to take advantage of this increase in our business. If we do not successfully launch the products and programs, we may lose market share and damage relationships with our customers, which could negatively affect our business.
Environmental, Health and Safety Regulations
We could be adversely impacted by the costs of environmental, health and safety regulations.
Our operations are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing, among other things, emissions to air, discharge to waters and the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste and other materials. The operation of our manufacturing facilities entails risks in these areas, however, and there can be no assurance that we will not incur material costs or liabilities relating to such matters. Our financial responsibility to clean up contaminated property may extend to previously owned or used property, properties owned by unrelated companies, as well as properties that we currently own and use, regardless of whether the contamination is attributable to prior owners. In addition, potentially significant expenditures could be required in order to comply with evolving environmental, health and safety laws, regulations or other pertinent requirements that may be adopted or imposed in the future.
We are currently working with environmental consultants to remediate groundwater contamination at our facility in Brail that has, over a period of years, migrated to neighboring properties and subsurface contamination at our former manufacturing facility in the Netherlands. Remediation of these contaminations could result in potentially significant expenditures. See Note 25 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
We are also expanding our business in China and India where environmental, health and safety regulations are in their infancy. As a result, we cannot determine how these laws will be implemented and the impact of such regulation on the Company.
We may be unable to complete and successfully implement our European restructuring plans.
We plan to implement a restructuring program within our Original Equipment – Europe segment beginning in fiscal 2013, that we anticipate will take 18-24 months to complete. Successful implementation of these initiatives is critical to our future competitiveness and our ability to improve our profitability within that segment and across Modine as a whole.
Reliance Upon Technology Advantage
If we cannot differentiate ourselves from our competitors with our technology, our products may become commodities and our sales and earnings would be adversely affected.
If we were to compete only on cost, our sales would decline substantially. Price, quality, delivery, technological innovation and application engineering development are the primary elements of competition. If we fail to keep pace with technological changes or to provide high quality products and services, we may experience price erosion, lower revenues and margins. If we cannot differentiate ourselves from our competitors with our technology or cannot keep pace with technological changes, our products may become commodities which could result price erosion, lower sales and margins.
Developments or assertions by or against the Company relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
The Company owns significant intellectual property, including a large number of patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, and is involved in numerous licensing arrangements. The Company’s intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets we serve. Developments or assertions by or against the Company relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect the business. Significant technological developments by others also could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We may incur material losses and costs as a result of product liability and warranty claims and litigation.
We are exposed to warranty and product liability claims in the event that our products fail to perform as expected, and we may be required to participate in a recall or other field campaign of such products. Many of our OEM customers have extended warranty protection for their vehicles, putting pressure on the supply base to extend warranty coverage as well. Historically, we have experienced relatively low warranty charges from our customers due to our contractual arrangements and the quality, reliability and durability of our products. If our customers demand higher warranty-related cost recoveries, or if our products fail to perform as expected, it could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations or financial condition. We are also involved in various legal proceedings from time to time incidental to our business. If any such proceeding has a negative result, it could adversely affect our business and/or results of operations.
Information Technology Systems
We may be adversely affected by any disruption in our information technology systems.
Our operations are dependent upon our information technology systems, which encompass all of our major business functions. A substantial disruption in our information technology systems for any prolonged time period could result in delays in receiving inventory and supplies or filling customer orders and adversely affect our customer service and relationships. Our systems might be damaged or interrupted by natural or man-made events (caused by us, by our service providers or others) or by computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions affecting the internet. Such delays, problems or costs could have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Customer and Supplier Matters
Our OEM business, which accounts for approximately 85 percent of our business currently, is dependent upon the health of the markets we serve.
We continue to be highly susceptible to downward trends in the markets we serve because our customers’ sales and production levels are affected by general economic conditions, including access to credit, the price of fuel, employment levels and trends, interest rates, labor relations issues, regulatory requirements, trade agreements and other factors. Any significant decline in production levels for current and future customers could result in long-lived asset impairment charges and would reduce our sales and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
If we were to lose business with a major OEM customer, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.
Deterioration of a business relationship with a major OEM customer could cause the Company’s revenue and profitability to suffer. We principally compete for new business both at the beginning of the development of new models and upon the redesign of models by our major customers. New model development generally begins two to five years prior to the marketing of such models to the public. The failure to obtain new business on new models or to retain or increase business on redesigned existing models could adversely affect our business and financial results. In addition, as a result of the relatively long lead times required for many of our complex components, it may be difficult in the short-term for us to obtain new sales to replace any unexpected decline in the sales of existing products. We may incur significant expense in preparing to meet anticipated customer requirements that may not be recovered. The loss of a major OEM customer, the loss of business with respect to one or more of the vehicle models that use our products, or a significant decline in the production levels of such vehicles could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our OEM customers continually seek price reductions from us. These price reductions adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
A challenge that we and other suppliers to vehicular OEMs face is continued price reduction pressure from our customers. Downward pricing pressure has been a characteristic of the automotive industry and is migrating to all of our vehicular OEM markets. Virtually all such OEMs impose aggressive price reduction initiatives upon their suppliers, and we expect such actions to continue in the future. In the face of lower prices to customers, the Company must reduce its operating costs in order to maintain profitability. The Company has taken and continues to take steps to reduce its operating costs to offset customer price reductions; however, price reductions are adversely affecting our profit margins and are expected to do so in the future. If the Company is unable to offset customer price reductions through improved operating efficiencies, new manufacturing processes, sourcing alternatives, technology enhancements and other cost reduction initiatives, or if we are unable to avoid price reductions from our customers, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Fluctuations in costs of materials (including steel, copper, aluminum, nickel, other raw materials and energy) put significant pressure on our results of operations.
The rising cost of materials has a significant effect on our results of operations, and on those of others in our industry. We have sought to alleviate the impact of increasing costs by including material pass-through provisions in our contracts with our customers. Under these arrangements, the Company can pass material cost increases and decreases to its customers. However, where these pass-through arrangements are utilized, there is a time lag between the time of the material increase or decrease and the time of the pass-through. This time lag can range between three months and one year. To further mitigate the Company’s exposure to fluctuating material prices, we enter into forward contracts from time to time to hedge a portion of our forecasted aluminum and copper purchases. However, the hedges may only partially offset increases in material costs, and significant increases could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
The continual pressure to absorb costs adversely affects our profitability.
We continue to be pressured to absorb costs related to product design, engineering and tooling, as well as other items previously paid for directly by OEMs. OEM customers request that we pay for design, engineering and tooling costs that are incurred prior to the start of production and recover these costs through amortization in the piece price of the applicable component. Some of these costs cannot be capitalized, which adversely affects our profitability until the programs for which they have been incurred are launched. If a given program is not launched or is launched with significantly lower volumes than planned, we may not be able to recover the design, engineering and tooling costs from our customers, further adversely affecting our profitability.
The Company could be adversely affected if we experience shortages of components or materials from our suppliers.
In an effort to manage and reduce the cost of purchased goods and services, the Company, like many suppliers and customers, has been consolidating its supply base. As a result, the Company is dependent upon limited sources of supply for certain components used in the manufacture of our products. The Company selects its suppliers based on total value (including price, delivery and quality), taking into consideration their production capacities, financial condition and ability to meet demand. In some cases, it can take several months or longer to find a supplier due to qualification requirements. However, there can be no assurance that strong demand, capacity limitations or other problems experienced by the Company’s suppliers will not result in occasional shortages or delays in their supply of product to us. If we were to experience a significant or prolonged shortage of critical components or materials from any of our suppliers and could not procure the components or materials from other sources, the Company would be unable to meet its production schedules for some of its key products and would miss product delivery dates, which would adversely affect our sales, margins and customer relations.
Exposure to Foreign Currencies
As a global company, we are subject to currency fluctuations, and any significant movement between the U.S. dollar, the euro, and Brazilian real, in particular, could have an adverse effect on our profitability.
