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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2012
For the Transition period from to .
Commission File Number 001-34820
KKR & CO. L.P.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
9 West 57 th Street, Suite 4200
New York, New York 10019
Telephone: (212) 750-8300
(Address, zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of registrants principal executive office.)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter periods that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of August 1, 2012, there were 238,155,157 Common Units of the registrant outstanding.
KKR & CO. L.P.
For the Quarter Ended June 30, 2012
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our operations and financial performance. You can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as outlook, believe, expect, potential, continue, may, should, seek, approximately, predict, intend, will, plan, estimate, anticipate or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Without limiting the foregoing, statements regarding the expected acquisition of Prisma Capital Partners LP and its affiliates and the sales of certain investments such as Alliance Boots GmbH may constitute forward-looking statements that are subject to the risk that the terms of these transactions may be modified, the transactions may not be completed at all or the benefits and anticipated synergies from such transactions are not realized. Forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include but are not limited to those described under the section entitled Risk Factors in this report. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report and in our other periodic filings. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
In this report, references to KKR, we, us, our and our partnership refer to KKR & Co. L.P. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Prior to KKR & Co. L.P. becoming listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on July 15, 2010, KKR Group Holdings L.P. consolidated the financial results of KKR Management Holdings L.P. and KKR Fund Holdings L.P. (together, the KKR Group Partnerships) and their consolidated subsidiaries.
References to our Managing Partner are to KKR Management LLC, which acts as our general partner and unless otherwise indicated, references to equity interests in KKRs business, or to percentage interests in KKRs business, reflect the aggregate equity of the KKR Group Partnerships and are net of amounts that have been allocated to our principals in respect of the carried interest from KKRs business as part of our carry pool and certain minority interests. References to our principals are to our senior employees and non-employee operating consultants who hold interests in KKRs business through KKR Holdings L.P., which we refer to as KKR Holdings, and references to our senior principals are to principals who also hold interests in our Managing Partner entitling them to vote for the election of its directors.
In this report, the term assets under management, or AUM, represents the assets from which KKR is entitled to receive fees or a carried interest and general partner capital. We believe this measure is useful to investors as it provides additional insight into KKRs capital raising activities and the overall activity in its investment funds and vehicles. KKR calculates the amount of AUM as of any date as the sum of: (i) the fair value of the investments of KKRs investment funds plus uncalled capital commitments from these funds; (ii) the fair value of investments in KKRs co-investment vehicles; (iii) the net asset value of certain of KKRs fixed income products; (iv) the value of outstanding structured finance vehicles and (v) the fair value of other assets managed by KKR. KKRs definition of AUM is not based on the definitions of AUM that may be set forth in agreements governing the investment funds, vehicles or accounts that it manages and is not calculated pursuant to any regulatory definitions.
In this report, the term fee paying assets under management, or FPAUM, represents only those assets under management from which KKR receives fees. We believe this measure is useful to investors as it provides additional insight into the capital base upon which KKR earns management fees. This relates to KKRs capital raising activities and the overall activity in its investment funds and vehicles, for only those funds and vehicles where KKR receives fees (i.e., excluding vehicles that receive only carried interest or general partner capital). FPAUM is the sum of all of the individual fee bases that are used to calculate KKRs fees and differs from AUM in the following respects: (i) assets from which KKR does not receive a fee are excluded (i.e., assets with respect to which it receives only carried interest); and (ii) certain assets, primarily in its private equity funds, are reflected based on capital commitments and invested capital as opposed to fair value because fees are not impacted by changes in the fair value of underlying investments.
In this report, the term fee related earnings, or FRE, is comprised of segment operating revenues less segment operating expenses and is used by management as an alternative measurement of the operating earnings of KKR and its business segments before investment income. We believe this measure is useful to investors as it provides additional insight into the operating profitability of our fee generating management companies and capital markets businesses. The components of FRE on a segment basis differ from the equivalent GAAP amounts on a consolidated basis as a result of: (i) the inclusion of management fees earned from consolidated funds that were eliminated in consolidation; (ii) the exclusion of fees and expenses of certain consolidated entities; (iii) the exclusion of charges relating to the amortization of intangible assets; (iv) the exclusion of charges relating to carry pool
allocations; (v) the exclusion of non-cash equity charges and other non-cash compensation charges borne by KKR Holdings or incurred under the KKR & Co. L.P. 2010 Equity Incentive Plan; (vi) the exclusion of certain reimbursable expenses; and (vii) the exclusion of certain non-recurring items.
In this report, the term economic net income (loss), or ENI, is a measure of profitability for KKRs reportable segments and is used by management as an alternative measurement of the operating and investment earnings of KKR and its business segments. We believe this measure is useful to investors as it provides additional insight into the overall profitability of KKRs businesses inclusive of investment income and carried interest. ENI is comprised of: (i) FRE; plus (ii) segment investment income (loss), which is reduced for carry pool allocations and management fee refunds; less (iii) certain economic interests in KKRs segments held by third parties. ENI differs from net income (loss) on a GAAP basis as a result of: (i) the exclusion of the items referred to in FRE above; (ii) the exclusion of investment income (loss) relating to noncontrolling interests; and (iii) the exclusion of income taxes.