Although our financial results are reported in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our sales and operating costs are realized in euros, the Brazilian real and other currencies. Our profitability is affected by movements of the U.S. dollar against the euro, the real and other currencies in which we generate revenues and incur expenses. To the extent that we are unable to match revenues received in foreign currencies with costs paid in the same currency, exchange rate fluctuations in any such currency could have an adverse effect on our financial results. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported sales and earnings from our international operations will be reduced because the applicable local currency will be translated into fewer U.S. dollars. Significant long-term fluctuations in relative currency values, in particular a significant change in the relative values of the U.S. dollar, euro or real, could have an adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition.
Liquidity and Access to Cash
Recent market trends and regulatory requirements may require additional funding for our pension plans.
The Company has several non-contributory defined benefit pension plans that cover most of its domestic employees hired on or before December 31, 2003. The funding policy for these plans is to contribute annually, at a minimum, the amount necessary on an actuarial basis to provide for benefits in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. The domestic plans have an unfunded balance of $74.8 million. During fiscal 2013, we anticipate making a funding contribution of $22.4 million related to these domestic plans. If significant additional funding contributions are necessary, this could have an adverse impact on the Company’s liquidity position.
We operate manufacturing facilities in the United States and certain foreign countries. The Company's world headquarters, including general offices, and laboratory, experimental and tooling facilities are maintained in Racine, Wisconsin. Additional technical support functions are located in Bonlanden, Germany.
The following table sets forth information regarding our principal properties by business segment as of March 31, 2012. Properties with less than 20,000 square feet of building space have been omitted from this table.
We consider our plants and equipment to be well maintained and suitable for their purposes. We review our manufacturing capacity periodically and make the determination as to our need to expand or, conversely, rationalize our facilities as necessary to meet changing market conditions and the Company needs.
The information required hereunder is incorporated by reference from Note 25 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following sets forth the name, age, recent business experience and certain other information relative to each executive officer of the Company.
Executive Officer positions are designated in Modine's Bylaws and the persons holding these positions are elected annually by the Board generally at its first meeting after the annual meeting of shareholders in July of each year. In addition, the Officer Nomination and Compensation Committee of the Board may recommend and the Board of Directors approve promotions and other actions with regard to officers at any time during the fiscal year.
There are no family relationships among the executive officers and directors. All of the executive officers of Modine have been employed by Modine in various capacities during the last five years.
There are no arrangements or understandings between any of the above officers and any other person pursuant to which he or she was elected an officer of Modine.
The Company's common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The Company's trading symbol is "MOD." The table below shows the range of high and low sales prices for the Company's common stock for fiscal 2012 and 2011. As of March 31, 2012, shareholders of record numbered 2,981.
The Company is permitted under its debt agreements to pay dividends on its common stock subject to an aggregate amount based on the calculation of debt covenants, as further described under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. The Company currently does not intend to pay dividends in fiscal 2013.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The following describes the Company’s purchases of common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012:
The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total return on the Company’s common stock with similar returns on the Russell 2000 Index and the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) MidCap 400 Industrials Index. The graph assumes a $100 investment and reinvestment of dividends.
The following selected financial data has been presented on a continuing operations basis, and excludes the discontinued operating results of the South Korean-based HVAC business, which was sold during fiscal 2010 and the Electronics Cooling business, which was sold during fiscal 2009. In addition, the following includes revisions to fiscal 2011 and prior years for errors identified relating to prior periods. See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on the revisions, and the impact of those revisions on fiscal 2011 and 2010 results.
The following factors impact the comparability of the selected financial data presented above:
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations decreased $3.3 million and basic and diluted earnings from continuing operations per share decreased $0.10.
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations decreased $1.1 million and basic and diluted earnings from continuing operations per share decreased $0.02.
Overview and Strategic Plan
Founded in 1916, Modine Manufacturing Company is a worldwide leader in thermal management systems and components, bringing heating and cooling technology and solutions to diversified global markets. We operate on five continents, in 15 countries, and with approximately 6,700 employees worldwide.
Our products are in light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, commercial heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, refrigeration systems and off-highway and industrial equipment. Our broad product offerings include heat transfer modules and packages, radiators, oil coolers, charge air coolers, vehicular air conditioning, building HVAC equipment, and EGR coolers.
Our goal is to grow profitably as a leading global provider of thermal management technology to a broad range of niche on-highway, off-highway, industrial and building HVAC end markets. We expect to achieve this goal over the long-term through both organic growth and selective acquisitions. We focus on:
Development of New Products and Technologies
Our ability to develop new products and technologies for current and potential customers and for new and emerging markets is one of our competitive strengths. We own two global, state-of-the-art technology centers, dedicated to the development and testing of products and technologies. The centers are located in Racine, Wisconsin in the U.S., and in Bonlanden, Germany. Our reputation for providing high quality products and technologies has been a Company strength valued by customers, and has led to a history with relatively few product warranty issues. In fiscal 2012, we spent $70.2 million (representing approximately 37 percent of selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses) on our product and technology research and development efforts.
We continue to benefit from relationships with customers that recognize the value of having us participate directly in product design, development and validation. This has resulted and should continue to result in strong, longer-term customer relationships with companies that value partnerships with their suppliers. In the past several years, our product lines have been under price pressure from increased global competition, primarily from Asia and other low cost areas. At the same time, many of our products containing higher technology have helped us better manage demands from customers for lower prices. Many of our technologies are proprietary, difficult to replicate and patent protected. We have been granted and/or acquired more than 2,000 patents on our technologies and work diligently to protect our intellectual property.
Strategic Planning and Corporate Development
We employ both short-term (one year) and longer-term (five-to-seven year) strategic planning processes, enabling us to continually assess our opportunities, competitive threats, and economic market challenges.
We focus on strengthening our competitive position through strategic, global business development activities. We continuously look for and take advantage of opportunities to advance our position as a global leader, by expanding our geographic footprint and by expanding into new end markets and product areas – all with a focus on thermal management technologies. This process allows us to identify product gaps in the marketplace, develop new products and make additional investments to fill those gaps. An example of our recent success from this process has been our organic expansion activities into niche HVAC and refrigeration markets in our Commercial Products segment.
Operational and Financial Discipline
We operate in an increasingly competitive global marketplace; therefore, we must manage our business with a disciplined focus on increasing productivity and reducing waste. The competitiveness of the global market place requires us to move toward a greater manufacturing scale in order to create a more competitive cost base. As costs for materials and purchased parts rise from time to time due to global increases in the commodity markets, we seek low-cost country sourcing when appropriate and enter into contracts with some of our customers that provide for these rising costs to be passed through to them on a lag basis.
We follow a rigorous financial process for investment and returns, intended to enable increased profitability and cash flows over the long-term. Particular emphasis is given to working capital improvement and prioritization of capital for investment and disposals, – driving past and current improvement in global cash and debt management and access to sufficient credit.
Our executive management incentive compensation (annual cash incentive) plan for fiscal 2012 was based on a return on average capital employed (ROACE) and improvement in economic profit, driving our singular focus on alignment of management interests with shareholders’ interests in our capital allocation and asset management decisions. In addition, we maintain a long-term incentive compensation plan for officers and certain key employees that is used to attract, retain and motivate key employees who directly impact the long-term performance of the Company. The plan initiated in fiscal 2012 is comprised of stock options, retention restricted stock awards and performance stock awards, which are based on a three year average ROACE and a target improvement in economic profit at the end of the three year period (fiscal 2014), with each weighted at 50 percent.
Consolidated Market Conditions and Trends
During fiscal 2012, the Company reported revenues from continuing operations of $1.58 billion, a 9 percent increase from $1.45 billion in fiscal 2011. The Company’s end markets showed improvement from the deep recession experienced during 2009 and 2010. This improvement was seen across most of Modine’s end markets, including the commercial vehicle and off-highway markets. The commercial HVAC markets showed modest market demand growth. The Company’s business volumes improved in fiscal 2012 and are close to the pre-recessionary annual sales of $1.6 billion reported in fiscal 2008.
The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) marketplace is extremely competitive and our customers demand that we continue to provide high quality products as well as annual price decreases. From time to time, we also experience volatility in foreign currency exchange rates and in the costs of our purchased parts and raw materials – particularly aluminum, copper, steel, and stainless steel (nickel). The combination of these factors impacts our profitability.
Segment Information – Strategy, Market Conditions and Trends
Each of our business segments is managed at the vice president or managing director level with separate financial results reviewed by our chief operating decision makers. These results are used to evaluate the performance of each business segment, and make decisions on the allocation of resources among our various businesses. Our chief operating decision makers evaluate segment performance with an emphasis on gross margin, and secondarily on operating income of each segment, which includes certain allocations of Corporate SG&A expenses.
Original Equipment – Europe (38 percent of fiscal 2012 revenues)
Our European operation is primarily engaged in providing powertrain and engine cooling systems, as well as vehicular climate control components to various end markets, including automotive, heavy duty and industrial, commercial vehicle, bus and off-highway OEMs. These systems include cooling modules, radiators, charge air coolers, oil cooling products, EGR products, retarder and transmission cooling components and HVAC condensers.
Fiscal 2012 sales increased primarily in the commercial vehicle, off-highway and industrial markets. Gross margin as a percentage of sales was relatively consistent with the prior year due to new program ramp up inefficiencies and higher material costs.
The macro European economy is softening with low to stagnant growth. We maintain our focus on continuous improvement by the deployment of the Modine Operating System, low-cost country sourcing and cost containment. The asset base is large and we are seeing lower returns on that asset base. Our goal is to improve the return on assets by taking restructuring actions similar to those that were completed in the Original Equipment - North America segment, which we expect to commence in fiscal 2013. Production volumes are increasing in our facilities within Hungary. We expect our European business to benefit from our various technology initiatives, which allow us to distinguish ourselves from competitors in the eyes of our customers. We also expect this segment to continue to gain market share in the commercial vehicle and off-highway segments as we focus on these strategically important markets and deemphasize our focus on automotive modules.
The business is negatively impacted by rising material prices, at least until these rising prices are offset by material pass-through agreements on a time lag. We also expect to continue to see price reduction demands from our customers along with continuous and ongoing increased customer service expectations and competition from low-cost country competitors.
At the same time, the business is strongly positioned with a solid customer reputation for technology, service and program management, and has been successful in winning additional program awards, particularly in the commercial vehicle market, that are scheduled to begin production in the calendar 2012 time frame.
Original Equipment – North America (38 percent of fiscal 2012 revenues)
Our Original Equipment – North America segment includes products and technologies that are found on vehicles made for the on-highway markets, commercial vehicle OEMs and automotive components, including Class 3-8 trucks, school buses, transit buses, motor homes, motor coaches and light trucks. It also serves the off-highway markets including agricultural, construction and industrial products (e.g. lift trucks, compressors and power generation).
Continued strength of the commercial vehicle, agriculture and construction markets resulted in strong revenue and operational results in fiscal 2012. The restructuring plan for the segment was completed with the closure of the Camdenton, Missouri facility. The manufacturing footprint consolidation and fixed cost reduction efforts over the past five years continued to provide operating leverage as volumes remained firm. The North American business will continue to focus on growing in the markets where its products and manufacturing footprint create a competitive advantage.
The overall strategy for this business segment includes the following:
South America (11 percent of fiscal 2012 revenues)
Our South America segment provides heat exchange products to a variety of markets in the domestic Brazilian market as well as for export to North America and Europe. This business provides products to the on-highway commercial vehicle markets, off-highway markets, including construction and agricultural applications, automotive OEMs and industrial applications, primarily for power generation systems. This business also provides products to the Brazilian, North American and European aftermarkets for both automotive and commercial applications. We manufacture radiators, charge-air-coolers, oil coolers, auxiliary coolers (transmission, hydraulic, and power steering), engine cooling modules and HVAC system modules.
We experienced a softening in sales within this segment after December 2011 due to the pre-buy of commercial vehicles ahead of the January 1, 2012 change in emissions standards.
There is a continued trend in Brazil with customers moving away from copper-based products and shifting to aluminum. We are transitioning our manufacturing facility to ensure we have the necessary capability to supply our current and future customers as they transition to aluminum-based products. Even with the transition, this segment generated acceptable operating returns. Growth drivers in this region include the development of additional agricultural land and infrastructure improvements in Brazil as well as the increasing regulatory focus on energy efficiency and environmental emissions.
Commercial Products (9 percent of fiscal 2012 revenues)
Our Commercial Products business manufactures and distributes a variety of HVAC products, primarily for commercial building and related applications in North America, Europe, Asia and South Africa. We sell our heating and cooling products through various channels to consulting contractors, engineers, and building owners for applications such as warehouses, repair garages, greenhouses, residential garages, schools, computer rooms, manufacturing facilities, banks, pharmaceutical companies, stadiums and retail stores.
Our heating products include gas, electric, oil and hydronic unit heaters, low intensity infrared, and large roof-mounted direct and indirect fired makeup air units. Our cooling products include single packaged vertical units and unit ventilators used in school room applications, precision air conditioning units, air- and water-cooled chillers, ceiling cassettes, and roof top packaged ventilation units used in a variety of commercial building applications. We have recently introduced a number of new products, including AtherionTM, a packaged roof-top ventilation system, which we began shipping in fiscal 2012.
Commercial Products is our highest returning business and we have experienced above market growth over the past few years. We intend to continue to invest in this business in order to capitalize on its higher returns. We will pursue both organic and inorganic growth including the recently announced plans to acquire Geofinity Manufacturing Inc. (Geofinity). This acquisition will provide a full line of innovative geothermal heat pumps in both water-to-water and water-to-air models. Geofinity will extend Modine’s current geothermal heat pump product range beyond Airedale-branded school-only applications to a wider market, one which has grown at a rate of nearly 15 percent annually. We expect that this acquisition will help us to expand our offerings to the growing commercial HVAC business while extending our focus on the residential market.
Revenues improved from the prior year due to modest market demand growth and increased market share in certain segments. Gross margins remained relatively flat from prior year as a percentage of sales despite significant commodity cost increases. We offset these cost increases with price increases and through improved manufacturing productivity. Economic conditions, such as demand for new commercial construction, growth in data centers, and school renovations, as well as higher efficiency demands are growth drivers for the heating and cooling products.
Original Equipment – Asia (4 percent of fiscal 2012 revenues)
Our Asian operation is primarily engaged in providing powertrain cooling systems and engine products to customers in commercial vehicle and off-highway markets. Modine technology, performance, quality and reputation enabled us to win new engine products business in Asia. Emissions standards in China and India lag behind Europe and North America. As a result, some local on- and off-highway powertrain cooling customers focus on price versus technology. However, we are seeing a shift in these markets towards higher performing, durable products, which may provide us additional powertrain cooling opportunities in the future.
Many components that we supply in this region become part of a module, which increases the amount of our content on an engine. Our strategy in this business segment is to control and reduce costs, secure new business, further diversify our product offering and customer base, and continue to focus on building manufacturing capabilities in China and India to serve the region in a cost competitive manner. Our manufacturing facility in Chennai, India is currently producing low volumes of products and our manufacturing facility in Changzhou, China is continuing to ramp up production. At the same time, we are transforming our light assembly facility in Shanghai, China into an engine products focused manufacturing facility and expect the transformation to be completed during fiscal 2013. We are scheduled to begin production of several new products from these three facilities during fiscal 2013.
Our objective is to accelerate growth and achieve profitability in this segment. We are positioned to take on new programs and are looking to increase the utilization of the manufacturing facilities.
In fiscal 2013 we expect weaker economic conditions in several key markets, including Europe, South America, and Asia. Also, we expect approximately $80 million of planned program reductions due to the wind down of our BMW business in Europe and Asia, along with certain automotive and military programs winding down in North America. These factors, as well as, unfavorable foreign exchange impacts result in an outlook of a 5 to 10 percent year-over-year decrease in net sales compared with our fiscal 2012 results. We plan to begin to implement a restructuring program designed to align the cost structure and manufacturing base in Europe with a strategic focus on the commercial vehicle market. We expect the impact of the sales volume declines in fiscal 2013 will result in operating income in a range of 3.5 to 4.0 percent of sales, excluding the impact of the European restructuring. Further, we expect diluted earnings per share to be in the range of $0.60 to $0.70, excluding the impact of the European restructuring.