In this report, syndicated capital is the aggregate amount of debt or equity capital in transactions originated by KKR investment funds and vehicles, which has been distributed to third parties in exchange for a fee. It does not include capital committed to such transactions by carry-yielding co-investment vehicles, which is instead reported in committed dollars invested. Syndicated capital is used as a measure of investment activity for KKR and its business segments during a given period, and we believe that this measure is useful to investors as it provides additional insight into levels of syndication activity in KKRs Capital Markets and Principal Activities segment and across its investment platform.
You should note that our calculations of AUM, FPAUM, FRE, ENI, syndicated capital and other financial measures may differ from the calculations of other investment managers and, as a result, our measurements of AUM, FPAUM, FRE, ENI, syndicated capital and other financial measures may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other investment managers.
References to our funds or our vehicles refer to investment funds, vehicles and/or accounts advised, sponsored or managed by one or more subsidiaries of KKR, unless context requires otherwise.
In this report, the term GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
Unless otherwise indicated, references in this report to our fully diluted common units outstanding, or to our common units outstanding on a fully diluted basis, reflect (i) actual common units outstanding, (ii) common units into which KKR Group Partnership Units not held by us are exchangeable pursuant to the terms of the exchange agreement described in this report and (iii) common units issuable pursuant to any equity awards actually issued under the KKR & Co. L.P. 2010 Equity Incentive Plan, which we refer to as our Equity Incentive Plan, but do not reflect common units available for issuance pursuant to our Equity Incentive Plan for which grants have not yet been made.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION (Unaudited)
(Amounts in Thousands, Except Unit Data)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (Unaudited)
(Amounts in Thousands, Except Unit Data)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
(Amounts in Thousands)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY (Unaudited)
(Amounts in Thousands, Except Unit Data)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
(Amounts in Thousands)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited) (Continued)
(Amounts in Thousands)
See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
KKR & CO. L.P.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
(All Dollars are in Thousands, Except Unit, Per Unit Data, and Except Where Noted)
KKR & Co. L.P. (NYSE:KKR), together with its consolidated subsidiaries (KKR), is a leading global investment firm that offers a broad range of investment management services to investors and provides capital markets services for the firm, its portfolio companies and third parties. Led by Henry Kravis and George Roberts, KKR conducts business with offices around the world, which provides a global platform for sourcing transactions, raising capital and carrying out capital markets activities. KKR operates as a single professional services firm and carries out its investment activities under the KKR brand name.
KKR & Co. L.P. was formed as a Delaware limited partnership on June 25, 2007 and its general partner is KKR Management LLC (the Managing Partner). KKR & Co. L.P. is the parent company of KKR Group Limited, which is the non-economic general partner of KKR Group Holdings L.P. (Group Holdings), and KKR & Co. L.P. is the sole limited partner of Group Holdings. Group Holdings holds a controlling economic interest in each of (i) KKR Management Holdings L.P. (Management Holdings) through KKR Management Holdings Corp., a Delaware corporation which is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and (ii) KKR Fund Holdings L.P. (Fund Holdings and together with Management Holdings, the KKR Group Partnerships) directly and through KKR Fund Holdings GP Limited, a Cayman Island limited company which is a disregarded entity for U.S federal income tax purposes. Group Holdings also owns certain economic interests in Management Holdings through a wholly owned Delaware corporate subsidiary of KKR Management Holdings Corp. and certain economic interests in Fund Holdings through a Delaware partnership of which Group Holdings is the general partner with a 99% economic interest and KKR Management Holdings Corp. is a limited partner with a 1% economic interest. KKR & Co. L.P., through its indirect controlling economic interests in the KKR Group Partnerships, is the holding partnership for the KKR business.
KKR & Co. L.P. both indirectly controls the KKR Group Partnerships and indirectly holds equity units in each KKR Group Partnership (collectively, KKR Group Partnership Units) representing economic interests in KKRs business. The remaining KKR Group Partnership Units are held by KKRs principals through KKR Holdings L.P. (KKR Holdings), which is not a subsidiary of KKR. As of June 30, 2012, KKR & Co. L.P. held 34.8% of the KKR Group Partnership Units and KKRs principals held 65.2% of the KKR Group Partnership Units through KKR Holdings. The percentage ownership in the KKR Group Partnerships will continue to change as KKR Holdings and/or KKRs principals exchange units in the KKR Group Partnerships for KKR & Co. L.P. common units.
The following table presents the effects of changes in the ownership interest in the KKR Group Partnerships on KKR & Co. L.P.s equity:
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of KKR & Co. L.P. have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q. The condensed consolidated financial statements, including these notes, are unaudited and exclude some of the disclosures required in annual financial statements. Management believes it has made all necessary adjustments
(consisting of only normal recurring items) such that the condensed consolidated financial statements are presented fairly and that estimates made in preparing the condensed consolidated financial statements are reasonable and prudent. The operating results presented for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated and combined financial statements included in KKR & Co. L.P.s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
The condensed consolidated financial statements (referred to hereafter as the financial statements) include the accounts of KKRs management and capital markets companies, the general partners of certain unconsolidated funds, general partners of consolidated funds and their respective consolidated funds (the KKR Funds) and certain other entities.