Consolidated Results of Operations - Continuing Operations
In fiscal 2012, we achieved a ROACE of 9.5 percent, which represents a substantial improvement from the 6.3 percent ROACE in fiscal 2011 and from the negative returns generated during the economic recession. Fiscal 2012 sales volumes improved as our end markets continued to recover from the economic recession. Fiscal 2011 sales volumes and profitability improved significantly from the prior year as our end markets showed strong recovery from the economic recession. Fiscal 2010 sales volumes were significantly lower as a result of the weakened global economy.
The following table presents consolidated results from continuing operations on a comparative basis for the years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010. The fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 results have been revised to reflect the correction of errors relating to these periods. See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
Year Ended March 31, 2012 Compared to Year Ended March 31, 2011:
Net sales increased $129 million, or 8.9 percent, to $1.58 billion in fiscal 2012 from $1.45 billion in fiscal 2011 driven by a 19 percent increase in medium/heavy duty truck sales for all markets and a 13 percent increase in agriculture and construction sales volume for all markets. During fiscal 2012, the U.S. dollar weakened in comparison to other foreign currencies, resulting in favorable foreign currency exchange rates, which improved net sales by $33 million.
Gross profit increased $25 million, or 10.8 percent, to $257 million in fiscal 2012 from $232 million in fiscal 2011, due primarily to the improved sales volumes, along with a $5 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Gross margin improved slightly from 16.0 percent in fiscal 2011 to 16.3 percent in fiscal 2012. The gross margin improvement is primarily attributable to better fixed cost absorption on the improved sales volumes.
SG&A expenses were flat at $189 million from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012, but decreased 110 basis points as a percentage of sales from 13.1 percent to 12.0 percent. The overall decrease in SG&A as a percentage of sales is in line with our stated goal of SG&A cost containment and a long-term target of 11 to 12 percent.
Interest expense decreased $22 million from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012 largely due to $20 million of costs related to the debt refinancing completed during the second quarter of fiscal 2011, including $16.6 million of prepayment penalties and $3.3 million of write-offs of unamortized financing costs.
Other expense of $7 million for fiscal 2012 represents an $11 million decline from other income of $4 million in fiscal 2011 due to $8 million of foreign currency exchange losses on inter-company loans and other obligations denominated in a foreign currency.
The provision for income taxes increased to $10 million in fiscal 2012 from $5 million in fiscal 2011. The increase in the provision for income taxes was primarily due to a $4 million versus $8 million development tax incentive credit in fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively, related to our operations in Hungary.
Year Ended March 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended March 31, 2010:
Net sales increased $285 million, or 24.5 percent, to $1.45 billion in fiscal 2011 from $1.16 billion in fiscal 2010 driven by overall sales volume improvements as the global economy recovered. In fiscal 2011 medium/heavy duty truck sales were up approximately 24 percent for all markets, agriculture and construction sales volumes were up over 55 percent for all markets, and light vehicle sales were up 17 percent. During fiscal 2011, the U.S. dollar strengthened in comparison to other foreign currencies, resulting in unfavorable foreign currency exchange rates, which negatively impacted net sales by $23 million.
Gross profit increased $60 million, or 34.9 percent, to $232 million in fiscal 2011 from $172 million in fiscal 2010, due primarily to the improved sales volumes and improved gross margin when compared with fiscal 2010. Gross margin improved from 14.8 percent in fiscal 2010 to 16.0 percent in fiscal 2011. The gross margin improvement was primarily attributable to better fixed cost absorption on the improved sales volumes, offset partially by higher commodity metals prices.
SG&A expenses increased $21 million, or 12.5 percent, to $189 million in fiscal 2011 from $168 million in fiscal 2010, but decreased 130 basis points as a percentage of sales from 14.4 percent to 13.1 percent. The overall increase in SG&A expenses was a reflection of our reinvestment in the business to support future growth, including higher employee benefits such as salary increases and increased headcount and higher engineering and development costs.
Long-lived asset impairment charges of $4 million were recorded in fiscal 2011, primarily related to a program cancellation in our Original Equipment – Europe and Original Equipment – Asia segments, assets no longer in use in the Original Equipment – Europe segment and on facilities held for sale due to the decline in the real estate market for commercial property in the Original Equipment – North America segment.
Interest expense increased $11 million from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011, largely due to $20 million of costs related to the debt refinancing completed during the second quarter of fiscal 2011, including $16.6 million of prepayment penalties and $3.3 million of write-offs of unamortized financing costs. These costs significantly exceeded approximately $4 million of costs incurred in fiscal 2010 related to the prepayment of debt.
Other income of $4 million for fiscal 2011 represents a $2 million decline from other income of $6 million in fiscal 2010 due to the sale of our 50 percent ownership of Anhui Jianghaui Mando Climate Control Co. Ltd during fiscal 2010. Fiscal 2011 other income consisted primarily of foreign currency transaction gains on inter-company loans denominated in foreign currencies and to a lesser extent interest income and equity in affiliate’s earnings.
The provision for income taxes decreased to $5 million in fiscal 2011 from $10 million in fiscal 2010. The decrease in the provision for income taxes was primarily due to an $8 million development tax incentive credit related to our operations in Hungary, which we were able to recognize during fiscal 2011 with the attainment of a minimum employment requirement. Partially offsetting this tax incentive was a provision for income taxes resulting from continued pre-tax earnings growth in certain of our foreign jurisdictions.
Segment Results of Operations
Net sales within the Original Equipment – Europe segment increased $78 million or 16.6 percent from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 based primarily on increased sales to the premium automotive and commercial vehicle markets as the markets began to recover, partially offset by a $36 million unfavorable impact due to foreign currency exchange rate changes. The $56 million improvement or 10.2 percent increase in net sales from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012 was based primarily on increased sales to commercial vehicle, agriculture and construction markets along with a $24 million favorable impact due to foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Gross margin improved 110 basis points to 13.8 percent from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 due to improved operating leverage on higher sales volumes, partially offset by the incremental costs of program launches. Gross margin improved slightly, 30 basis points to 14.1 percent from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012. The improvement was due to the leverage impact of higher sales volumes, partially offset by program launch inefficiencies and higher material costs.
SG&A expense increased by $9 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 as a result of higher engineering and development costs in fiscal 2011 largely due to the timing of reimbursements from customers and also the absence of employee furloughs that were in place during fiscal 2010. SG&A expenses remained relatively flat from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012, but decreased as a percent of sales. In fiscal 2011 a long-lived asset impairment charge of $2 million was recorded related to a program cancellation and for assets no longer in use, while in fiscal 2012 a loss on disposal of assets of $2 million was recorded.
Income from continuing operations of $28 million in fiscal 2011 was an improvement of $7 million from fiscal 2010, primarily due to increased sales volumes driving higher gross profit, partially offset by the increase in SG&A expenses. Income from operations improved further to $37 million in fiscal 2012 due primarily to the increased sales volumes driving the higher gross profit while SG&A expenses were relatively flat year over year.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, the Company determined that value added tax (VAT) had been improperly applied for numerous cross border transactions throughout the segment. The previously reported results were revised to record an additional $3 million and $1 million of expense in fiscal 2010 and fiscal 2011, respectively. It was also determined that the Europe segment had been incorrectly classifying an annual Hungary business tax for which the previously reported results were also revised. See Note 1 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the revisions to prior period financial statements. The Company determined it did not have effective controls to ensure the proper calculation and/or application of VAT on various cross border transactions. The Europe segment is implementing a number of remediation plans to address VAT deficiency, including the development of policies for internal procedures, implementing periodic audits to evaluate compliance and system changes to aid in the application of VAT. See Item 9A. Controls Procedures, for further discussion of the resulting material weakness and the Company’s remediation plan.
Net sales within the Original Equipment – North America segment increased $119 million, or 26.2 percent, from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011, and increased $29 million, or 5.1 percent, from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012. The fiscal 2011 increase was primarily due to the improvement of the North American commercial vehicle, agriculture and construction markets, while the sales increase in fiscal 2012 is mostly due to continued improvement in the North American commercial vehicle market.
Gross margin increased from 12.5 percent in fiscal 2010 to 13.8 percent in fiscal 2011, and further improved to 14.9 percent in fiscal 2012. The improved gross margin from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 was primarily driven by the increase in sales volumes and the resulting operating leverage achieved through prior year restructuring and consolidation efforts, partially off-set by negative impacts from materials pricing and pension costs. The gross margin improvement from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012 was a result of improved operating leverage on higher volumes and plant performance efficiencies.
SG&A expenses were relatively flat from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011, and decreased $5 million in fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2011 there was an increase due to pension costs of $3 million primarily related to a pension curtailment charge and reduced customer reimbursement on engineering and development costs. This was offset by reductions in warranty and depreciation, along with a reduction in asset impairment charges of $4 million from fiscal 2010. The decrease within SG&A in fiscal 2012 is due to a $2 million reversal of a trade compliance liability that was no longer required, a reduction in pension costs and lower management compensation expenses.
Income from continuing operations improved $21 million in fiscal 2011 to $32 million primarily on the strengthening of the North America segment core markets, gross margin improvements and reduced impairment charges, partially offset by increased SG&A expenses. In fiscal 2012 income from continuing operations improved $16 million to $48 million due to gross margin improvements from higher sales volumes and plant performance efficiencies, along with reduced SG&A costs.
During fiscal 2012, the Company implemented certain management reporting changes that resulted in the Nuevo Laredo, Mexico facility being added to the Original Equipment – North America segment. The previously reported results for the Original Equipment – North America segment have been retrospectively adjusted for comparative purposes. The previously reported results have also been revised for additional past duties owed. See Note 1 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the revisions to prior period financial statements.
Net sales within the Commercial Products segment increased $3 million, or 2.4 percent, from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011, and increased $16 million, or 12.7 percent in fiscal 2012. The fiscal 2011 increase reflected a slight improvement in the market share from increased product offerings and improved distribution. The fiscal 2012 improvement was due to increased sales volumes of cooling and heating products and a $2 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Gross margin increased from 29.4 percent in fiscal 2010 to 31.1 percent in fiscal 2011, and declined to 29.9 percent in fiscal 2012. The improvement from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 was due to pricing and productivity improvements. The decrease in gross margin from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012 was primarily due to changes in product mix and higher material costs.
SG&A expenses increased $2 million from fiscal 2010 to $26 million in fiscal 2011, and increased slightly from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012. The increase in fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2012 was the result of planned spending increases for new product development and expanded marketing efforts.
Income from continuing operations increased slightly from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2012. The slight increase in fiscal 2011 operating income was due to improved gross margin, partially offset by increased SG&A costs. The slight increase in income from continuing operations in fiscal 2012 was due to increased sales volumes, partially offset by higher material and SG&A costs. We anticipate that the additional investment in resources will result in incremental opportunities in this segment over the next several years.
During fiscal 2012, the Company implemented certain management reporting changes that resulted in the Nuevo Laredo, Mexico facility being removed from the Commercial Product segment. The previously reported results for the Commercial Products segment have been retrospectively adjusted for comparative purposes.
Net sales increased $41 million in fiscal 2011 as sales volumes recovered from the economic downturn in the Brazilian commercial vehicle and agriculture markets as well as within the Brazilian aftermarket business. In addition, net sales were positively impacted by $12 million of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Net sales increased $17 million to $176 million in fiscal 2012 due to increased sales volumes within the commercial vehicle market, as a result of the pre-buy ahead of the calendar 2012 change in emissions standards. In addition, sales were positively impacted by volume increases in the off-highway market and aftermarket business, as well as a $4 million favorable impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Gross margin remained relatively flat from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 and decreased 2.1 percent from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2012. Gross margin decreased from 19.7 percent in fiscal 2011 to 17.6 percent in fiscal 2012 due to higher commodity costs year over year, additional costs associated with the transition from copper to aluminum-based products and the negative foreign currency impact on export and aftermarket sales sold in U.S. dollars.
SG&A expenses increased from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2011, SG&A expenses increased $3 million primarily as a result of reinvestment in the business, including higher employee benefits with increased headcount and salary increases, and a $1.7 million environmental cleanup and remediation charge as a result of work performed with environmental consultants. SG&A expenses increased $3 million in fiscal 2012 as a result of personnel matters, a $1 million environmental remediation charge and higher freight costs.
Income from continuing operations increased $5 million from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 primarily due to the increased volumes, slightly offset by higher SG&A expenses, and decreased $3 million to $10 million in fiscal 2012 from the lower gross margin and increased SG&A costs.
The Original Equipment – Asia segment is still in a growth phase and is currently launching numerous programs. Net sales within this segment increased $32 million in fiscal 2011 compared with fiscal 2010 and increased another $20 million in fiscal 2012. The increase in sales is attributed to a growing presence in the region and the continued launch activities and ramp-up of production.
In fiscal 2011, gross margin improved to 8.2 percent and in fiscal 2012 improved to 9.4 percent. The gross margin improvement is attributable to volume increases resulting in better fixed cost absorption.
SG&A expenses increased $3 million in fiscal 2011 and increased $2 million in fiscal 2012 as the Company is investing for continued growth in this region.
Loss from continuing operations improved to $3 million in fiscal 2011 and had another slight improvement to $2 million in fiscal 2012 as volumes and gross margin improves and volumes approach breakeven levels.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flow from operating activities and borrowings under lines of credit provided by banks in the United States and abroad. See Note 16 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our debt agreements.
Our debt agreements require us to maintain compliance with various covenants. The Company is subject to an adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) to interest expense (interest expense coverage ratio) covenant and a debt to adjusted EBITDA (leverage ratio) covenant. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings from continuing operations before interest expense and provision for income taxes, adjusted to exclude unusual, non-recurring or extraordinary non-cash charges and up to $40.0 million of cash restructuring and repositioning charges, not to exceed $20.0 million in any fiscal year for all times after December 31, 2011, and further adjusted to add back depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA does not represent, and should not be considered, an alternative to earnings from continuing operations as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), and our calculation may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
The Company is required to maintain the interest expense coverage ratio and leverage ratio covenants based on the following:
Our adjusted EBITDA for the four consecutive quarters ended March 31, 2012 was $124.8 million. The following table presents a calculation of adjusted EBITDA:
(dollars in thousands)
(dollars in thousands)
Our interest expense coverage ratio for the four fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2012 was 9.75, which exceeded the minimum requirement of 3.00. The following table presents a calculation of our interest expense coverage ratio:
Our leverage ratio for the four fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2012 was 1.53, which was below the maximum allowed ratio of 3.25. The following table presents a calculation of our leverage ratio:
We expect to remain in compliance with the interest expense coverage ratio covenant and leverage ratio covenant during fiscal 2013 and beyond.
At March 31, 2012, we had capital expenditure commitments of $14.7 million. Significant commitments include tooling and equipment expenditures for new and renewal platforms with new and current customers in Europe and North America as well as new program launches in Asia.
Outstanding indebtedness increased $16.6 million to $164.3 million at March 31, 2012 from the March 31, 2011 balance of $147.7 million, primarily to fund working capital and growth in Asia. Our cash balance of $31.4 million at March 31, 2012 is $1.5 million lower than the $32.9 million balance at March 31, 2011.
We believe that our internally generated operating cash flows, working capital management efforts and existing cash balances, together with access to available external borrowings, will be sufficient to satisfy future operating costs and capital expenditures.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Interest for the revolving credit facility is calculated using a weighted average interest rate of 2.24 percent. Interest for the 6.83 percent Secured Series A Senior Notes maturing on August 12, 2020 was calculated using the contractual interest rate of 6.83 percent.
The capital expenditure commitments consist primarily of tooling and equipment expenditures for new and renewal platforms with new and current customers on a global basis.
Our gross liabilities for uncertain tax positions and pension obligations were $3.3 million and $95.2 million, respectively, as of March 31, 2012. We are unable to determine the ultimate timing of these liabilities and have therefore excluded these amounts from the contractual obligations table above.
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2012 was $45.8 million, an increase of $25.0 million from the prior year of $20.8 million, driven by the absence of a pre-payment penalty on senior notes in fiscal 2012 and a $6.4 million reduction in contributions to our U.S. pension plan assets versus the prior year.
Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2011 was $20.8 million, a $41.1 million decrease from the prior year of $61.9 million, driven by a $17.9 million contribution to our U.S. pension plans, a $16.6 million prepayment penalty related to the pay-off of our then outstanding senior notes in the second quarter of fiscal 2011 and an investment in working capital balances. The most significant change in operating assets and liabilities was a $43.0 million increase in accounts receivable based on an increase in net sales of $72.0 million for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011 as compared to the same quarter of fiscal 2010. This was partially offset by a $30.0 million increase in accounts payable.
Capital expenditures were $64.4 million for fiscal 2012, $9.3 million higher than the prior year. The primary spending occurred in the Original Equipment – Europe segment, which totaled $29.8 million, the Original Equipment – North America segment, which totaled $15.4 million and the Original Equipment – Asia segment, which totaled $12.5 million. Capital spending in fiscal 2012 included tooling and equipment purchases in conjunction with new global program launches with new and current customers in Europe, Asia and North America.
Capital expenditures were $55.1 million for fiscal 2011, which was $5.2 million lower than the prior year. The primary spending occurred in the Original Equipment – Europe segment, which totaled $25.0 million, the Original Equipment – North America segment, which totaled $11.3 million and the Original Equipment – Asia segment, which totaled $10.8 million. Capital spending in fiscal 2011 included tooling and equipment purchases in conjunction with new global program launches with new and current customers in Europe, Asia and North America.
Capital expenditures were $60.3 million for fiscal 2010. The primary spending occurred in the Original Equipment – Europe segment, which totaled $36.6 million, the Original Equipment – North America segment, which totaled $14.3 million and the Original Equipment – Asia segment, which accounted for $8.0 million in capital spending. Capital spending in fiscal 2010 included tooling and equipment purchases in conjunction with new global program launches with new and current customers in Europe, Asia and North America, along with completion of construction of new facilities in Asia and Europe.
Proceeds from the Sale of Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations
During fiscal 2012, Modine received net cash proceeds of $0.7 million as an installment payment from the sale of our investment in Construction Mechaniques Mota, S.A. in fiscal 2010. Modine received net cash proceeds of $8.8 million for the sale of three held for sale facilities in the Original Equipment – Europe and Original Equipment – North America segments during fiscal 2011. Modine received net cash proceeds of $10.5 million for the sale of the shares of its South Korea-based HVAC business during fiscal 2010. Refer to Note 10, Note 11 and Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of these divestitures.
Proceeds from the Disposition of Assets
In fiscal 2012 and 2011, the Company received proceeds from the disposition of miscellaneous assets totaling $0.6 million, and $3.7 million, respectively. In fiscal 2010, the Company sold its 50 percent ownership of Anhui Jianghaui Mando Climate Control Co. Ltd. for $4.9 million, and the Company received $3.8 million from the disposition of other assets.
Changes in Total Debt
In fiscal 2012, total debt increased $16.6 million, driven primarily by the need to fund working capital and growth in Asia. Domestic debt increased $2.5 million, while international debt increased $14.1 million.
In fiscal 2011, total debt increased $8.5 million, driven primarily by the costs related to the refinancing of long-term notes. Domestic debt increased $2.5 million while international debt increased $6.0 million, primarily in support of Asian growth.
In fiscal 2010, total debt decreased $110.0 million, primarily from the proceeds from the common stock offering and the sale of our South Korea-based HVAC business. Domestic debt decreased by $107.6 million. International debt decreased by $2.4 million during fiscal 2010 through reductions in short-term borrowings at the foreign subsidiaries.
Common Stock and Treasury Stock
In fiscal 2012, the Company repurchased 34,820 common shares at a cost of $0.5 million. This amount consists of shares delivered back to the Company by employees and/or directors to satisfy tax withholding obligations that arise upon the vesting of stock awards. These shares are held as treasury shares.
In fiscal 2011 and 2010, the Company repurchased approximately 5,000 common shares at a cost of $0.08 million and $0.03 million, respectively. Common stock and treasury stock activity is further detailed in Note 21 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
On September 30, 2009, the Company completed a public offering of 13.8 million shares of its common stock at a price of $7.15 per share. Cash proceeds were $92.9 million after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions, legal, accounting and printing fees of $5.8 million.
The Company paid no dividends in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010. The amended credit agreements allow for an aggregate amount of restricted payments, including cash dividends, based on the leverage ratio being less than 3.0 to 1.0. Based on the leverage ratio for the four fiscal quarters ending March 31, 2012, the Company would be allowed to make restricted payments up to $25.0 million. If the leverage ratio remains less than 3.0 to 1.0 for fiscal 2013, the Company would be allowed to make restricted payments up to $35.0 million. The maximum restricted payments the Company would be allowed to make over the remaining term of the amended credit agreements is $40.0 million annually.
Settlement of Derivative Contracts
The Company entered into futures contracts related to forecasted purchases of aluminum and copper that are treated as cash flow hedges. Unrealized gains and losses on these contracts are deferred as a component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, and recognized as a component of earnings at the same time that the underlying purchases of aluminum and copper impact earnings. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, the futures contracts entered into for aluminum within the Original Equipment – North America segment became ineffective. Accordingly, unrealized gains and losses on these futures contracts were recognized as a component of cost of sales. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, the Company recorded an unrealized gain of $0.1 million within cost of sales related to the futures contracts deemed ineffective. During fiscal 2012, $3.1 million of expense was recorded in cost of sales related to the settlement of certain futures contracts. During fiscal 2011, the amount of expense recorded in cost of sales related to the settlement of certain futures contracts was negligible. During fiscal 2010, $5.9 million of expense was recorded in cost of sales related to the settlement of certain futures contracts. At March 31, 2012, $3.1 million of unrealized losses remain deferred in other comprehensive (loss) income, and will be realized as a component of cost of sales over the next 39 months.
The Company entered into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge specific foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities. These contracts are not designated as cash flow hedges, therefore, resulting gains and losses are recorded directly in the consolidated statement of operations. During fiscal 2012, $0.4 million of expense was recorded in other expense (income) – net related to these foreign currency forward contracts. Gains and losses on these foreign currency forward contracts are offset by gains and losses recorded on the underlying foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities.
In fiscal 2007, the Company entered into forward starting swaps related to a private placement debt offering. When the fixed interest rate of the private placement borrowing was locked, the Company terminated and settled the forward starting swaps at a loss. These interest rate derivatives were treated as cash flow hedges of forecasted transactions. Accordingly, the loss was reflected as a component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, and were being amortized to interest expense over the life of the borrowings. In conjunction with the repayment of the then existing senior notes in fiscal 2011, the remaining unamortized balance for these interest rate derivatives of $1.6 million was reflected as a component of interest expense.
Research and Development
We focus our R&D efforts on solutions that meet the most current and pressing heat transfer needs, as well as the anticipated future heat transfer needs, of OEMs and other customers within the commercial vehicle, construction, agricultural and commercial HVAC industries and, more selectively, within the automotive industry. Our products and systems typically are aimed at solving difficult and complex heat transfer challenges requiring advanced thermal management. The typical demands are for products and systems that are lighter weight, more compact, more efficient and more durable in nature to meet ever increasing customer standards as customers work to ensure compliance with increasingly stringent global emissions and energy efficiency requirements. Our Company’s heritage includes depth and breadth of expertise in thermal management that, combined with our global manufacturing presence, standardized processes, and state-of-the-art technical centers and wind tunnels, enables us to rapidly bring customized solutions to customers at the best value.
Our investment in R&D in fiscal 2012 was $70.2 million, or 4.5 percent of sales, compared to $67.0 million, or 4.6 percent of sales, in fiscal 2011. This level of investment reflects the Company’s continued commitment to R&D in an ever-changing market, balanced with a near-term focus on more selective capital investment. Consistent with the streamlining of the Company’s product portfolio, our current research is focused primarily on company-sponsored development in the areas of powertrain cooling, engine products, and residential and commercial HVAC products.
Recent R&D projects have included development of waste heat recovery systems for major U.S.-based engine and truck manufacturers in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy to help these manufacturers meet ever increasing demands for emissions reduction, while simultaneously improving powertrain efficiency and, thus, fuel economy; next generation aluminum radiators for the commercial vehicle, agricultural and constructions markets; and EGR technology, which enables our customers to efficiently meet tighter regulatory emissions standards.