KKR & Co. L.P. consolidates the financial results of the KKR Group Partnerships and their consolidated subsidiaries. KKR Holdings ownership interest in the KKR Group Partnerships is reflected as noncontrolling interests in the accompanying financial statements.
References in the accompanying financial statements to KKRs principals are to KKRs senior employees and non-employee operating consultants who hold interests in KKRs business through KKR Holdings, including those principals who also hold interests in the Managing Partner entitling those principals to vote for the election of the managing partners directors (the Senior Principals).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of fees, expenses and investment income (loss) during the reporting periods. Such estimates include but are not limited to the valuation of investments and financial instruments. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial statements.
KKR consolidates (i) those entities in which it holds a majority voting interest or has majority ownership and control over significant operating, financial and investing decisions of the entity, including the KKR Funds in which KKR, as general partner, is presumed to have control, or (ii) entities determined to be variable interest entities (VIEs) for which KKR is considered the primary beneficiary.
With respect to the consolidated KKR Funds, KKR generally has operational discretion and control, and limited partners have no substantive rights to impact ongoing governance and operating activities of the fund. The KKR Funds are consolidated by KKR notwithstanding the fact that KKR has only a minority economic interest in those funds. KKRs financial statements reflect the assets, liabilities, fees, expenses, investment income (loss) and cash flows of the consolidated KKR Funds on a gross basis, and the majority of the economic interests in those funds, which are held by third party investors, are attributed to noncontrolling interests in the accompanying financial statements. All of the management fees and certain other amounts earned by KKR from those funds are eliminated in consolidation. However, because the eliminated amounts are earned from, and funded by, noncontrolling interests, KKRs attributable share of the net income (loss) from those funds is increased by the amounts eliminated. Accordingly, the elimination in consolidation of such amounts has no effect on net income (loss) attributable to KKR or KKR partners capital.
The KKR Funds are, for GAAP purposes, investment companies and therefore are not required to consolidate their majority owned and controlled investments in portfolio companies (Portfolio Companies). Rather, KKR reflects their investments in Portfolio Companies at fair value as described below.
All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Variable Interest Entities
KKR consolidates all VIEs in which it is considered the primary beneficiary. An enterprise is determined to be the primary beneficiary if it has a controlling financial interest under GAAP. A controlling financial interest is defined as (a) the power to direct the activities of a variable interest entity that most significantly impact the entitys business and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the variable interest entity. The
consolidation rules which were revised effective January 1, 2010 require an analysis to (a) determine whether an entity in which KKR has a variable interest is a VIE and (b) whether KKRs involvement, through the holding of equity interests directly or indirectly in the entity or contractually through other variable interests unrelated to the holding of equity interests, would give it a controlling financial interest under GAAP. Performance of that analysis requires the exercise of judgment. Where KKR has an interest in an entity that has qualified for the deferral of the consolidation rules, the analysis is based on consolidation rules prior to January 1, 2010. These rules require an analysis to (a) determine whether an entity in which KKR has a variable interest is a VIE and (b) whether KKRs involvement, through the holding of equity interests directly or indirectly in the entity or contractually through other variable interests would be expected to absorb a majority of the variability of the entity. Under both guidelines, KKR determines whether it is the primary beneficiary of a VIE at the time it becomes involved with a VIE and reconsiders that conclusion at each reporting date. In evaluating whether KKR is the primary beneficiary, KKR evaluates its economic interests in the entity held either directly by KKR or indirectly through related parties. The consolidation analysis can generally be performed qualitatively; however, if it is not readily apparent that KKR is not the primary beneficiary, a quantitative analysis may also be performed. Investments and redemptions (either by KKR, affiliates of KKR or third parties) or amendments to the governing documents of the respective entities could affect an entitys status as a VIE or the determination of the primary beneficiary. At each reporting date, KKR assesses whether it is the primary beneficiary and will consolidate or deconsolidate accordingly. KKRs accounting conclusion under the existing consolidation rules determined that effective January 1, 2011, KKR became the primary beneficiary of certain entities and consolidated such entities that were unconsolidated prior to that date.
As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, the maximum exposure to loss for those VIEs in which KKR is determined not to be the primary beneficiary but in which it has a variable interest is as follows:
For those unconsolidated VIEs in which KKR is the sponsor, KKR may have an obligation as general partner to provide commitments to such funds. As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, KKR did not provide any support other than its obligated amount.
KKRs investment strategies differ by investment fund; however, the fundamental risks have similar characteristics, including loss of invested capital and loss of management fees and carried interests. Accordingly, disaggregation of KKRs involvement with VIEs would not provide more useful information.
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests represent noncontrolling interests of certain investment vehicles and funds that are subject to periodic redemption by investors following the expiration of a specified period of time (typically between one and three years), or may be withdrawn subject to a redemption fee during the period when capital may not be otherwise withdrawn. Limited partner interests subject to redemption as described above are presented as Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests within the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition and presented as Net Income (Loss) attributable to Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests within the condensed consolidated statements of operations. When redeemable amounts become legally payable to investors, they are classified as a liability and included in Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition. For all consolidated investment vehicles and funds in which redemption rights have not been granted, noncontrolling interests are presented within Partners Capital in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition as Noncontrolling Interests.
Noncontrolling interests represent (i) noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities and (ii) noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings.
Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Entities
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated entities represent the non-redeemable ownership interests in KKR that are held primarily by:
(i) third party investors in the KKR Funds;
(ii) a former principal and such persons designees representing an aggregate of 1% of the carried interest received by the general partners of KKRs funds and 1% of KKRs other profits (losses) until a future date;
(iii) certain of KKRs former principals and their designees representing a portion of the carried interest received by the general partners of KKRs private equity funds that was allocated to them with respect to private equity investments made during such former principals previous tenure with KKR;
(iv) certain of KKRs current and former principals representing all of the capital invested by or on behalf of the general partners of KKRs private equity funds prior to October 1, 2009 and any returns thereon; and
(v) a third party in KKRs capital markets business (representing an aggregate of 2% of the capital markets business equity).
Noncontrolling Interests held by KKR Holdings
Noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings include economic interests held by KKRs principals in the KKR Group Partnerships. KKRs principals receive financial benefits from KKRs business in the form of distributions received from KKR Holdings and through their direct and indirect participation in the value of KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings. These financial benefits are not paid by KKR and are borne by KKR Holdings.
The following table presents the calculation of Noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings:
(a) Refer to the table below for calculation of Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings.
(b) Calculated on a pro rata basis based on the weighted average KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings during the reporting period.
(c) Calculated based on the proportion of KKR Holdings units exchanged for KKR & Co. L.P. common units pursuant to the exchange agreement during the reporting period. The exchange agreement provides for the exchange of KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings for KKR & Co. L.P. common units.
Income (loss) attributable to KKR after allocation to noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings, with the exception of certain tax assets and liabilities that are directly allocable to KKR Management Holdings Corp., is attributed based on the percentage of the weighted average KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR and KKR Holdings, each of which hold equity of the KKR Group Partnerships. However, primarily because of the contribution of certain expenses borne entirely by KKR Holdings as well as the periodic exchange of KKR Holdings units for KKR & Co. L.P. common units pursuant to the exchange agreement, the equity allocations shown in the condensed consolidated statement of changes in equity differ from their respective pro-rata ownership interests in KKRs net assets.
The following table presents the calculation of Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests held by KKR Holdings:
(a) Net income (loss) attributable to KKR Holdings is based on the weighted average KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings during the reporting period.
Investments consist primarily of private equity, fixed income, and other investments. Investments are carried at their estimated fair values, with unrealized gains or losses resulting from changes in fair value reflected as a component of Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Investments denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are valued based on the spot rate of the respective currency at the end of the reporting period with changes related to exchange rate movements reflected as a component of Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. Security and loan transactions are recorded on a trade date basis. Further disclosure on investments is presented in Note 4, Investments.
Private Equity - Consists primarily of investments in Portfolio Companies of KKR Funds and investments in infrastructure, natural resources and real estate.
Fixed Income - Consists primarily of investments in below investment grade corporate debt securities (primarily high yield bonds and syndicated bank loans), distressed and opportunistic debt and interests in collateralized loan obligations.
Other Consists primarily of investments in common stock, preferred stock, warrants and options of companies that are not private equity or fixed income investments.
Securities Sold Short
Whether part of a hedging transaction or a transaction in its own right, securities sold short, represent obligations of KKR to deliver the specified security at the contracted price at a future point in time, and thereby create a liability to repurchase the security in the market at the prevailing prices. The liability for such securities sold short is marked to market based on the current fair value of the underlying security at the reporting date with changes in fair value recorded as unrealized gains or losses in Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. These transactions may involve a market risk in excess of the amount currently reflected in the accompanying statements of financial condition.
Derivative contracts include forward, swap and option contracts related to foreign currencies and credit standing of reference entities to manage foreign exchange risk and credit risk arising from certain assets and liabilities. All derivatives are recognized as either assets or liabilities in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition and measured at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. KKRs derivate financial instruments contain credit risk to the extent that its counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreements. KKR attempts to minimize this risk by limiting its counterparties to major financial institutions with strong credit ratings.
Fair Value Measurements
Investments and other financial instruments are measured and carried at fair value. The majority of investments and other financial instruments are held by the consolidated KKR Funds. The KKR Funds are, for GAAP purposes, investment companies and reflect their investments and other financial instruments at fair value. KKR has retained the specialized accounting for the consolidated KKR Funds in consolidation. Accordingly, the unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value of the investments held by the KKR Funds are reflected as a component of Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
For investments and certain other financial instruments that are not held in a consolidated KKR Fund, KKR has elected the fair value option since these investments and other financial instruments are similar to those in the consolidated KKR Funds. Such election is irrevocable and is applied on an investment by investment basis at initial recognition. Unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value are reflected as a component of Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The methodology for measuring the fair value of such investments and other financial instruments is consistent with the methodologies applied to investments and other financial instruments that are held in consolidated KKR Funds.
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, cash and cash equivalents held at consolidated entities, restricted cash and cash equivalents, due from / to affiliates, other assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities approximate fair value due to their short-term maturities. KKRs debt obligations, except for KKRs Senior Notes, bear interest at floating rates and therefore fair value approximates carrying value. Further information on KKRs Senior Notes is presented in Note 8, Debt Obligations. The fair value for KKRs Senior Notes was derived using Level II inputs similar to those utilized in valuing fixed income investments.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Where available, fair value is based on observable market prices or parameters or derived from such prices or parameters. Where observable prices or inputs are not available, valuation techniques are applied. These valuation techniques involve varying levels of management estimation and judgment, the degree of which is dependent on a variety of factors. See Note 5, Fair Value Measurements for further information on KKRs valuation techniques that involve unobservable inputs. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in the statements of financial condition are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their value. Hierarchical levels, as defined under GAAP, are directly related to the amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to the valuation of these assets and liabilities. The hierarchical levels defined under GAAP are as follows from highest to lowest:
Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date. The type of investments and other financial instruments included in this category are publicly-listed equities and debt, and securities sold short.
Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level II inputs include quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, and inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability. The type of investments and other financial instruments included in this category are fixed income investments, convertible debt securities indexed to publicly-listed securities, and certain over-the-counter derivatives.
Inputs are unobservable for the asset or liability, and include situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability. The types of assets and liabilities generally included in this category are private Portfolio Companies and fixed income investments for which a sufficiently liquid trading market does not exist.
In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls has been determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. KKRs assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and consideration of factors specific to the asset.
A significant decrease in the volume and level of activity for the asset or liability is an indication that transactions or quoted prices may not be representative of fair value because in such market conditions there may be increased instances of transactions that are not orderly. In those circumstances, further analysis of transactions or quoted prices is needed, and a significant adjustment to the transactions or quoted prices may be necessary to estimate fair value.
The availability of observable inputs can vary depending on the financial asset or liability and is affected by a wide variety of factors, including, for example, the type of instrument, whether the instrument has recently been issued, whether the instrument is traded on an active exchange or in the secondary market, and current market conditions. To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by KKR in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level III. The variability and availability of the observable inputs affected by the factors described above may cause transfers between Levels I, II, and III, which KKR recognizes at the beginning of the reporting period.
Investments and other financial instruments that have readily observable market prices (such as those traded on a securities exchange) are stated at the last quoted sales price as of the reporting date. KKR does not adjust the quoted price for these investments, even in situations where KKR holds a large position and a sale could reasonably affect the quoted price.
Level II Valuation Methodologies
Financial assets and liabilities categorized as Level II consist primarily of debt securities indexed to publicly-listed securities and fixed income and other investments. Fixed income investments generally have bid and ask prices that can be observed in the marketplace. Bid prices reflect the highest price that KKR and others are willing to pay for an asset. Ask prices represent the lowest price that KKR and others are willing to accept for an asset. For financial assets and liabilities whose inputs are based on bid-ask prices obtained from third party pricing services, fair value may not always be a predetermined point in the bid-ask range. KKRs policy is to allow for mid-market pricing and adjusting to the point within the bid-ask range that meets KKRs best estimate of fair value. For debt securities indexed to publicly listed securities, such as convertible debt, the securities are typically valued using standard convertible security pricing models. The key inputs into these models that require some amount of judgment are the credit spreads utilized and the volatility assumed. To the extent the company being valued has other outstanding debt securities that are publicly-traded, the implied credit spread on the companys other outstanding debt securities would be utilized in the valuation. To the extent the company being valued does not have other outstanding debt securities that are publicly-traded, the credit spread will be estimated based on the implied credit spreads observed in comparable publicly-traded debt securities. In certain cases, an additional spread will be added to reflect an illiquidity discount due to the fact that the security being valued is not publicly-traded. The volatility assumption is based upon the historically observed volatility of the underlying equity security into which the convertible debt security is convertible and/or the volatility implied by the prices of options on the underlying equity security.
Level III Valuation Methodologies
The valuation methodologies used for the assets that are valued using Level III of the fair value hierarchy are described below.
Private Equity Investments: KKR generally employs two valuation methodologies when determining the fair value of a private equity investment (including infrastructure, natural resources and real estate investments). The first methodology is typically a market comparables analysis that considers key financial inputs and recent public and private transactions and other available measures. The second methodology utilized is typically a discounted cash flow analysis, which incorporates significant assumptions and judgments. Estimates of key inputs used in this methodology include the weighted average cost of capital for the investment and assumed inputs used to calculate terminal values, such as exit EBITDA multiples. Other inputs are also used. Upon completion of the valuations conducted using these methodologies, a weighting is ascribed to each method, and an illiquidity discount is typically applied where appropriate. The ultimate fair value recorded for a particular investment will generally be within a range suggested by the two methodologies.
Fixed Income Investments: Fixed income investments are valued using values obtained from dealers or market makers, and where these values are not available, fixed income investments are valued by KKR using internally developed valuation models. Valuation models are based on discounted cash flow analyses, for which the key inputs are determined based on market comparables, which incorporate similar instruments from similar issuers.
Other Investments: Other investments primarily represent privately-held equity and equity-like securities (e.g. warrants) in companies that are not private equity or fixed income investments. KKR generally employs the same valuation methodologies as described above for private equity investments when valuing these other investments.
Key unobservable inputs that have a significant impact on KKRs Level III investment valuations as described above are included in Note 5 Fair Value Measurements. KKR utilizes several unobservable pricing inputs and assumptions in determining the fair value of its Level III investments. These unobservable pricing inputs and assumptions may differ by investment and in the application of KKRs valuation methodologies. KKRs reported fair value estimates could vary materially if KKR had chosen to incorporate different unobservable pricing inputs and other assumptions or, for applicable investments, if KKR only used either the discounted cash flow methodology or the market comparables methodology instead of assigning a weighting to both methodologies.
Level III Valuation Process
The valuation process involved for Level III measurements for private equity, fixed income, and other investments is completed on a quarterly basis and is designed to subject the valuation of Level III investments to an appropriate level of consistency, oversight, and review. KKR has a valuation committee for private equity investments and a valuation committee for fixed income and other investments. The private equity valuation committee may be assisted by subcommittees in the valuation of natural resources and real estate investments. Each of the private equity valuation committee and the fixed income valuation committee is assisted by a valuation team, which is comprised only of employees who are not investment professionals responsible for preparing preliminary valuations or for oversight of any of the investments being valued. The valuation committees and teams are responsible for coordinating and consistently implementing KKRs quarterly valuation policies, guidelines and processes. For investments classified as Level III, investment professionals prepare preliminary valuations based on their evaluation of financial and operating data, company specific developments, market valuations of comparable companies and other factors. These preliminary valuations are reviewed with the investment professionals by the applicable valuation team and are also reviewed by an independent valuation firm engaged by KKR to perform certain procedures in order to assess the reasonableness of KKRs valuations for all Level III investments, except for certain investments other than KKR private equity investments. All preliminary valuations are then reviewed by the applicable valuation committee, and after reflecting any input by their respective valuation committees, the preliminary valuations are presented to a single committee consisting of Senior Principals involved in various aspects of the KKR business. When these valuations are approved by this single committee after reflecting any input from it, the valuations are presented to the audit committee of KKRs board of directors and are then reported on to the board of directors.
As of June 30, 2012, upon completion by the independent valuation firm of certain limited procedures requested to be performed by them, the independent valuation firm concluded that the fair values, as determined by KKR, of the investments reviewed by them were reasonable.
Fees consist primarily of (i) monitoring and consulting fees from providing advisory and other services, (ii) management and incentive fees from providing investment management services to unconsolidated funds, a specialty finance company, structured finance and other vehicles, and separately managed accounts, and (iii) transaction fees earned in connection with successful investment transactions and from capital markets activities. These fees are based on the contractual terms of the governing agreements and are recognized when earned, which coincides with the period during which the related services are performed.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, fees consisted of the following:
Transaction fees are earned by KKR primarily in connection with successful investment transactions and capital markets activities. Transaction fees are recognized upon closing of the transaction. Fees are typically paid on or around the closing of a transaction.
In connection with pursuing successful Portfolio Company investments, KKR receives reimbursement for certain transaction-related expenses. Transaction-related expenses, which are reimbursed by third parties, are typically deferred until the transaction is consummated and are recorded in Other Assets on the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition on the date incurred. The costs of successfully completed transactions are borne by the KKR Funds and included as a component of the investments cost basis. Subsequent to closing, investments are recorded at fair value each reporting period as described in the section above titled Investments. Upon reimbursement from a third party, the cash receipt is recorded and the deferred amounts are relieved. No fees or expenses are recorded for these reimbursements.
Monitoring and Consulting Fees
Monitoring fees are earned by KKR for services provided to Portfolio Companies and are recognized as services are rendered. These fees are generally paid based on a fixed periodic schedule by the Portfolio Companies either in advance or in arrears and are separately negotiated for each Portfolio Company.
In connection with the monitoring of Portfolio Companies and certain unconsolidated funds, KKR receives reimbursement for certain expenses incurred on behalf of these entities. Costs incurred in monitoring these entities are classified as general, administrative and other expenses and reimbursements of such costs are classified as monitoring fees.
Consulting fees are earned by certain consolidated entities for consulting services provided to Portfolio Companies and other companies and are recognized as the services are rendered. These fees are separately negotiated with each company for which services are provided.
Management fees are earned by KKR for management services provided to private equity funds, other investment vehicles, structured finance vehicles, separately managed accounts and a specialty finance company which are recognized in the period during which the related services are performed in accordance with the contractual terms of the related agreement. Management fees earned from private equity funds and certain investment vehicles are based upon a percentage of capital committed during the investment period, and thereafter based on remaining invested capital. For certain other investment vehicles, structured finance vehicles, separately managed accounts and a specialty finance vehicle, management fees are recognized in the period during which the related services are performed and are based upon the net asset value, gross assets or as otherwise defined in the respective agreements.
Management fees received from consolidated KKR Funds are eliminated in consolidation. However, because these amounts are funded by, and earned from, noncontrolling interests, KKRs allocated share of the net income from consolidated KKR Funds is increased by the amount of fees that are eliminated. Accordingly, the elimination of these fees does not have an effect on the net income (loss) attributable to KKR or KKR partners capital.
KKRs management agreement with a specialty finance company entitles KKR to quarterly incentive fees. The incentive fees are calculated and paid quarterly in arrears and are not subject to any hurdle or clawback provisions. The management agreement with the specialty finance company was renewed on January 1, 2012 and will automatically be renewed for successive one-year terms following December 31, 2012 unless the agreement is terminated in accordance with its terms.
Compensation and Benefits
Compensation and Benefits expense includes cash compensation consisting of salaries, bonuses, and benefits, as well as equity based compensation consisting of charges associated with the vesting of equity-based awards and carry pool allocations.
All KKR principals and other employees of certain consolidated entities receive a base salary that is paid by KKR or its consolidated entities, and is accounted for as Compensation and Benefits expense. These employees are also eligible to receive discretionary cash bonuses based on performance, overall profitability and other matters. While cash bonuses paid to most employees are funded by KKR and certain consolidated entities and result in customary Compensation and Benefits expense, cash bonuses that are paid to certain of KKRs most senior employees are funded by KKR Holdings with distributions that it receives on its KKR Group Partnership Units. To the extent that distributions received by these individuals exceed the amounts that they are otherwise entitled to through their vested units in KKR Holdings, this excess is funded by KKR Holdings and reflected in Compensation and Benefits in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Further disclosure regarding equity based compensation is presented in Note 10 Equity Based Compensation.
Carried interest entitles the general partner of a fund to a greater allocable share of the funds earnings from investments relative to the capital contributed by the general partner and correspondingly reduce noncontrolling interests attributable share of those earnings. Amounts earned pursuant to carried interest are included as investment income (loss) in Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and are earned by the general partner of those funds to the extent
that cumulative investment returns are positive and where applicable, preferred return thresholds have been met. If these investment returns decrease or turn negative in subsequent periods, recognized carried interest will be reversed and reflected as investment losses in Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Carried interest is recognized based on the contractual formula set forth in the agreements governing the fund as if the fund was terminated at the reporting date with the then estimated fair values of the investments realized. Due to the extended durations of KKRs private equity funds and other investment vehicles, KKR believes that this approach results in income recognition that best reflects the periodic performance of KKR in the management of those funds. See Note 12 Segment Reporting for the amount of carried interest income earned or reversed for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011.
The agreements governing KKRs private equity funds generally include a clawback or, in certain instances, a net loss sharing provision that, if triggered, may give rise to a contingent obligation that may require the general partner to return or contribute amounts to the fund for distribution to investors at the end of the life of the fund. See Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies.
Carry Pool Allocation
With respect to KKRs active and future funds and co-investment vehicles that provide for carried interest, KKR will allocate to its principals and other professionals a portion of the carried interest earned in relation to these funds as part of its carry pool. KKR currently allocates approximately 40% of the carry it earns from these funds and vehicles to its carry pool. These amounts are accounted for as compensatory profit-sharing arrangements in conjunction with the related carried interest income and recorded as compensation expense for KKR employees and general, administrative and other expense for certain non-employee consultants and service providers in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Carry pool allocations totaled $112.6 million and $79.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively and $304.1 million and $219.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Tax Receivable Agreement
Certain exchanges of KKR Group Partnership Units from KKR Holdings or transferees of its KKR Group Partnership Units for KKR & Co. L.P. common units may occur pursuant to KKRs exchange agreement. These exchanges are expected to result in an increase in KKR Management Holdings Corp.s and its corporate subsidiarys share of the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of KKR Management Holdings, a portion of which is attributable to the goodwill inherent in our business, that would not otherwise have been available. This increase in tax basis may increase depreciation and amortization for U.S. federal income tax purposes and therefore reduce the amount of income tax that our intermediate holding companies would otherwise be required to pay in the future. KKR & Co. L.P. entered into a tax receivable agreement with KKR Holdings pursuant to which our intermediate holding companies will be required to pay to KKR Holdings or transferees of its KKR Group Partnership Units 85% of the amount of cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income taxes that the intermediate holding companies actually realize as a result of this increase in tax basis, as well as 85% of the amount of any such savings the intermediate holding companies actually realize as a result of increases in tax basis that arise due to payments under the tax receivable agreement. Although KKR is not aware of any issue that would cause the IRS to challenge a tax basis increase, neither KKR Holdings nor its transferees will reimburse KKR for any payments previously made under the tax receivable agreement if such tax basis increase, or the benefits of such increases, were successfully challenged. Payments made under the tax receivable agreement are required to be made within 90 days of the filing of the tax return of KKR Management Holdings Corp. As of June 30, 2012, approximately $0.2 million of cumulative cash payments have been made under the tax receivable agreement. No amounts were paid for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012.
KKR records any changes in basis as a deferred tax asset and the liability for any corresponding payments as amounts due to affiliates, with a corresponding net adjustment to equity at the time of exchange. KKR records any benefit of the reduced income tax the intermediate holding companies may recognize as such benefit is recognized.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2012, KKR adopted ASU 2011-04, Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. The ASU specifies that the concepts of highest and best use and valuation premise in a fair value measurement are relevant only when measuring the fair value of nonfinancial assets and are not relevant when measuring the fair value of financial assets or liabilities. The amendments include requirements specific to measuring the fair value of those instruments, such as equity interests used as consideration in a business combination. An entity should measure the fair value of its own equity instrument from the perspective of a market participant that holds the instrument as an asset. With respect to financial instruments that are managed as part of a portfolio, an exception to fair value requirements is provided. That exception permits a reporting entity to measure the fair value of such financial assets and financial liabilities at a price that would be received to sell a net asset position for a particular risk or to transfer a net liability position for a particular risk in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The amendments also clarify that premiums and discounts should only be applied if market participants would do so when pricing the asset or liability. Premiums and discounts related to the size of an
entitys holding (e.g., a blockage factor) rather than as a characteristic of the asset or liability (e.g., a control premium) is not permitted in a fair value measurement.
The guidance also requires enhanced disclosures about fair value measurements, including, among other things, (a) for fair value measurements categorized within Level III of the fair value hierarchy, (1) a quantitative disclosure of the unobservable inputs and assumptions used in the measurement, (2) the valuation process used by the reporting entity, and (3) a narrative description of the sensitivity of the fair value measurement to changes in unobservable inputs and the interrelationships between those unobservable inputs, if any, and (b) the categorization by level of the fair value hierarchy for items that are not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but for which the fair value is required to be disclosed (for example, a financial instrument that is measured at amortized cost in the statement of financial position but for which fair value is disclosed). The guidance also amends disclosure requirements for significant transfers between Level I and Level II and requires disclosure of all transfers between Levels I and II in the fair value hierarchy. As a result of adopting ASU 2011-04, KKR expanded its fair value disclosures. See section Fair Value Measurements above and Note 5 Fair Value Measurements.
On January 1, 2012, KKR adopted ASU 2011-05, Comprehensive Income. The ASU provides an entity with an option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. In both choices, an entity is required to present each component of net income along with total net income, each component of other comprehensive income along with a total for other comprehensive income, and a total amount for comprehensive income. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2011 and should be applied on a retrospective basis. KKR has adopted the presentation of total comprehensive income in two consecutive statements. See the condensed consolidated statements of operations and condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
3. NET GAINS (LOSSES) FROM INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES
Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities in the condensed consolidated statements of operations consist primarily of the realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments (including foreign exchange gains and losses attributable to foreign denominated investments and related activities) and other financial instruments, including those for which the fair value option has been elected. Unrealized gains or losses result from changes in the fair value of these investments and other financial instruments during a period. Upon disposition of an investment or financial instrument, previously recognized unrealized gains or losses are reversed and an offsetting realized gain or loss is recognized in the current period.
The following table summarizes total Net Gains (Losses) from Investment Activities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
(a) See Note 4 Investments.
(b) See Note 7 Other Assets and Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities.
(c) See Note 13 Commitments and Contingencies.
Investments consist of the following:
As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, Investments totaling $2.2 billion were pledged as direct collateral against various financing arrangements. See Note 8 Debt Obligations.
As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, private equity investments which represented greater than 5% of the total private equity investments included:
The majority of the securities underlying private equity investments represent equity securities. As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, the fair value of investments that were other than equity securities amounted to $802.2 million and $1.9 billion, respectively.
5. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The following tables summarize the valuation of KKRs investments and other financial instruments, which includes those for which the fair value option has been elected, measured and reported at fair value by the fair value hierarchy levels described in Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies as of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011.
Assets, at fair value:
Liabilities, at fair value:
The following tables summarize changes in private equity, fixed income, and other investments measured and reported at fair value for which Level III inputs have been used to determine fair value for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
(1) The Transfers In noted in the tables above for fixed income investments are principally attributable to certain corporate credit investments that experienced an insignificant level of market activity during the period and thus were valued in the absence of observable inputs.
(2) The Transfers Out noted in the tables above for private equity investments are attributable to certain Portfolio Companies that completed an initial public offering during the period. The Transfers Out noted above for other investments are principally attributable to certain investments that experienced a significant level of market activity during the period and thus were valued using observable inputs.