Through our proactive R&D, we are developing new technologies designed to keep our customers within federal and international guidelines and regulations well into the future. We continue to identify, evaluate and engage in external research projects that complement strategic internal research initiatives, some of which are government-sponsored, in order to further leverage the Company’s significant thermal technology expertise and capability.
Modine has been granted more than 2,000 worldwide patents over the life of the Company. Modine is focused on the long-term commercialization of our intellectual property and research, and believes that these investments will result in new and next generation products and technologies.
Critical Accounting Policies
The following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in preparing the financial statements. Application of these policies results in accounting estimates that have the greatest potential for a significant impact on Modine's financial statements. The following discussion of these judgments and estimates is intended to supplement the Significant Accounting Policies presented in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company recognizes revenue, including agreed upon commodity price increases, as products are shipped to customers and the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to our customers. The revenue is recorded net of applicable provisions for sales rebates, volume incentives, and returns and allowances. At the time of revenue recognition, the Company also provides an estimate of potential bad debts and warranty expense. The Company bases these estimates on historical experience, current business trends and current economic conditions. The Company recognizes revenue from various licensing agreements when earned except in those cases where collection is uncertain, or the amount cannot reasonably be estimated until formal accounting reports are received from the licensee.
Contractual commodity price increases may also be included in revenue. Price increases agreed upon in advance are recognized as revenue when the products are shipped to our customers. In certain situations, the price increases are recognized as revenue at the time products are shipped in accordance with the contractual arrangements with our customers, but are offset by appropriate provisions for estimated commodity price increases that may ultimately not be collected. These provisions are established based on historical experience, current business trends and current economic conditions. There was no provision for estimated commodity price increases at March 31, 2012 and 2011.
Impairment of Long-Lived and Amortized Intangible Assets
The Company performs impairment evaluations of its long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment, intangible assets with finite lives and equity investments, whenever business conditions or events indicate that those assets may be impaired. The Company considers factors such as operating losses, declining outlooks and market capitalization when evaluating the necessity for an impairment analysis. When the estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be generated by the assets are less than the carrying value of the long-lived assets, or the decline in value is considered to be “other than temporary”, the assets are written down to fair market value and a charge is recorded to current operations. Fair market value is estimated in various ways depending on the nature of the assets under review. This value can be based on appraised value, estimated salvage value, sales price under negotiation or estimated cancellation charges, as applicable.
The most significant long-lived assets that have been subject to impairment evaluations are the Company’s net property, plant and equipment, which totaled $412.1 million at March 31, 2012. Within property, plant and equipment, the most significant assets evaluated are buildings and improvements, and machinery and equipment. The Company evaluates impairment at the lowest level of separately identifiable cash flows, which is generally at the manufacturing plant level. The Company monitors its manufacturing plant performance to determine whether indicators exist that would require an impairment evaluation for the facility. This includes significant adverse changes in plant profitability metrics; substantial changes in the mix of customer programs manufactured in the plant, consisting of new program launches, reductions, and phase-outs; and shifting of programs to other facilities under the Company’s manufacturing realignment strategy. When such indicators are present, the Company performs an impairment evaluation by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated in the manufacturing facility to the net book value of the long-lived assets within that facility. The undiscounted cash flows are estimated based on the expected future cash flows to be generated by the manufacturing facility over the remaining useful life of the machinery and equipment within that facility. When the estimated future undiscounted cash flows are less than the net book value of the long-lived assets, such assets are written down to fair market value, which is generally estimated based on appraisals or estimated salvage value.
The majority of the long-lived asset impairment charges during fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 have been recorded within the Company’s Original Equipment – Europe and Original Equipment – North America segments. These segments had program phase-outs and cancellations, many of which were in the automotive markets. Further unanticipated adverse changes in these segments could result in the need to perform additional impairment evaluations in the future.
The Company’s cost and operational efficiency measures, which are designed to attain a more competitive cost base and improve the Company’s longer term competitiveness reduces the risk of potential long-lived asset impairment charges in the future. The manufacturing realignment strategy of this plan was designed to improve the utilization of the Company’s facilities, with fewer facilities, but operating at higher capacities. The portfolio rationalization strategy of this plan was designed to identify products where the Company can earn a sufficient return on its investment, and divest or exit products that do not meet required metrics. Recent portfolio rationalization actions include de-emphasis on automotive module business, primarily within Europe. These strategies create better facility utilization and greater profitability in product mix, which allow the manufacturing facilities to withstand more significant adverse changes before an impairment charge is necessary.
Impairment of Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Impairment tests are conducted at least annually unless business events or other conditions exist that would require a more frequent evaluation. The Company considers factors such as operating losses, declining outlooks and market capitalization when evaluating the necessity for an impairment analysis. In fiscal 2012, the annual review of goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment was conducted in the fourth quarter resulting in no impairment charge. Any excess in carrying value over the estimated fair value results in an impairment charge. The recoverability of goodwill is determined by estimating the future discounted cash flows of the reporting unit to which the goodwill relates. The assessment of the fair value of other intangible assets with indefinite lives is based upon the present value of the expected future cash flows of The rate used in determining discounted cash flows is a rate corresponding to our cost of capital, adjusted for risk where appropriate. In determining the estimated future cash flows, current and future levels of income are considered as well as business trends and market conditions. To the extent that book value exceeds the fair value, an impairment is recognized.
At March 31, 2012, the Company had goodwill of $29.9 million recorded which was primarily comprised of $13.5 million within the South America segment and $15.9 million within the Commercial Products segment. The South America segment reported operating income of $10.4 million and $13.0 million in fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively. The Commercial Products segment reported operating income of $14.3 million and $12.8 million for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively. The future discounted cash flows of these segments continue to exceed their carrying value indicating that the goodwill recorded in these segments is fully realizable at March 31, 2012. If, in future periods, these segments experience a significant unanticipated economic downturn in the markets in which they operate, this would require an impairment review.
Estimated costs related to product warranties are accrued at the time of the sale and recorded in cost of sales. Estimated costs are based on the best information available, which includes using statistical and analytical analysis of both historical and current claim data. Original estimates, accrued at the time of sale, are adjusted when it becomes probable that expected claims will differ materially from these initial estimates.
Pre-production tooling costs incurred by the Company in manufacturing products under various customer programs are capitalized as a component of property, plant and equipment, net of any customer reimbursements, when the Company retains title to the tooling. These costs are amortized over a three year period and are recorded in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations. For customer-owned tooling costs incurred by the Company, a receivable is recorded when the customer has guaranteed reimbursement to the Company. The reimbursement period may vary by program and customer. No significant arrangements existed during the years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011 where customer-owned tooling costs were not accompanied by guaranteed reimbursements.
Pensions and Postretirement Benefits Plans
The calculation of the expense and liabilities of Modine's pension and postretirement plans is dependent upon various assumptions. The most significant assumptions include the discount rate, long-term expected return on plan assets, and future trends in healthcare costs. The selection of assumptions is based on historical trends and known economic and market conditions at the time of valuation. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, actual results that differ from these assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods. These differences may impact future pension or postretirement benefit expenses and liabilities. The Company replaced the existing domestic defined benefit pension plan with a defined contribution plan for salaried-paid employees hired on or after January 1, 2004. The Modine Manufacturing Company Pension Plan for Non-Hourly Factory and Salaried Employees was modified so that no service performed for salaried employees after March 31, 2006 would be counted when calculating an employee’s years of credited service under the pension plan formula and no increases in annual earnings for salaried employees after December 31, 2007 would be included in calculating the average annual portion under the pension plan formula. The plan was further modified so that no increases in annual earnings and no service performed for non-union hourly factory employees after December 31, 2011 will be included in calculating the average annual earnings and years of credit service under the pension plan formula. We believe the current defined contribution plan for domestic employees will, in general, allow the Company a greater degree of flexibility in managing retirement benefit costs on a long-term basis.
For the following discussion regarding sensitivity of assumptions, all amounts presented are in reference to the domestic pension plans since the domestic plans comprise 100 percent of the Company’s total benefit plan assets and the large majority of the Company’s pension plan expense.
To determine the expected rate of return, Modine considers such factors as (a) the actual return earned on plan assets, (b) historical rates of returns on the various asset classes in the plan portfolio, (c) projections of returns on those asset classes, (d) the amount of active management of the assets, (e) capital market conditions and economic forecasts, and (f) administrative expenses covered by the plan assets. The long-term rate of return utilized in fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011 was 8.00 percent and 8.10 percent, respectively. For fiscal 2013, the Company has assumed a rate of 8.0 percent. The impact of a 25 basis point decrease in the expected rate of return on assets would result in a $0.5 million increase in fiscal 2013 pension expense.
The discount rate reflects rates available on long-term, high quality fixed-income corporate bonds, reset annually on the measurement date of March 31. For fiscal 2012, the Company used a discount rate of 4.86 percent, reflecting a decrease from 5.83 percent in fiscal 2011. The Company based this decision on a yield curve that was created following an analysis of the projected cash flows from the affected plans. See Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. Changing Modine’s discount rate by 25 basis points would impact the fiscal 2013 domestic pension expense by approximately $0.1 million.
A key determinant in the amount of the postretirement benefit obligation and expense is the healthcare cost trend rate. The healthcare trend rate for fiscal year 2012 was 8.0 percent, and the Company expects this to be 7.5 percent for fiscal 2013. This rate is projected to decline gradually to 5.0 percent in fiscal year 2017 and remain at that level thereafter. An annual "cap" that was established for most retiree healthcare and life insurance plans between fiscal 1994 and 1996 limits Modine’s liability. Beginning in February 2002, the Company discontinued providing postretirement benefits for salaried and non-union employees hired on or after that date. Furthermore, effective January 1, 2009, the plan was modified to eliminate coverage for retired participants that are Medicare eligible. A one percent increase in the healthcare trend rate would result in no substantial increase in postretirement expense and an increase in postretirement benefit obligations of approximately $0.2 million.
Other Loss Reserves
The Company has a number of other loss exposures, such as environmental and product liability claims, regulatory compliance, litigation, self-insurance reserves, recoverability of deferred income tax benefits, and accounts receivable loss reserves. Establishing loss reserves for these matters requires the use of estimates and judgment to determine the risk exposure and ultimate potential liability. The Company estimates these reserve requirements by using consistent and suitable methodologies for the particular type of loss reserve being calculated. See Note 25 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details of certain contingencies and litigation.
This report, including, but not limited to, the discussion under “Outlook” under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains statements, including information about future financial performance, accompanied by phrases such as “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “intends,” and other similar “forward-looking” statements, as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Modine’s actual results, performance or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements, because of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. in Part I. in this report. Other risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
In addition to the risks set forth above, Modine is subject to other risks and uncertainties identified by the Company in public filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Modine does not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
In the normal course of business, Modine is subject to market exposure from changes in foreign exchange rates, interest rates, commodity prices, credit risk and economic conditions.
Foreign Currency Risk
Modine is subject to the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates due to its operations in foreign countries. Modine has manufacturing facilities in Brazil, China, Mexico, South Africa, India and throughout Europe. It also has an equity investment in a Japanese company and a joint venture in South Korea. Modine sells and distributes its products throughout the world. As a result, the Company's financial results could be significantly affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange rates or weak economic conditions in the foreign markets in which the Company manufactures, distributes and sells its products. The Company attempts to mitigate foreign currency risks on transactions with customers and suppliers in foreign countries by entering into contracts that are denominated in the functional currency of the Modine entity engaging in the contract. The Company's operating results are principally exposed to changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the European currencies, primarily the euro, and changes between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates for the Company's foreign subsidiaries reporting in local currencies are generally reported as a component of shareholders' equity. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar to other foreign currencies during fiscal 2012, especially the euro and real, has led to a devaluing of the Company’s foreign results. This devaluation is evident in the Company’s unfavorable currency translation adjustments of $22.6 million recorded in fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2011, the Company experienced a general weakening of the U.S. dollar to these foreign currencies, which resulted in a favorable currency translation adjustment of $16.5 million. As of March 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company's foreign subsidiaries had net current assets (defined as current assets less current liabilities) subject to foreign currency translation risk of $83.4 million and $81.3 million, respectively. The potential decrease in the net current assets from a hypothetical 10 percent adverse change in quoted foreign currency exchange rates would be approximately $8.3 million. This sensitivity analysis assumes a parallel shift in foreign currency exchange rates. Exchange rates rarely all move in the same direction relative to the U.S. dollar. This assumption may overstate the impact of changing exchange rates on individual assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency.
The Company has, from time to time, certain foreign-denominated, long-term debt obligations and long-term inter-company loans that are sensitive to foreign currency exchange rates. As of March 31, 2012 there were no third-party foreign-denominated, long-term debt obligations sensitive to foreign currency exchange rate changes. The Company has inter-company loans outstanding at March 31, 2012 as follows:
These inter-company loans are sensitive to movement in foreign exchange rates, and the Company did not have any derivative instruments that hedge this exposure at March 31, 2012. The Company has, from time to time, entered into currency rate derivatives to manage the fluctuation in foreign exchange rate exposure on these loans. These derivative instruments have typically not been treated as hedges, and accordingly, gains or losses on the derivatives are recorded in other (income) expense – net in the consolidated statement of operations and act to offset any currency movement on the outstanding loan receivable.
Interest Rate Risk
Modine's interest rate risk policies are designed to reduce the potential volatility of earnings that could arise from changes in interest rates. The Company generally utilizes a mixture of debt maturities together with both fixed-rate and floating-rate debt to manage its exposure to interest rate variations related to its borrowings. The domestic revolving credit facility is based on a variable interest rate of London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) plus 150 to 250 basis points depending upon the Company’s Consolidated Total Debt to Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA ratio (leverage ratio) the four preceding fiscal quarters. As of March 31, 2012, the Company’s variable interest rate was LIBOR plus 200 basis points or 2.24 percent. The Company is subject to future fluctuations in LIBOR and changes in its leverage ratio, which would affect the variable interest rate on the revolving credit facility and create variability in interest expense. A 100 basis point increase in LIBOR would increase interest expense by $0.1 million based on the March 31, 2012 revolving credit facility balance. The Company has, from time to time, entered into interest rate derivatives to manage variability in interest rates. These interest rate derivatives were treated as cash flow hedges of forecasted transactions. Accordingly, the losses were reflected as a component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, and were being amortized to interest expense over the life of the borrowings. During fiscal 2011, $1.8 million of expense was recorded in the consolidated statements of operations related to the amortization of interest rate derivative losses, which includes the remaining unamortized balance of these interest rate derivatives of $1.6 million in conjunction with the repayment of the Company’s then outstanding senior notes on August 12, 2010. During fiscal 2010, $0.9 million of expense was recorded in the consolidated statements of operations related to the amortization of interest rate derivative losses, which includes $0.5 million of amortization in proportion with the mandatory prepayment of the senior notes during the fiscal year related to the Company’s common stock offering. There were no remaining net unrealized losses deferred in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income at March 31, 2011. The following table presents the future principal cash flows and weighted average interest rates by expected maturity dates for our long-term debt. The fair value of the long-term debt is estimated by discounting the future cash flows at rates offered to the Company for similar debt instruments of comparable maturities. The book value of the debt approximates fair value, with the exception of the $125.0 million fixed rate notes, which have a fair value of approximately $139.2 million at March 31, 2012.
As of March 31, 2012, long-term debt matures as follows:
Credit risk is the possibility of loss from a customer's failure to make payment according to contract terms. The Company's principal credit risk consists of outstanding trade receivables. Prior to granting credit, the Company evaluates each customer, taking into consideration the customer's financial condition, payment experience and credit information. After credit is granted, the Company actively monitors the customer's financial condition and developing business news. Approximately 54 percent of the trade receivables balance at March 31, 2012 was concentrated with the Company's top ten customers. These customers operate primarily in the automotive, truck and heavy equipment markets and are influenced by many of the same market and general economic factors. Modine's history of incurring credit losses from customers has not been material, and the Company does not expect that trend to change.
The Company manages credit risks through its focus on the following: