|• FORM 10-K • SUBSIDIARIES OF THE COMPANY • CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM • CERTIFICATION OF CEO PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 • CERTIFICATION OF CFO PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 • CERTIFICATION OF CEO AS REQUIRED BY RULE 13A-14(A • CERTIFICATION OF CFO AS REQUIRED BY RULE 13A-14(A • XBRL INSTANCE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION SCHEMA • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION CALCULATION LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION LABEL LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION PRESENTATION LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION DEFINITION LINKBASE|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission File Number 000-31581
OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
46335 Landing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510) 933-7200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes £ No R
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes £ No R
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes R No £
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes R No £
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. R
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes £ No R
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of January 1, 2012 (the last trading day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), was approximately $301.2 million based upon the closing price reported for such date by the NASDAQ Stock Market. For purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by officers and directors and by each person known by the registrant to own 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that such persons possess the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant.
As of August 26, 2012, approximately 19,100,899 shares of the registrant's common stock, $0.001 par value, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
The information called for by Part III is incorporated by reference to specified portions of the registrant’s proxy statement for its 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after July 1, 2012, the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.
OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
This report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including, without limitation, statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or future strategies that are signified by the words “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” ”estimate” or “assume” or similar language. All forward-looking statements included in this document are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. In evaluating our business, you should carefully consider the information set forth below and under the captions “Risk Factors” contained in Item 1A and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in Item 7. We caution you that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Oplink Communications, Inc. (“we”, “Oplink”, or the “Company”) was incorporated in California in September 1995 and was later reincorporated in Delaware in September 2000. We are headquartered in Fremont, California and have manufacturing, design and research and development facilities in Zhuhai, Shanghai and Wuhan, China and in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
We began selling our products in 1996. We design, manufacture and sell optical networking components and subsystems. Our products expand optical bandwidth, amplify optical signals, monitor and protect wavelength performance, redirect light signals, ensure signal connectivity and provide signal transmission and reception within an optical network. Our products enable greater and higher quality bandwidth over longer distances, which reduce network congestion, transmission costs and energy consumption per bit. Our products also enable optical system manufacturers to provide flexible and scalable bandwidth to support the increase of data traffic on the Internet and other public and private networks.
We provide over 350 different products that are sold as components and modules, or are integrated into custom solutions. We provide customers with high quality optical subsystems and components that are used for bandwidth creation, bandwidth management, interconnect and transmission products. Our products and solutions can be applied to all segments of the fiber optic network infrastructure including long-haul networks, metropolitan area networks (“MANs”), local area networks (“LANs”), wireless backhaul, internet data centers and fiber-to-the-home (“FTTH”) networks.
We provide our solution and products to the exacting requirements of the world’s leading optical networking equipment companies, and work closely with customers during the product design and development cycle. This provides us with the ability to respond to the volume production requirements of our customers when their systems are ready for commercial deployment. We are responsive to our customers' volume, quality and time-to-market requirements.
Our broad product portfolio includes solutions for next-generation, all-optical reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexing (“ROADM”), wavelength selective switch (“WSS”), dense and coarse wavelength division multiplexing (“DWDM” and “CWDM,” respectively), optical amplification, signal switching and routing, signal conditioning and monitoring, fiber interconnect/termination/distribution and line transmission applications. Our addressable markets include long-haul networks, MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and FTTH networks. Our customers include telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers, as well as data centers, clouding computing providers and system integrators located around the globe.
We also serve as a photonic foundry to provide design, integration and optical manufacturing solutions (“OMS”) for advanced and cost-effective components and subsystem manufacturing at our principal in-house
design, service and manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China. We offer our customers expert OMS for the production and packaging of highly-integrated optical subsystems and turnkey solutions, based upon a customer’s specific product design and specifications, as well as solutions with lower levels of component integration for customers that place more value on flexibility than would be provided with turnkey solutions. Our OMS customers include telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers located around the globe.
Our transmission product portfolio includes fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers and transponders. Optical transmission products convert electronic signals into optical signals and back into electronic signals, thereby facilitating the transmission of information over fiber optic communication networks. Our optical transmission products are used primarily in MAN, LAN, wireless backhaul and FTTH applications. Our transmission products are engineered with varying levels of integration to suit customers. The lowest level of integration involves separate transmitter and receiver modules, which provides our customers the greatest flexibility in product design by allowing them to place the transmitters and the receivers according to their design specifications. Transceivers provide the next level of integration. Transceivers place both the transmitter and receiver in the same package with a dual fiber or connector interface. We also provide transceivers with build-in transmit and receive optical multiplexing and demultiplexing optical filters so only a single fiber or connector interface is needed for bi-directional optical transmission.
We undertake research and development activities at our facilities in Wuhan and Zhuhai, China, in Hsinchu and Taipei, Taiwan, and in Fremont, California.
Our common stock has been quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “OPLK” since our initial public offering in October 2000. Our Internet website address is www.oplink.com. Our website address is given solely for informational purposes; we do not intend, by this reference, that our website should be deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to incorporate the information available at our Internet address into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We make these reports available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with the SEC. These reports can also be obtained from the SEC’s Internet website at www.sec.gov or at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30 of each year. Interim fiscal quarters will end on the Sunday closest to each calendar quarter end. Fiscal 2012 consisted of 52 weeks, while fiscal 2011 was a 53 week period. For further information, please see “Note 1 – The Company ” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are the leader in the optical industry and is uniquely positioned to provide unparalleled OMS to our customers for leading edge, integrated solutions that can be rapidly and cost effectively deployed in communications networks around the world. OMS are customized optical solutions to fit a customer’s specific needs.
The customized, variety-rich and high reliability requirements of optical equipment manufacturing makes our OMS service the ideal solution for meeting the needs of system and subsystem companies for cost-effective manufacturing of optical equipment. We possess the expertise and versatility in product design and development needed to provide the high responsiveness and flexibility expected in today’s markets. We are able to offer shortened design cycle times and reduced production costs with our 182,000 square feet Class-100K clean room and a 574,000 square feet manufacturing facility in Zhuhai, China.
We offer a wide range of engineering and design services, which include:
We offer customers turnkey solutions including the following value-added services:
We provide highly integrated optical sub-systems, pioneering design services and custom solutions to network equipment makers. By leveraging our well-established core competencies in optical design and manufacturing, we are able to serve not only equipment makers selling to end-customers, but also module and component makers in need of a manufacturing partner.
The core elements of our strategy are:
Strengthening and expanding our leadership in passive optical products. We have successfully transformed from a pure components maker from our inception through IPO to a supplier today offering a comprehensive product
portfolio encompassing passive components, modules and subsystems. We believe that our dedication to developing a diversified product line together with our manufacturing efficiency has well-positioned us to provide system equipment makers with state-of-the-art tools, e.g., ROADM or its building blocks such as WSS, optical amplifier, multiplexer/demultiplexer, multicast switch, tunable filter and optical performance monitor, for enhancing bandwidth provisioning and lowering network costs. It is projected that with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth fueled by peer-to-peer networking traffic, file sharing, IPTV, internet video content, online gaming, music downloading and a myriad of other applications, the network infrastructure build-out will continue over the coming years. We believe that a focus on strengthening and expanding our leadership in passive optical products, which unlike the active products are agnostic to the data rate evolution to 40G/100G, is central to our business success in the future.
Innovation through integration and miniaturization based on commercially available technology platforms. We understand that developing new products requires substantial investment with long and uncertain profitability cycles. As such, we seek to leverage our product development spending through incremental integration/hybridization and miniaturization based on existing technology platforms that are already widely available, including optical thin-film coating, free-space micro-optics, fused fiber optics, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems ("MEMS"), Planar Lightwave Circuit ("PLC") or Arrayed-Waveguide Grating ("AWG") and Liquid Crystal ("LC"). In addition, we are proactively exploring optical technologies established outside the telecom industry to cultivate product ideas which could benefit our core business growth.
Growing market share in 10G and higher speed transceivers for metro applications. We are focused on seeking to offer our customers best-in-class pluggable transceivers for 10G and higher data rate metro/aggregation DWDM and CWDM optical networking applications, capitalizing on the increasing demand for bandwidth upgrade and industry-wide transition from traditional larger footprint, higher power consumption 300-pin transponders to smaller, low power dissipating XFP and SFP+ form factors. We believe that our global product development model with integrated engineering teams both in the United States ("U.S.") and China will enable our worldwide customers to improve time-to-market with optimal features, performance and cost. To address diverse customer network deployment conditions, we offer a broad portfolio of 10G DWDM and CWDM XFP and SFP+ products with a wide range of operating temperature ranges.
Enhancing engineering capabilities in China. In parallel to building solid manufacturing operations in China, we have recognized the equal importance of leveraging the local talent in product design and development and significantly increased the engineering workforce in our facilities in Zhuhai and Wuhan. While reserach and development ("R&D") resources in the U.S. participate in customer application support and focuses on developing advanced IP and prototypes, engineering teams in China have taken on an increasingly larger role in new product introduction. As a result, we are able to maintain relative lower overhead expense to better compete in the marketplace and deliver shareholder value.
One-Stop-Shop OMS solution provider. As an inventor and leader of the OMS or photonic foundry model, we offer a one-stop-shop approach or turnkey solutions that are customized to our customers’ specific needs. One-stop-shopping is being increasingly demanded by our customers, the telecommunications network vendors. Our customers are increasingly requiring optical component suppliers to take advantage of developments in product integration to provide solutions incorporating multiple optical components on a single subsystem or module, thereby reducing the need for component assembly and additional testing. Therefore, we believe that suppliers like us who are able to offer a more integrated manufacturing solution to customers will have an advantage over suppliers who can only offer discrete optical components. The vertical integration of our design and manufacturing capability enables us to consistently deliver the highest quality, lowest cost products to our customers as well as to respond rapidly to design or specification changes which would shorten our customer’s time-to-market. We believe that offering a broad range of solutions increases our penetration of existing and new customers.
Continuous focus on our cost structure. We maintain vertically integrated photonic manufacturing facilities in low-cost overseas locations. Our low-cost manufacturing facilities allow us to do full design work in-house which enables us to supply cutting edge products at the lowest possible cost in the industry.
In an industry characterized by intense price competition and at times price erosion, our low-cost structure is a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The source of this sustainability comes from the fact that we believe our design and manufacturing facilities are difficult and expensive to replicate by other firms. Despite our existing streamlined cost structure, we continuously identify and implement cost-saving programs across our organization.
The increase in the worldwide demand for broadband increases the demand for our products. With our vertically integrated cost structure, it further leads to greater capacity utilization and therefore greater operating leverage as fixed costs are spread over a greater number of manufactured units, resulting in improved gross margins.
Customer satisfaction. We place a high value on our relationships with our customers around the world, large and small. To date, we have created well over 10,000 customized product specifications to fulfill customers’ exact requirements. We believe that building a long-term mutual trust with our customers is instrumental to nurture sustainable business growth and cultivate a healthy ecosystem.
Products and Technologies
We provide a broad line of fiber optic subsystems and components designed to satisfy the needs of communications equipment suppliers. We categorize our products by the functionalities provided within a network, namely, bandwidth creation, bandwidth management, optical interconnect and transmission products. Some of our products have attributes that combine multiple functions. Some of our bandwidth creation and bandwidth management products utilize telecommunication interfaces to provide local or remote reporting and control to enhance their function in an optical network.
Bandwidth Creation Products
Communications equipment suppliers use our bandwidth creation products to expand the capacity and/or extend the coverage of their customers’ networks. Other bandwidth creation products enable optical signals to travel along more complex network architectures such as mesh networks and metro networks, or enable optical signals to travel greater distances over traditional long haul networks.
Wavelength Expansion Products. In fiber optic communications, different signals are transmitted over multiple wavelengths. With increases in the number of wavelengths and data rates, spacing between the channel wavelengths narrows and it becomes increasingly difficult to separate and combine them. We offer wavelength expansion products that are designed to enable the combination and separation of individual wavelengths in all parts of the network including emerging access, metro networks and long haul networks. We offer the following products to handle these tasks:
Optical Amplification Products. Optical fiber amplifiers are widely deployed in optical communications networks to enhance the optical signal power. Optical signals naturally lose power and eventually are lost after traveling a long distance along an optical fiber in traditional long haul networks. In emerging access or metro networks, optical signals lose power also at add/drop nodes, which are those locations in a network where wavelength channels enter or exit the node. Such attenuated optical signal can be intensified with Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, or EDFAs, or with Raman amplifiers, neither of which require optical-to-electrical conversion. The amplifiers are arranged along fiber cable lines at regular intervals in long haul networks or at selected nodes in access and metro networks to enable the optical signal to reach its destination clearly. A typical amplifier consists of a fiber, one or multiple pump lasers and a number of passive fiber optic components. We offer both the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers ("EDFAs")and Raman amplification products except the standalone third party pump laser. Our optical amplification products include the following:
Bandwidth Management Products
Communications equipment suppliers use our bandwidth management products to add intelligence and flexibility to their systems, which allows communications service providers to control the direction, condition the amplitude or phase, and monitor the performance of light signals throughout the optical network.
Optical Switching and Routing Products. As optical networks become more complex, there is an increasing demand to provide switching and routing capability to direct optical signals across multiple points in the network. We supply optical fiber switching and routing products that provide all-optical signal switching between fibers for up to sixty-four different end destinations. Our optical switching and routing products include the following:
Wavelength Conditioning Products. For reliable fiber optic communication systems, the light signal intensity needs to be controlled. For example, excess input power can overload the receivers and an optical attenuator is used
to reduce the input signal to the level required by the receiver. Wavelength conditioning products are used in optical networks along with DWDM multiplexers and demultiplexers, optical amplifiers, and re-configurable optical add drop multiplexers to provide the power control functions. Our wavelength conditioning products include the following:
Wavelength Performance Monitoring and Protection Products. The ability to monitor wavelengths within an optical network enables service providers to maintain quality of service even in the event of an interruption in the signal path, such as a cut in the fiber. It is significantly more difficult to monitor signal flow in optical systems as compared to electrical systems. Monitoring requires that optical signals be extracted from the fiber without interfering with the optical signal traveling through the same fiber.
We offer the following products that enable service providers to monitor network performance and make necessary decisions for traffic flow and network efficiency:
Optical Interconnect Products
The acquisition of Emit Technology Co., Ltd. (“Emit”) in early 2010 enabled us to offer communications system equipment makers a broadened suite of precision-made, cost-effective and reliable optical connectivity products to establish multiple-use, quick pluggable fiber links among network devices for bandwidth deployment, as well as in a test and measurement environment for a wide range of system design and service applications.
Connectors and Adapters. Offered in different types and form factors to meet the varying application needs, optical connectors provide a precise and reliable means to terminate the fiber end, whereas adapters provide a pluggable solution for a pair of connectors to be physically coupled repeatedly at consistently low optical power loss.
Fixed Attenuators. Designed to reduce a pre-determined amount of light through the fiber to the exact level for added tolerance in system link budget, these in-line pluggable style fixed attenuators offer a compact, high accuracy solution for facile integration into existing systems.
Patchcords. These are simplex or duplex fiber optic cables assembled at various specified lengths and jacket ratings, and terminated with connectors of the same or different types at the two ends, providing light connectivity that endures environmental factors and human handling.
Termination and Distribution Enclosures. To ensure end-to-end signal integrity amid the increasing demand for better space utilization, this line of products offer a flexible economic solution in rack-, wall- or pole-mountable enclosures for organizing and protecting fiber terminations, splices and cable distribution featuring fiber bend radius control and strain/slack management in indoor and outdoor applications.
The acquisition of Optical Communication Products, Inc. (“OCP”) in 2007 and continuing product development have enabled us to offer a portfolio of transmission products that broaden the addressable markets as well as the range of solutions that we can now offer our customers. Our transmission products consists of a comprehensive line of high-performance fiber optic modules, including fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers, and transponders, primarily for use in MAN, LAN, and FTTH applications. Fiber optic modules are integrated optoelectronic components and integrated circuits with embedded control and software that are used to enable network equipment to transmit data over long distance of optical fiber. Our transmission products convert electronic signals into optical signals and back into electronic signals often with build-in microcontroller based signal monitoring and conditioning, facilitating the transmission of information over fiber optic communication networks.
SFP Transceivers. Small form-factor pluggable, or SFP, transceivers are “hot-pluggable” optical transceivers that can be removed or inserted into the equipment without turning off the power of the system. This feature allows our customers to readily reconfigure their systems without interrupting their network services, thereby, eliminating system downtime during upgrades and maintenance. SFP Transceivers are for 4Gbps transmission speed or below. Our cam latches are color coded to provide the end-user with an easy way to identify module types in an installed system.
SFP+ Transceivers. Enhanced small form-factor pluggable, or SFP+, transceivers are similar products to SFP while delivering the signal at 6-10Gbps. It is also “hot-pluggable” that can be removed or inserted into the equipment without turning off the power of the system. They are initially deployed for 10Gbps LAN, SAN (storage area network) and datacenter applications. With most efficient measurement in Gbps per watt per cubic centimeters, they are increasingly deployed for broader range of applications, including MAN and WDM optical networking applications.
XFP Transceivers. 10 Gigabit small form-factor pluggable is a hot-pluggable, protocol-independent optical transceiver with build-in clock and data recovery circuits for 10 Gigabit per second SONET/SDH, Fiber Channel, gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and other applications, including CWDM and DWDM optical networks. It includes digital diagnostics and the electrical interface specification is a portion of the XFP Multi Source Agreement specification.
CWDM Transceivers. Coarse wavelength division multiplexing, or CWDM, transceivers allow the aggregation of multiple channels of optical signals onto a single optical fiber by utilizing different wavelengths. The CWDM transceivers use lasers with wide channel wavelength spacing, typically 20 nm, which allows the equipment to achieve a lower overall system cost. This lower cost is the result of a lower transmitter cost with relaxed temperature and wavelength control, as well as a lower optical MUX/DMUX cost due to wider tolerance on the wavelength stability and bandwidth.
Our CWDM transceivers are available in all the common industry standard transceiver footprints of 1x9, 2x9, GBIC, SFF, SFP, XFP and SFP+, and provide up to 16 wavelength channels at nominally 1271nm, 1291nm, 1311nm, 1331nm, 1351nm, 1371nm, 1391nm, 1411nm, 1471 nm, 1491 nm, 1511 nm, 1531 nm, 1551 nm, 1571 nm, 1591 nm, and 1611 nm. They are available in a multi-rate format that allows operation at all speeds from 125 Mb/s Fast Ethernet up to 10Gb/s 10GbE and OC-192 SONET/SDH. Our CWDM transceiver products are available in industrial operating temperature option (-40 to +85 degrees Celsius).
Bi-Directional Transceivers. Bi-Directional transceivers allow full duplex transmission utilizing a single fiber. These transceivers incorporate lasers, receivers and optical filters, allowing simultaneous transmission and reception from a single port or a single fiber. The advantage of Bi-Directional transceiver modules is lower material cost, lower installation cost and lower operational cost for fiber installations, as a result of having to purchase, install, maintain, and administer fewer fibers.
Our Bi-Directional transceivers are available in industry standard pluggable modules (SFP) and are compliant to the industry standard known as EFM (Ethernet for First Mile). The data transmission rates cover 125Mbps to 2.5Gbps for Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and SONET/SDH applications. Our Bi-Directional product families are available in an industrial operating temperature option (−40 to +85 degree Celsius).
DWDM Transceivers. Dense wavelength division multiplexing, or DWDM, transceivers allow the aggregation of great channel number of optical signals onto single fiber by utilizing different wavelengths with close spacing. The DWDM transceivers use lasers with narrow channel wavelength spacing, typically 0.8nm or 0.4nm. DWDM transceivers enable an optical transport system to increase the transmission capacity significantly over a single fiber.
Our DWDM transceivers are available in the SFP, XFP and SFP+ package, and provide up to 88 wavelength channels. DWDM SFP transceivers are available in a multi-rate format that allows operation at all speeds from 125Mb/s up to 2.5Gb/s and accommodate reaches up to 200km. DWDM XFP transceivers are available to support 10GbE and OC192 SONET data rate with or without forward error correction (FEC) at modulation speed up to 11.3Gbps. Both DWDM SFP and XFP transceivers are available for industrial temperature operation (−40 to +85 degree Celsius). DWDM SFP+ transceivers are available to support 10GbE applications with smallest size and lowest power dissipation among all 10Gbps transceivers.
Optical Supervisory Channel Transceivers. Optical supervisory channel transceiver is an optical transceiver operating at a pre-determined wavelength outside the EDFA band, and are used to transmit and receive optical channel monitoring messages between amplification and add/drop sites, and throughout the optical networking terminals.
GEPON Products. Our GEPON product offering supports ONU (optical network unit) and OLT (optical line terminal) applications. The GEPON modules transmit a duplex 1.25Gb/s optical signal over a single fiber between
the OLT and ONU modules for both 10 kilometer and 20 kilometer transmission ranges. The OLT module transmits via a 1490nm laser source and the ONU unit transmits via a 1310nm laser source. We also offer “Turbo GEPON” transceivers that support 2x GbE data rate for increased bandwidth capacity.
40G/100G Transceiver Products. We are in development of state-of-the-art high-data rate transceiver products that enables transmission of optical signals at 40Gbps and 100Gbps over a single fiber. A typical 40G or 100G transceiver includes build-in wavelength division multiplexing of multiple channels of lower speed optical signals for the transmitter side, and demultiplexing of composite multiple channels of lower speed optical signals on the receiver side. With high-degree of integration of optical WDM components with optoelectronics devices, mixed-signal integrated circuits and embedded micro-controller, 40G/100G transceivers enable cost efficient deployment of high bandwidth networking systems.
We sell our products worldwide to telecommunications, data communications and cable TV equipment manufacturers around the globe. In certain cases, we sell our products to our competitors or other component manufacturers for their resale or integration into their own products. A small number of customers have accounted for a significant portion of our net revenue. Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 45%, 52% and 53% of our revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Tellabs Operations, Inc. (“Tellabs”) and Hua Wei Technologies Co. Ltd. (“Huawei”) each accounted for greater than 10% of our revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers, although potentially not the same customers period to period. For further information, please see “Concentration of Credit Risk” under “Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are substantially dependent upon orders we receive and fill on a short-term basis. We do not have contracts with our customers that provide any assurance of future sales, and sales are typically made pursuant to individual purchase orders, often with extremely short lead times, and which are frequently subject to revision or cancellation. Because of the possibility of changes in delivery or acceptance schedules, cancellations of orders, returns or price reductions, we do not believe that backlog is a reliable indicator of our future revenues.
Marketing, Sales and Customer Support
We market and sell our products through both direct sales and distribution channels. We use a global direct sales force based in the U.S. and Asia. Our direct sales force works with our product engineers, product marketing and sales operations teams, in an integrated approach to address our customers’ current and future needs. We currently have outside sales representatives and/or distributors selling our products in India, Israel, Italy, Japan and South Korea.
Our marketing team promotes our products within the communications industry. We gather and analyze market research data with the intent to become a market-driven supplier that provides cost-effective, value-add solutions to our customer base. Our marketing professionals help us to identify and define next-generation products by working closely with our customers and our research and development engineers. They also coordinate our participation in trade shows and design and implement our advertising effort. Our website provides customers with a comprehensive listing of our broad product portfolio. We provide extensive technical support to our customers during their design and qualification process as well as ongoing post-sales support.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities are focused on enhancing our current optical communications products and developing new technologies and products to serve the current and next-generation communication markets. Our engineering team has extensive design, packaging, processing, electrical, mechanical, firmware and software experience in the fields of fiber optic components, integrated optic interfaces and systems.
Our primary product research and development facilities are located in Fremont, California and Wuhan, China. We also perform product research and development at our facilities in Zhuhai, China, Hsinchu, Taiwan, and Fremont, California. Our research and development expense was $22.4 million, $18.2 million and $11.2 million in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
We currently manufacture substantially all of our subsystems, modules and components at our manufacturing facilities in Zhuhai, China. We manufacture our optical interconnect products at our facility in Taipei, Taiwan. We perform thin film optical coating and precision optics manufacturing in Shanghai, China. We maintain a pilot line at our headquarters in Fremont, California. Our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone maintains complete in-house manufacturing capabilities including component and module design, integration, production and testing. We plan to continue to invest resources in manufacturing management, engineering and quality control. We also plan to continue to develop automated manufacturing systems to provide higher throughput, improve yields and reduce manufacturing costs.
We own our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone totaling approximately 787,000 square feet. Our facility in the Zhuhai Free Trade Zone is used for administration, manufacturing, research and development and employee living quarters. We own our manfacutirng facility in Shanghai totaling approximately 46,000 square feet. We also own the Taipei facility totaling approximately 30,000 square feet which maintains complete in-house manufacturing capabilities for our optical interconnect products including product design, supply chain management, quality control, manufacturing and sales and marketing.
A number of critical raw materials used in manufacturing our products are acquired from single or limited source suppliers. The inability to obtain sufficient quantities of those materials may result in delays, increased costs and reductions in our product shipments.
We are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the storage, use, discharge and disposal of toxic or otherwise hazardous or regulated chemicals or materials used in our manufacturing processes. To date, such laws and regulations have not materially affected our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. We do not anticipate any material capital expenditures for environmental control facilities for the foreseeable future.
We have established a quality management system to assure that the products we provide to our customers meet or exceed industry standards. Our products undergo rigorous qualification tests and studies and are conducted according to Telcordia standards. Our ongoing reliability testing builds upon industry standards to establish continuous reliability improvements through intensive tests and performance measures. These systems are based on the international standard ISO 9001. Our U.S. headquarters are third-party certified to the ISO 9001-2008 standard and TL 9000 Telecommunications quality standard. Our manufacturing operations at Zhuhai, China are third-party certified to the ISO 9001-2008 standard, TL 9000 Telecommunications quality standard, and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 environmental management standards.
The markets in which we sell our products are highly competitive. Our overall competitive position depends upon a number of factors, including:
We believe that our principal competitors are the major manufacturers of optical subsystems and components, including both vendors selling to third parties and business divisions within communications equipment suppliers. The market for fiber optic modules is highly competitive and we expect competition to intensify in the future. Our primary competitors include Alliance Fiber Optic Products, Avago Technologies, DiCon Fiberoptics, FDK Corporation, Finisar, Furukawa, JDS Uniphase Corporation, NEL Hitachi Cable, NeoPhotonics, Oclaro, Optoplex Corporation, Santec Corporation, Accelink, O-Net, Source Photonics, Sumitomo Electric and numerous optical component manufacturers in China. We also face indirect competition from public and private companies providing non-fiber optic networking products that address the same networking needs that our products address.
Many of our current competitors and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, sales and marketing resources than we do. As a result, these competitors are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products. In addition, those of our competitors that have large market capitalization or cash reserves are in a much better position to acquire other companies in order to gain new technologies or products that may displace our products. Any of these potential acquisitions could give our competitors a strategic advantage. In addition, many of our competitors have much greater brand name recognition, more extensive customer bases, more developed distribution channels and broader product offerings than we do. These companies can use their broader customer bases and product offerings and adopt aggressive pricing policies to gain market share.
As of the filing date of this report, we had been granted 192 issued patents and had 5 patent applications pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office for various technologies and products. The terms of our patents are computed in accordance with United States federal patent statutes. In general, this means that a patent will have a term expiring twenty years from its filing date. In addition, we currently have 27 issued patents and 4 pending patent applications in the People’s Republic of China, 7 issued patents in Taiwan, 3 issued patents and 1 pending application in Canada, 1 issued patent and 2 pending applications in the European Union, and 1 pending application in Japan.
While we rely on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark law and restrictions on disclosure to protect our technology, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments, frequent product enhancements and reliable product maintenance are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. We cannot assure you that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology.
Protecting our intellectual property is critical to the success of our business. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, various unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. Policing unauthorized use of our products is difficult, and there can be no assurance that the steps taken by us will prevent misappropriation of our technology. Moreover, the laws of some foreign countries, including China, do not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States.
Litigation regarding intellectual property rights is common in the optical communications industry. We cannot make any assurances that third parties will not claim infringement by us with respect to our technology. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming to defend, result in costly litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, cause product shipment delays or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. Such royalty or licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. A successful claim of product infringement against us and our failure or inability to license the infringed or similar technology could seriously harm our financial condition.
As of July 1, 2012, we had approximately 3,454 employees worldwide, with approximately 135 employees located in the United States. None of our employees in the United States are represented by a labor union. All of our employees in China are represented by a labor union formed on November 6, 2001, pursuant to the requirements of the China’s Labor Union Law. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
The geographic breakdown of revenues by customers’ bill-to location was as follows (in thousands):
The breakdown of property, plant and equipment, net by geographical location was as follows (in thousands):
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers as of August 31, 2012:
Joseph Y. Liu, one of our founders, has served as our Chief Executive Officer since October 2002, and has served as a member of our Board of Directors since our inception in 1995, serving as Chairman of the Board since November 2009. Mr. Liu also served as our Chief Executive Officer from September 1999 to November 2001, and served as our Chairman of the Board from our inception in 1995 through May 2000 and again from November 2001 to August 2002. Mr. Liu currently serves on the board of directors of BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., a NASDAQ-listed analog device company, and has done so since October 2006. From 1994 to 1995, Mr. Liu was the General Partner of Techlink Technology Ventures. Prior to 1994, Mr. Liu spent ten years as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Techlink Semiconductor and Equipment Corp., a semiconductor equipment and technology company. Mr. Liu received his B.S. from Chinese Cultural University, Taiwan and his M.S. from California State University, Chico.
Shirley Yin has served as our Chief Financial Officer since August 2007. Ms. Yin joined Oplink in June 2000 as our Accounting Manager and was promoted to Controller in October 2003. From July 2007 to August 2007, Ms. Yin held the position of Vice President, Finance, and Acting Chief Financial Officer. Before joining Oplink, Ms. Yin spent three years at PricewaterhouseCoopers as a Business Assurance Senior Associate. She is a Certified Public Accountant. Ms. Yin received a Bachelor of Economics in Business Management from Zhongshan University in China and her M.S. in Accountancy from the University of Southern California.
Peter Lee has served as our Chief Operating Officer since August 2008. Mr. Lee joined Oplink in August 2000 and held positions as Production Manager, Product Engineering Manager, Director of Product Engineering and since April 2005, Senior Director of Product Line Management (“PLM”) and Operations. In May 2007, Mr. Lee was promoted to Vice President of Marketing and PLM, responsible for managing activities in PLM, manufacturing, research and development and strategic planning. Mr. Lee received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from National Taiwan University and his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Columbia University.
River Gong, our Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales, has served as our head of sales since February 2003. From January 2001 to February 2003, Ms. Gong served as our Sr. Director of Sales, from May 1999 to January 2001 she was Director of Sales, and from January 1998 to May 1999 she was Sales Manager. Prior to joining Oplink, Ms. Gong was Division Manager and Sales Manager of MP Fiber Optics (now Global Opticom), a fiber optics company, from January 1995 to December 1997. Prior to that, she was an architect in China for five years. Ms. Gong received her B.S. in Architecture from Harbin Institute University.
Stephen M. Welles has served as our Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since May 2008. Mr. Welles was an associate and of counsel with Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati in Palo Alto, California from October 1999 to April 2008, and was an associate with Ropes & Gray in Boston, Massachusetts from September 1996 to September 1999. He received his J.D. from Georgetown University and a B.A. in Economics from Boston College.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our directors as of August 31, 2011:
Joseph Y. Liu’s biography is set forth above under “Executive Officers.”
Chieh Chang has been a member of our Board of Directors since September 1995. Mr. Chang has served as Chief Executive Officer of BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., a NASDAQ-listed analog device company, since September 2008. Mr. Chang served on the board of directors of Genesis Microchip Inc., a NASDAQ-listed semiconductor company, from November 2004 until its acquisition by STMicroelectronics in January 2008. From February 2000 to February 2003, Mr. Chang served as Chief Executive Officer of Programmable Microelectronics Company, Inc. (now Chingis Technology Corporation), a fabless semiconductor design company. From April 1992 to August 1996, Mr. Chang was the Director of Technology at Cirrus Logic, Inc., a semiconductor company. Mr. Chang received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the National Taiwan University and his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from University of California, Los Angeles.
Tim Christoffersen has been a member of our Board of Directors since November 2009. Mr. Christoffersen served on the board of directors of Genesis Microchip Inc. from August 2002 until January 2008. From June 2004 to April 2006, Mr. Christoffersen was Chief Financial Officer of Monolithic Power Systems, Inc. (MPS), a semiconductor company, and served on MPS’s board of directors and as chairman of the board’s audit committee from March 2004 to July 2004. Mr. Christoffersen served as a financial consultant to technology companies from 1999 to 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Christoffersen served as Chief Financial Officer of NeoParadigm Labs, Inc. from 1998 to 1999 and as Chief Financial Officer of Chips and Technologies, Inc. from 1994 to 1998. Mr. Christoffersen was Executive Vice President, Director and Chief Operating Officer of Resonex, Inc. from 1991 to 1992. From 1986 to 1991, Mr. Christoffersen held several managerial positions with Ford Motor Company. Mr. Christoffersen is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Stanford University where he earned a B.A. in Economics. He also holds a Master’s degree in Divinity from Union Theological Seminary in New York City.
Jesse W. Jack has been a member of our Board of Directors since July 2002. Since January 2003, Mr. Jack has been self-employed as an attorney with The Law Offices of Jesse Jack. He is also the Vice President and General Counsel for I-Bus Corporation, a privately held company. From 1994 until January 2003, Mr. Jack was a partner in the law firm of Jack & Keegan, a California Limited Liability Partnership. Mr. Jack served on the board of directors of The Parkinson’s Institute from 1988 through 2000. Mr. Jack received his B.S. from California State University, San Jose and his J.D. from Hastings College of Law.
Hua Lee has been a member of our Board of Directors since February 2006. Mr. Lee has been Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara since 1990. Prior to his tenure at the University of California, Santa Barbara, he was on the faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Mr. Lee received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the National Taiwan University, and M.S. and PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
The following risk factors and other information included in this report should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risk factors actually occurs, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
A description of the risks and uncertainties associated with our business is set forth below. You should carefully consider such risks and uncertainties, together with the other information contained in this report and in our other public filings. If any of such risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition or operating results could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and elsewhere in this report and in our other public filings. The following is a discussion that highlights some of these risks. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business, operations or financial results.
We operate in a rapidly changing environment that involves many risks, some of which are beyond our control. The following is a discussion that highlights some of these risks. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business, operations or financial results.
Our quarterly revenues and operating results may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which may cause our stock price to drop.
It is difficult to forecast our revenues accurately. Our revenues, expenses and operating results have varied significantly from quarter to quarter in the past and may continue to fluctuate significantly in the future. Within the last two years, our revenue has fluctuated from a high of $53.5 million for the quarter ended April 3, 2011 to a low of $43.3 million for the quarter ended January 1, 2012, and our operating results have fluctuated from GAAP net income of $26.3 million for the quarter ended July 3, 2011 to a GAAP net loss of $5.2 million for the quarter ended July 1, 2012, our most recently completed quarter. The factors that are likely to cause these variations include, among others:
We expect volatility in our stock price, which could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
We expect the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly. Within the last two years, the market price of our common stock has fluctuated from an intra-day low of $11.97 on July 12, 2012 to an intra-day high of $29.48 on February 18, 2011. These fluctuations may occur in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:
Shifts in our product mix and continuous pricing pressure may result in declines in our gross margins.
Our gross profit margins have fluctuated from period to period, and these fluctuations are expected to continue in the future. Within the last two years, our gross profit margin has fluctuated from 36.7% in the quarter ended January 2, 2011 to 30.7% for the quarter ended April 1, 2012. Factors that may cause our margins to fluctuate include shifts in our product, decreases in average selling prices for our products, our ability to successfully develop new products, and our ability to manage manufacturing, labor and materials cost. We must purchase the primary components going into certain of our product families, including our ROADM products, from third party suppliers, which can limit our ability to improve gross margin on sales of such products. In addition, our industry has been characterized by declining product prices over time, and we are under continuous pressure to reduce our prices to increase or even maintain our market share.
Resources devoted to research and development may not yield new products that achieve commercial success.
We are currently increasing our expenditures on research and development, with the goal of developing and introducing new products to serve our current market. In addition, we are devoting resources to a new business area referred to as Mobile Interactive or Internet of Things, which involves connecting sensors, cameras and other devices to smart phones, tablets and laptops. We are at an early stage with this venture and do not expect meaningful
revenue in the immediate term. The process of developing new products and a new business line entails considerable uncertainty. As such, we can make no assurances that any of the products we plan to develop will be commercially successful, and there is a substantial risk that our research and development expenditures will fail to generate any meaningful return of the investment of such resources.
We are subject to the cyclical nature of the telecommunications equipment market and any future downturn may reduce demand for our products and revenue.
The markets in which we compete are tied to the aggregate capital expenditures by carriers as they build out and upgrade their network infrastructure. These markets are highly cyclical and characterized by constant and rapid technological change, price erosion, evolving standards and wide fluctuations in product supply and demand. In the past, these markets have experienced significant downturns, often connected with, or in anticipation of, the maturation of product cycles for both manufacturers’ and their customers’ products and with declining general economic conditions. These downturns have been characterized by diminished product demand, production overcapacity, high inventory levels and accelerated erosion of average selling prices.
Our historical results of operations have been subject to substantial fluctuations, and we may experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in future results of operations. Any future downturn in the markets in which we compete could significantly reduce the demand for our products and therefore may result in a significant reduction in revenue. It may also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock. Our revenue and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected in the future due to changes in demand from individual customers or cyclical changes in the markets utilizing our products.
In addition, the communications networks industry from time to time has experienced and may again experience a pronounced downturn. To respond to a downturn, many carriers may slow their capital expenditures, cancel or delay new developments, reduce their workforces and inventories and take a cautious approach to acquiring new equipment, which would have a negative impact on our business. Weakness in the global economy or a future downturn in the communications networks industry may cause our results of operations to fluctuate from year-to-year, harm our business, and may increase the volatility of the price of our common stock.
Further, as the communications industry consolidates and realigns to accommodate technological and other developments, our customers and service provider end users may consolidate or align with other entities in a manner that may delay orders and harms our business. Our customers’ continued outsourcing might result in their utilizing large well-established contract manufacturers to provide final system assembly, rather than utilizing us for final system assembly. We may therefore be required to provide lower level components to these contract manufacturers rather than final system assembly to our current customers, potentially resulting in reduced revenues and lower gross margins and profits. Furthermore, these contract manufacturers may seek other source of components, which could harm our operating results.
We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues, and any decrease in revenues from, or loss of, these customers without a corresponding increase in revenues from other customers would harm our operating results.
We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues. Our dependence on orders from a relatively small number of customers makes our relationship with each customer critical to our business.
Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 45%, 52% and 53% of our revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Tellabs Operations, Inc. (“Tellabs”) and Hua Wei Technologies Co. Ltd. (“Huawei”) each accounted for greater than 10% of our revenues for the fiscal years ended July 1, 2012, July 3, 2011 and June 27, 2010. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers.
We may not be the sole source of supply to our customers, and they may choose to purchase products from other vendors. The loss of one or more of our significant customers, our inability to successfully develop relationships with additional customers or future price reductions could cause our revenue to decline significantly. Our dependence on a small number of customers may increase if the fiber optic components and subsystems industry and our other target markets continue to consolidate.
Our ROADM Optical Switching and Routing product accounts for a significant portion of our revenues.
Our ROADM products account for a substantial portion of our revenues. Quarterly revenues from our ROADM products have fluctuated significantly, and we expect the fluctuations to continue. For example, our ROADM revenues fluctuated from a low of $4.2 million in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2010 to a high of $14.2 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2011. We expect the fluctuations in ROADM revenues to continue in the near and medium term.
There is intense competition in the industry to supply ROADM products to our customers. Currently, our ROADM product is sold primarily to one customer. We are not the sole source supplier for our customer, and we must compete with other suppliers for the business of our ROADM customer.
Further, because the primary components of our ROADM product are available from third party vendors, our competitors may be able to introduce additional competing ROADM products without significant expenditures of resources and without long delays to market. The vendors that provide the primary and critical component to our ROADM product could begin to compete with us by selling completed ROADM products or could be acquired by another company, which could result in us losing all of our current ROADM business.
Our cost advantage from having our manufacturing and most of our R&D in China may diminish over time due to increasing labor costs.
The labor market in China, particularly in the manufacturing-heavy Southeast region of China where our manufacturing facilities are located, has become more challenging for employers, and many companies are facing higher costs due to increased wages. We have recently increased our wage rates at our Zhuhai facility by approximately 10% in fiscal 2012 and more than 20% and 30% in fiscal 2011 and 2010, respectively, due to government-mandated increases in minimum wage levels. We expect that we may be required to increase wages even more in the future due to market conditions and/or additional government mandates. If labor costs in China continue to increase, our gross margins and profit margins and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, our competitive advantage against competitors with manufacturing in traditionally higher cost countries would be diminished.
If our liability for U.S. and foreign taxes is greater than we have anticipated and reserved for, our operating results may suffer.
We are subject to taxation in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions in which we do business, including China. We believe that we have adequately estimated and reserved for our income tax liability. However, our business operations, including our transfer pricing for transactions among our various business entities operating in different tax jurisdictions, may be audited at any time by the U.S., Chinese or other foreign tax authorities. In addition, we have estimated our U.S. tax liability assuming the benefit of substantial net operating loss carryforwards. As of July 1, 2012, we conducted an Internal Revenue Code Section 382 (“Sec. 382”) analysis with respect to our net operating loss and credit carryforwards and determined that there was no limitation. It is possible that subsequent ownership changes may limit the utilization of these tax attributes.
A number of factors may adversely impact our future effective tax rates, such as:
A change in our effective tax rate due to any of these factors may adversely impact our future results from operations. Also, changes in tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our ability to utilize cash in a tax efficient manner.
Because we depend on third parties to supply some of our materials and components, we may not be able to obtain sufficient quantities of these materials, which could limit our ability to fill customer orders and harm our operating results.
We depend on third parties to supply the materials and components we use to manufacture our products. A number of our third-party suppliers are currently experiencing capacity issues, and we are facing shortages and/or delays in the availability and delivery of materials and components. Difficulties in obtaining materials and components may delay or limit our product shipments, which could result in lost orders and/or our increased lead-times for delivering products to our customers. We obtain most of our critical materials and components from a single or limited number of suppliers and generally do not have long-term supply contracts with them. We could also experience discontinuation of key components, price increases and late deliveries from our suppliers. In addition, some of our suppliers are competitors who may choose not to supply components to us in the future.
We may be involved in intellectual property disputes in the future, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling or using the challenged technology.
Participants in the communications and fiber optic components and subsystems markets in which we sell our products have experienced frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Numerous patents in these industries are held by others, including our competitors. In addition, from time to time, we have become aware of the possibility or have been notified that we may be infringing certain patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Regardless of their merit, responding to such claims can be time consuming, divert management’s attention and resources and may cause us to incur significant expenses. In addition, intellectual property claims against us could invalidate our proprietary rights and force us to do one or more of the following:
Any of these actions could result in a substantial reduction in our revenue and could result in losses over an extended period of time.
Our products may have defects that are not detected until full deployment of a customer’s equipment, which could result in a loss of customers, damage to our reputation and substantial costs.
Our products are deployed in large and complex optical networks and must be compatible with other system components. Our products can only be fully tested for reliability when deployed in these networks for long periods of time. Our customers may discover errors, defects or
incompatibilities in our products after they have been fully deployed and operated under peak stress conditions. Our products may also have errors, defects or incompatibilities
that are not found until after a system upgrade is installed. Errors, defects, incompatibilities or other problems with our products could result in:
Our sales are mostly made pursuant to short-lead-time purchase orders, and therefore our revenue and financial results are difficult to predict.
We are substantially dependent on orders we receive and fill on a short-term basis. We do not have contracts with our customers that provide any assurance of future sales, and sales are typically made pursuant to individual purchase orders, often with extremely short lead times. Accordingly, our customers:
As a result, we cannot rely on orders in backlog as a reliable and consistent source of future revenue. Moreover, our expense levels are based in part on our expectations of future revenue, and we may be unable to adjust costs in a timely manner in response to further revenue shortfalls. This can result in significant quarterly fluctuations in our operating results.
If we are unable to develop new products and product enhancements that achieve market acceptance, our revenues could decline, which would harm our operating results.
The market for our products is characterized by rapid technological change, new and improved product introductions, changes in customer requirements and evolving industry standards. Our future success will depend to a substantial extent on our ability to develop, introduce and support cost-effective new products and technologies on a timely basis.
Our failure to predict market needs accurately or to develop or obtain through acquisition new products or product enhancements in a timely manner may harm market acceptance and sales of our products. If the development of our products or any other future products takes longer than we anticipate, or if we are unable to develop and introduce these products to market, our revenues could suffer and we may not gain market share. Even if we are able to develop and commercially introduce new products, the new products may not achieve widespread market acceptance.
The development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and highly skilled engineering and development personnel, as well as the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. Because the costs for research and development of new products and technology are expensed as incurred, such costs will have a negative impact on our reported net operating results until such time, if ever, that we generate revenue from products or technology resulting from such research and development. If we fail to develop and deploy new cost-effective products and technologies or enhancements of existing products
on a timely basis, or if we experience delays in the development, introduction or enhancement of our products and technologies, our products may no longer be competitive, our revenue will decline and we may have inventory that may become obsolete or in excess of future customer demand. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our new products will gain market acceptance or that we will be able to respond effectively to product announcements by competitors, technological changes or emerging industry standards. Our failure to respond to product announcements, technological changes or industry changes in standards would likely prevent our products from gaining market acceptance and harm our competitive position.
Our markets are highly competitive, some of our customers are also our competitors, and our other customers may choose to purchase our competitors’ products rather than our products or develop internal capabilities to produce their own fiber optic modules.
The market for fiber optic components, modules and subsystems is highly competitive and we expect competition to intensify in the future. Our primary competitors include Alliance Fiber Optics Products, Avago Technologies, Oclaro, DiCon Fiberoptics, Sumitomo Electric, FDK Corporation, Finisar, Furukawa, NEL Hitachi Cable, NeoPhotonics, OpNext, Source Photonics, Santec Corporation, JDS Uniphase Corporation, Accelink, O-Net and numerous optical component manufacturers in China. We also face indirect competition from public and private companies providing non-fiber optic networking products that address the same networking needs that our products address.
Many of our current competitors and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, sales and marketing resources than we do. As a result, these competitors are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products. In addition, those of our competitors that have large market capitalization or cash reserves are in a much better position to acquire other companies in order to gain new technologies or products that may displace our products. Any of these potential acquisitions could give our competitors a strategic advantage. In addition, many of our competitors have much greater brand name recognition, more extensive customer bases, more developed distribution channels and broader product offerings than we do. These companies can use their broader customer bases and product offerings and adopt aggressive pricing policies to gain market share.
In addition, existing and potential customers may become competitors. These customers have the internal capabilities to integrate their operations by producing their own optical modules or by acquiring our competitors or the rights to produce competitive products or technologies, which may allow them to reduce their purchases or cease purchasing from us.
We expect our competitors to introduce new and improved products with lower prices, and we will need to do the same to remain competitive. We may not be able to compete successfully against either current or future competitors with respect to new products. We believe that competitive pressures may result in price reductions, reduced margins, additional write down of inventory and our loss of market share.
If our customers do not approve our manufacturing processes and qualify our products, we will lose significant customer sales and opportunities.
Customers generally will not purchase any of our products before they qualify them and approve our manufacturing processes and quality control system. If particular customers do not approve of our manufacturing processes, we will lose the sales opportunities with those customers.
Our customers typically expend significant efforts in evaluating and qualifying our products and manufacturing process prior to placing an order. This evaluation and qualification process frequently results in a lengthy sales cycle, typically ranging from nine to twelve months and sometimes longer. Generally, customers consider a wide range of issues before purchasing our products, including interoperation with other components, product performance and reliability. Even after this evaluation process, it is possible that a potential customer will not purchase our products. In addition, our customers’ product purchases are frequently subject to unplanned processing and other delays, particularly with respect to larger customers for which our products represent a very small percentage of their overall purchase activity. If sales forecasts to specific customers are not realized, our revenue and results of operations may be negatively impacted. Long sales cycles may cause our revenues
and operating results to vary significantly and unexpectedly from quarter to quarter, which could cause volatility in our stock price.
If we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses or technologies, our operating results may be harmed.
We have pursued and expect to continue to pursue acquisitions of businesses and technologies, or the establishment of joint venture arrangements, that could expand our business. The negotiation of potential acquisitions or joint ventures, as well as the integration of an acquired or jointly developed business or technology, could cause diversion of management’s time and other resources or disrupt our operations. Future acquisitions could result in:
Our acquisition of businesses or technologies will require significant commitment of resources. We may be required to pay for any acquisition with cash, but we cannot be certain that additional capital will be available to us on favorable terms, if at all. Potential acquisitions also involve numerous risks, including:
If we fail to effectively manage our manufacturing capability, produce products that meet our customers’ quality requirements and achieve acceptable production yields in China, we may not be able to deliver sufficient quantities of products that meet all of our customers’ order requirements in a timely manner, which would harm our operating results.
We manufacture substantially all of our products in our facilities in China. The quality of our products and our ability to ship products on a timely basis may suffer if we cannot effectively maintain the necessary expertise and resources to effectively manage our manufacturing activities in China.
Because manufacturing our products involves complex and precise processes and the majority of our manufacturing costs are relatively fixed, manufacturing yields are critical to our results of operations. Factors that affect our manufacturing yields include the quality of raw materials used to make our products, the quality of workmanship, the prior experience in manufacturing the specific product and our manufacturing processes. The inadvertent use by our suppliers in using defective materials could significantly reduce our manufacturing yields.
Changes in our manufacturing processes or those of our suppliers could also impact our yields. In some cases, existing manufacturing techniques, which involve substantial manual labor, may not allow us to meet our manufacturing yield goals cost-effectively so that we maintain acceptable gross margins while meeting the cost
targets of our customers. We will need to develop new manufacturing processes and techniques that will involve higher levels of automation in order to increase our gross margins and help achieve the targeted cost levels of our customers. We may not achieve manufacturing cost levels that will allow us to achieve acceptable gross margins or fully satisfy customer demands. Additionally, our competitors are automating their manufacturing processes. If we are unable to achieve higher levels of automation and our competitors are successful, it will harm our gross margins. Additional risks associated with managing our manufacturing processes and capability in China include:
Communications equipment suppliers typically require that their vendors commit in advance to provide specified quantities of products over a given period of time. We may not be able to pursue many large orders from these suppliers if we do not have sufficient manufacturing capabilities to enable us to commit to provide them with their specified quantities of products. If we are unable to commit to deliver sufficient quantities of our products to satisfy a customer’s anticipated needs, we likely will lose the order and the opportunity for significant sales to that customer for a lengthy period of time. Furthermore, if we fail to fulfill orders to which we have committed, we will lose revenue opportunities and our customer relationships may be harmed.
If we fail to predict our manufacturing requirements accurately, we could incur additional carrying costs and have excess and obsolete inventory or we could experience manufacturing delays, which could cause us to lose orders or customers.
We currently use historical data, a backlog of orders and estimates of future requirements to determine our demand for components and materials. We must accurately predict both the demand for our products and the lead time required to obtain the necessary components and materials. Lead times for components and materials vary significantly depending on factors such as the specific supplier, the size of the order, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. As a result, we generally maintain high levels of inventories that periodically cause us to have excess and obsolete inventory. However, if we were to underestimate our purchasing requirements, manufacturing could be interrupted, resulting in delays in shipments, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and margins.
We depend on key personnel to manage our business effectively in a rapidly changing market, and if we are unable to retain our key employees and hire additional personnel, our ability to sell our products could be harmed.
Our future success depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key engineering, finance, sales, marketing, manufacturing and support personnel. In addition, we depend substantially upon the continued services of key management personnel at our Chinese subsidiaries. In addition, we do not have “key person” life insurance policies covering any of our employees. Our loss of any key employee, the failure of any key employee to perform in his or her current position, or the inability of our officers and key employees to expand, train and manage our employee base may prevent us from executing our growth strategy.
Our ability to continue to attract and retain highly-skilled personnel will be a critical factor in determining whether we will be successful in the future. Competition for highly-skilled personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting, assimilating or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs.
We are exposed to currency rate fluctuations and exchange controls that could adversely impact our operating results.
Significant portions of our operations are conducted in currencies other than the United States dollar, particularly in Chinese Renminbi and the new Taiwan dollar. Our operating results are therefore subject to
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Any significant revaluation of the Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our cash flows, revenues, operating results and financial position. We will continue to experience foreign currency gains and losses.
Moreover, China’s government imposes controls on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and the remittance of currency out of China. Any shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our Chinese subsidiaries to obtain and remit sufficient foreign currency. Our business could be negatively impacted if we are unable to convert and remit our sales received in Renminbi into U.S. dollars.
If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology, our ability to succeed will be harmed.
Our ability to compete successfully and achieve future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we have taken may not prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries, such as China, where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology, our ability to succeed will be harmed. We may in the future initiate claims or litigation against third parties for infringement of our proprietary rights. These claims could result in costly litigation and the diversion of the attention of our technical and management personnel.
Our failure to comply with governmental regulations could subject us to liability. Laws could be enacted that increase the risks and costs to Oplink.
Failure to comply with a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations in the United States, China and Taiwan could subject us to criminal, civil and administrative penalties.
Our products are subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations that regulate the export of products and disclosure of technical information to foreign countries and citizens. In some instances, these laws and regulations may require licenses for the export of products to, and disclosure of technology in, some countries, including China and Taiwan, and disclosure of technology to foreign citizens. We have generally relied on self-classification in determining whether an export license is required and have determined that export licenses are not required. As we develop and commercialize new products and technologies, the list of products and technologies subject to U.S. export controls changes, or in the event that the relevant export authorities disagree with the outcome of our self-classification, we may be required to obtain export licenses or other approvals with respect to those products and technologies and may possibly be subject to penalties under applicable laws. We cannot predict whether these licenses and approvals will be required and, if so, whether they will be granted. The failure to obtain any required license or approval could harm our business.
We ship inventory and other materials to and from our facilities in China and Taiwan and, as a result, are subject to various Chinese, Taiwanese and U.S. customs-related laws. Given the geographic distance and changing regulations and governmental standards, it can be difficult to monitor and enforce compliance with customs laws. Our customs practices in China have been reviewed by local governmental authorities in China and will be reviewed periodically in the future. The authorities may determine that additional duties must be paid or that certain of our practices must be changed. The U.S. Customs Service may also require us to revise product classifications from time to time with respect to various items imported into the United States. In such cases we may be required to pay any increase in customs duty to account for the difference in duty actually paid by Oplink and the duty owed under the amended product classification, and may also be subject to penalties under applicable laws.
We employ a number of foreign nationals in our U.S. operations and, as a result, we are subject to various laws related to the status of those employees with the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. We also send our U.S. employees to China and Taiwan from time to time and for varying durations of time to assist with our Chinese operations. Depending on the durations of such arrangements, we may be required to withhold and pay personal income taxes in respect of the affected U.S. employees directly to the Chinese and Taiwanese tax authorities, and the affected U.S. employees may be required to register with various Chinese and Taiwanese governmental authorities. If we fail to comply with the foregoing laws and regulations or any other applicable laws and regulations, we may incur liabilities.
In addition, we are subject to laws relating to the storage, use, discharge and disposal of toxic or otherwise hazardous or regulated chemicals or materials used in our manufacturing processes. While we believe that we are currently in compliance in all material respects with these laws and regulations, if we fail to store, use, discharge or dispose of hazardous materials appropriately, we could be subject to substantial liability or could be required to suspend or adversely modify our manufacturing operations.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may adversely affect our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective.
Disruption to commercial activities in the United States or in other countries, particularly in China and Taiwan, may adversely impact our results of operations, our ability to raise capital or our future growth.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from customers located outside the United States and substantial portions of our operations are located in China and Taiwan. Our international operations expose us to a number of additional risks associated with international operations, including, without limitation:
To the extent that such disruptions interfere with our commercial activities, our results of operations could be harmed.
Substantially all of Oplink’s manufacturing operations are located in China and are subject to the laws and regulations of China. Our operations in China may be adversely affected by changes in the laws and regulations of China, such as those relating to taxation, import and export tariffs, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. China’s central or local governments may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations, which would require additional expenditures. Our results of operations and financial condition may be harmed by changes in the political, economic or social conditions in China.
Provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law and other arrangements may have anti-takeover effects that could prevent any change in control, which could negatively affect your investment.
Provisions of Delaware law and of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions permit us to:
In addition, on September 13, 2002, our Board of Directors adopted a share purchase rights plan, which has certain additional anti-takeover effects. Specifically, the terms of the plan provide for a dividend distribution of one preferred share purchase right for each outstanding share of common stock. These rights would cause substantial dilution to a person or group that attempts to acquire us on terms not approved by our Board of Directors. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
We own the following facilities as of July 1, 2012:
In addition to these properties, we lease an approximately 8,400 square feet facility in Hsinchu, Taiwan for research and development. The lease expires on December 31, 2012. We also lease smaller facilities in the U.S., Taiwan and China, which are used for research and development, sales and marketing and supply chain management.
We believe that our facilities are currently adequate for our purposes. We believe that suitable additional or replacement spaces, if needed, will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.
For a discussion of legal proceedings, please see “Note 14 – Commitments and contingencies” in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity
Our common stock has been quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “OPLK” since our initial public offering in October 2000. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our common stock. The following table sets forth the range of high and low closing sale prices for our common stock for each period indicated:
As of August 26, 2012, there were approximately 62 stockholders of record of our common stock, and a substantially greater number of beneficial owners. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently expect to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Stock Performance Graphs and Cumulative Total Return
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ Composite and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index for each of the last five fiscal years ended June 30. Our fiscal year ends on a different day each year because our year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30 of each calendar year. However, for convenience, the amounts shown below are based on a June 30 fiscal year end. “Total return,” for the purpose of this graph, assumes an investment of $100 at the beginning of such period and the reinvestment of any dividends. The comparison in the graphs below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
Repurchases of Equity Securities
The following table shows the monthly stock repurchases during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012 (in thousands, except per share data):
On May 25, 2010, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to $40 million of our common stock. $16.0 million and $5.5 million of our common stock were repurchased under this repurchase program in fiscal 2011 and 2010, respectively. In fiscal 2012, we repurchased 1.2 million shares at an average price of $15.98 per share for a total purchase price of $18.5 million under this program. This program was completed as of October 2, 2011. On October 27, 2011, we announced that our Board of Directors approved a new program to repurchase up to $40 million of our common shares. In fiscal 2012, we repurchased 0.6 million shares at an average price of $14.30 per share for a total purchase price of $8.4 million under this program.
As of July1, 2012, approximately $31.6 million was available for future purchase under this share repurchase program. Repurchases under the program will be made in open market or privately negotiated transactions in compliance with the Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 10b-18, subject to market conditions, applicable legal requirements and other factors.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Information regarding our equity compensation plans, including both stockholder approved plans and non-stockholder approved plans, will be contained in our definitive Proxy Statement with respect to our Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the caption “Equity Compensation Plan Information,” and is incorporated by reference into this report.
The data set forth below are qualified in their entirety by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data
(1) Fiscal 2012 included a $3.3 million patent litigation settlement with Finisar.
(2) Fiscal 2012 included a $8.1 million income tax provision related to the implementation of the international structure in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012. Fiscal 2011 included a $22.6 million income tax benefit related to the release of valuation allowance in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011.
(3) We acquired approximately 94.1% of the outstanding shares of Emit Technology Co., Ltd. (“Emit”) in fiscal 2010. The number of additional Emit’s outstanding shares purchased in fiscal 2011 was immaterial. We did not purchase any additional Emit’s outstanding shares in fiscal 2012. As a result, fiscal year 2010 included financial results from Emit since the acquisition date while fiscal 2012 and 2011 had a full year of financial results from Emit.
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
This discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including, without limitation, statements regarding our anticipated revenues, gross margins and expense levels for future periods, and other statements reflecting our expectations, beliefs, intentions or future strategies that are signified by the words “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate” or “assume” or similar language. All forward-looking statements included herein are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. We caution you that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. In evaluating our business, you should also carefully consider the information set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in Item 1A above in addition to the information contained in this Item 7. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with “Item 6. Selected Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
We design, manufacture and sell optical networking components and subsystems. Our products expand optical bandwidth, amplify optical signals, monitor and protect wavelength performance, redirect light signals, ensure bandwidth distribution connectivity and provide signal transmission and reception within an optical network. Our products enable greater and higher quality bandwidth over longer distances, which reduces network congestion and transmission cost per bit. Our products also enable optical system manufacturers to provide flexible and scalable bandwidth to support the increase of data traffic on the Internet and other public and private networks.
We offer our customers design, integration and optical manufacturing solutions (“OMS”) for the production and packaging of highly-integrated optical subsystems and turnkey solutions, based upon a customer’s specific product design and specifications. We also offer solutions with lower levels of component integration for customers that place more value on flexibility than would be provided with turnkey solutions.
Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to June 30. Fiscal years 2012 and 2010 consisted of 52 weeks. Fiscal 2011 was a 53-week fiscal year, one week more than a typical fiscal year. The extra week was included in the first quarter of fiscal 2011.
Revenues. We generate substantially all of our revenues from the sale of fiber optic components and subsystems. Our products are generally categorized into the four following major groups: (1) bandwidth creation products, which include wavelength expansion and optical amplification products; (2) bandwidth management products, which include optical switching products and wavelength performance monitoring and protection products; (3) transmission products, which include fiber optic transmitters, receivers, transceivers and transponders; and (4) optical interconnect products, which include signal connectivity and distribution products.
Cost of Revenues. Our cost of revenues consists of raw material, salaries including stock compensation expense and related personnel expenses, manufacturing overhead, provisions for excess and obsolete inventories, amortization of intangible assets, and warranty costs. We expect cost of revenues, as a percentage of revenues, to fluctuate from period to period. Our gross margins will primarily be affected by mix of products sold, salaries and related personnel expenses, manufacturing volume, pricing policies, production yield, costs incurred in improving manufacturing processes, provisions for excess and obsolete inventories and warranty costs.
Research and Development Expenses. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related personnel costs, depreciation, non-recurring engineering charges and prototype costs, patent filing costs and fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, all of which relate to the design, development, testing, pre-manufacturing and significant improvement of our products. We expense our research and development costs as they are incurred.
Sales and Marketing Expenses. Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related expenses for marketing, sales, customer service and application engineering support personnel, commissions paid to internal and external sales representatives, as well as costs associated with trade shows and other marketing expenses.
General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries including stock compensation expense and related expenses for executive, finance, accounting, and human resources personnel, professional fees and other corporate expenses.
Use of Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to product returns, accounts receivable, inventories, tangible and intangible assets, warranty obligations, stock compensation, income taxes, contingencies and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates due to actual outcomes being different from those on which we based our assumptions. These estimates and judgments are reviewed by management on an ongoing basis and by the Audit Committee at the end of each quarter prior to the public release of our financial results. We believe the following critical accounting policies, and our procedures relating to these policies, affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
We have identified the policies below as critical to our business operations and understanding of our financial condition and results of operations. A critical accounting policy is one that is both material to the presentation of our consolidated financial statements and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments that could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. These policies may require us to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the estimate, and different estimates that we could have used, or changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, may have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. Our critical accounting policies cover the following areas:
Revenue Recognition and Product Returns
We recognize revenue from product sales upon delivery of the product or customer acceptance, whichever is later, provided that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred and no significant obligations remain, the fee is fixed or determinable and collectibility is reasonably assured. We recognize revenue associated with contract-related cancellation payments from customers when a formal agreement is signed or a purchase order is issued by the customer covering these payments and we determine the collectibility of the cancellation payments to be reasonably assured. In addition, we estimate future product returns based upon actual historical return rates and reduce our revenue by these estimated future returns. If the historical data we use to calculate these estimates does not properly reflect future returns, future estimates could be revised accordingly.
Depreciation expenses are computed using the straight-line method based upon the useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives of 20 to 30 years are used for buildings and 3 to 10 years are used for manufacturing and engineering equipment. Estimated useful lives of 2 to 5 years are used for computer hardware and software. In addition, we have land occupancy rights for a period of 50 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method based upon the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the lease term of the respective assets. Land and construction in progress are not depreciated. Improvements and betterments are capitalized if they extend the useful life of the asset. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Net gain or loss on sale and disposal of fixed assets is recognized in the period which the gain or loss occurs.
We provide reserves for the estimated cost of product warranties at the time revenue is recognized based on historical experience of known product failure rates and expected material and labor costs to provide warranty services. We generally provide a one-year warranty on our products. Additionally, from time to time, specific warranty accruals may be made if unforeseen technical problems arise. Alternatively, if estimates are determined to be greater than the actual amounts necessary, we may reverse a portion of such provisions in future periods.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Our accounts receivable are derived from revenue earned from customers located in the United States, Canada, Europe, China, Japan and other countries. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers’ financial condition and currently require no collateral from our customers. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses in anticipation of the inability or unwillingness of customers to make required payments. When we become aware that a specific customer is unable to meet its financial obligations, such as the result of bankruptcy or deterioration in the customer’s operating results or financial position, we record a specific allowance equal to the amount due to reflect the level of credit risk in the customer’s outstanding receivable balance. We are not able to predict changes in the financial condition of customers, nor are we able to predict whether a customer experiencing financial difficulties will ultimately pay us the amounts owed. If the condition or circumstances of our customers deteriorates, estimates of the recoverability of trade receivables could be materially affected and we may be required to record additional allowances, which would negatively affect our operating results in that period. Alternatively, if our estimates are determined to be greater than the actual amounts necessary, we may reverse a portion of such allowance in future periods based on actual collection experience, which would positively increase our operating results in future periods.
Excess and Obsolete Inventory
We regularly assess the valuation of inventories and write down those inventories which are obsolete or in excess of forecasted usage to their estimated realizable value. Estimates of realizable value are based upon our analysis and assumptions including, but not limited to, forecasted sales levels by product, expected product lifecycle, product development plans and future demand requirements. If market conditions are less favorable than our forecast or actual demand from customers is lower than our estimates, we may be required to record additional inventory write-downs. At the point of write down, a new, lower-cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. If there were to be a sudden and significant decrease in demand for our products, or if there were a higher incidence of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, we could be required to increase inventory write-downs, and our gross margin could be adversely affected. If demand is higher than expected, we may sell inventories that had previously been written down as was the case in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010. In such instances, our gross margins were positively impacted by the utilization of previously reserved inventory of $4.6 million, $5.4 million and $5.8 million in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
We determine the appropriate classification of our investments in marketable securities at the time of purchase and reevaluate such designation as of each balance sheet date. Our marketable securities may be classified as either held-to-maturity or available-for-sale. Held-to-maturity securities represent those securities that we have both the intent and ability to hold to maturity and are carried at amortized cost. Available-for-sale securities represent those securities that do not meet the classification of held-to-maturity or trading securities and are carried at fair value. Should a decline in the fair value of an individual security or securities be judged to be other than temporary, the cost basis of the security would be written down to fair value and the amount of the write-down would be accounted for as a realized loss. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the magnitude of the decline in market value, the length of time the fair value has been below the cost basis of the security, our ability and intent to hold the security for a reasonable period of time sufficient for a forecasted recovery of fair value up to (or beyond) the cost of the security, and whether a credit loss exists.
We evaluate the recoverability of the carrying value of property, plant and equipment and identifiable intangible assets, whenever certain events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. These events or circumstances include, but are not limited to, a prolonged industry downturn, a significant decline in our market value, or significant reductions in projected future cash flows. In assessing the recoverability of long-lived assets, we generally compare the carrying value to the undiscounted future cash flows the assets are expected to generate. If the total of the undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, we would write down such assets based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. Fair value is generally determined by calculating the discounted future cash flows using a discount rate based upon our weighted average cost of capital, and specific appraisal in certain instances. Significant judgments and assumptions are required in the forecast of future operating results used in the preparation of the estimated future cash flows, including long-term forecasts of the amounts and timing of overall market growth and our percentage of that market, groupings of assets, discount rate and terminal growth rates. Changes in these estimates could have a material adverse effect on the assessment of long-lived assets, thereby requiring us to write down the assets. There was no impairment charge related to long-lived assets recorded in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010.
Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration paid for a business acquisition over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is measured and tested for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth fiscal quarter or more frequently if we believe indicators of impairment exist. The events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. The impairment test is a two-step process. In the event that we determine that the value of goodwill has become impaired, we will record an impairment loss during the fiscal quarter in which the determination is made.
Application of the goodwill impairment test requires us to make estimates and assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and goodwill impairment. We did not record any goodwill impairment charge in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010.
Fair Value Accounting
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities, which are required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as inherent risk, transfer restrictions and credit risk.
The fair value of our Level 1 financial assets is based on quoted prices in active markets for identical underlying securities and generally include money market funds. Determining fair value for Level 1 instruments generally does not require significant management judgment.
The fair value of our Level 2 financial assets is based on inputs observable for the underlying securities other than quoted prices included within Level 1 and generally include United States Treasury securities, United States government agency debt securities, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, and corporate bonds. These Level 2 instruments require more management judgment and subjectivity compared to Level 1 instruments which include determining which instruments are most similar to the instrument being priced, determining whether the market is active and determining which model-derived valuations are to be used when calculating fair value. We do not hold any financial assets or liabilities measured at fair value using Level 3 inputs, which requires significant management judgment.
In accordance with ASC Topic 805, “Business Combination” (“ASC 805”), we recognize separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any noncontrolling interests in the acquiree generally at their fair values as defined by ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”). Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred, which is generally measured at fair value, and the net of the acquisition date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Acquisition-related transaction costs and costs associated with restructuring activities initiated by us are accounted for as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred. We record the values of assets and liabilities based on independent valuations and internal estimate. The determination of fair value requires our management to make significant estimates and assumptions, and accordingly, our financial position or results of operations may be affected by changes in these estimates and assumptions.
We account for income taxes under the liability method, which recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their financial statement reported amounts, and for net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. We record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized.
As a multinational corporation, we are subject to taxation in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. The taxation of our business is subject to the application of multiple and sometimes conflicting tax laws and regulations as well as multinational tax conventions. Our effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic distribution of our worldwide earnings or losses, the tax regulations and tax holidays in each geographic region, and the availability of tax credits and carryforwards. The application of tax laws and regulations is subject to legal and factual interpretation, judgment and uncertainty. Tax laws themselves are subject to change as a result of changes in fiscal policy, changes in legislation, and the evolution of regulations and court rulings. Consequently, taxing authorities may impose tax assessments or judgments against us that could materially impact our tax liability and/or our effective income tax rate.
We are subject to income tax audits by the respective tax authorities in all of the jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of tax liabilities in each of these jurisdictions requires the interpretation and application of complex and sometimes uncertain tax laws and regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the provisions of ASC Topic 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”). If we ultimately determine that the payment of such a liability is not necessary, then we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which the determination is made that the liability is no longer necessary. We recognize accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefit as a component of provision for income taxes in the consolidated statement of operations. For further information, please see “Note 12 – Income Taxes” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In accordance with the provision of ASC Topic 718, “Compensation-Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”), we measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based payments awards, including employee stock options, restricted stock units and rights to purchase shares under employee stock purchase plans, based on their estimated fair value and recognize the costs in the financial statements over the employees’ requisite service period.
The fair value of employee restricted stock units is equal to the market value of our common stock on the date the award is granted. We estimate the fair value of employee stock options and the right to purchase shares under the employee stock purchase plan using the Black-Scholes valuation model. Black-Scholes valuation model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected term of options and the expected price volatility of the stock underlying such options. In addition, we are required to estimate the number of stock-based awards that will be forfeited due to employee turnover. Historical volatility is used in estimating the fair value of our stock compensation awards, while the expected term of our options is estimated based on historical trends. Changes in these inputs and assumptions can materially affect the measure of estimated fair value of our stock-based compensation expense. We expense the estimated fair value to earnings on a straight-line basis.
The Black-Scholes valuation model is developed for use in estimating the fair value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable. As our stock options and employee stock purchase plan awards have characteristics that differ significantly from traded options, and as changes in the subjective assumptions can materially affect the estimated value, our estimate of fair value may not accurately represent the value assigned by a third party in an arms-length transaction. There currently is no market-based mechanism to verify the reliability and accuracy of the estimates derived from the Black-Scholes option valuation model or other allowable valuation models, nor is there a method to compare and adjust the estimates to actual values. While our estimate of fair value and the associated charge to earnings materially affects our results of operations, it has no impact on our cash position.
There are significant variations among allowable valuation models, and there is a possibility that we may adopt a different valuation model or refine the inputs and assumptions under our current valuation model in the future resulting in a lack of consistency in future periods. Our current or future valuation model and the inputs and assumptions we make may also lack comparability to other companies that use different models, inputs, or assumptions, and the resulting differences in comparability could be material.
We are or have been subject to proceedings, lawsuits and other claims arising in the ordinary course of business. We evaluate contingent liabilities including threatened or pending litigation in accordance with GAAP. If the potential loss from any claim or legal proceedings is considered probable and the amount can be estimated, we accrue a liability for the estimated loss. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based upon management’s judgment and the best information available to management at the time. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates, which could materially impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Results of Operations for Fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010
Revenues decreased $23.9 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The decrease was primarily attributable to decreased unit shipments in ROADM optical switching and routing products and multiplexer products. A decline in average selling prices also contributed to the decrease in revenues in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The decreases in unit shipments and average selling price were driven by the softness in the telecommunications market. Partially offsetting these decreases was an increase in revenues from our transmission products, optical amplification products and monitoring and conditioning products due to increased demand from our customers.
Revenue increased $60.0 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. We acquired Emit Technology Co., Ltd. (“Emit”) in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. The acquisition of Emit contributed approximately $11.3 million and $2.6 million of revenues for fiscal 2011 and 2010, respectively. Excluding the impact of the Emit acquisition, revenues increased $51.3 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly driven by increased unit shipments in all our major product categories, in particular our ROADM optical switching and routing products, partially offset by a slight decline in average selling prices, which is a characteristic of the industry in which we operate. The increase in shipments was largely due to an increase in demands from our customers.
Historically, a relatively small number of customers have accounted for a significant portion of our revenue. Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, together accounted for 45%, 52% and 53% of our revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We expect that the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers.
Gross profit decreased in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 primarily driven by lower revenues and higher manufacturing overhead expenses, increased labor costs resulting from increased employee salary in China, and decreased utilization of previously reserved inventory partially offset by lower amortization expense of intangible assets as certain intangible assets acquired from previous acquisitions were fully amortized. The gross profit was positively impacted by the sale of previously reserved inventory of $4.6 million and $5.4 million in fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively.
The decrease in gross profit margin in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 was primarily driven by higher manufacturing overhead expense, increased labor costs as a percentage of revenues and lower utilization of previously reserved inventory. Partially offsetting these decreases was a decrease in amortization expense of intangible assets as a percentage of revenues.
The increase in gross profit in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was mainly driven by higher revenues, partially offset by higher material costs as a result of increased revenues, higher labor costs and manufacturing overhead expenses due to higher employee compensation expenses in China, and lower utilization of previously reserved inventory. During fiscal 2011, we increased our wage rates at our manufacturing facilities in Zhuhai by more than 20% due to government-mandated increases in minimum wage levels. Our gross profit for fiscal 2011 was positively impacted by sales of inventory that had been previously reserved of $5.4 million and was positively impacted by the sales of previously reserved inventory of $5.8 million in fiscal 2010.
Our gross profit margin increased in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 mainly due to lower manufacturing overhead expenses and material costs as a percentage of revenues, partially offset by higher labor costs as a percentage of revenues and lower utilization of previously reserved inventory.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses increased $4.2 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The increase was primarily due to higher salary and other employee related compensation expenses as a result of an increase in headcount, higher equipment expenses, R&D material and consulting expenses as we increased development efforts to bring new products to market.
Research and development expenses increased $7.1 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase mainly reflected higher salary and compensation expenses as a result of increases in headcount, salary and implementation of cash incentive plans and higher costs of materials associated with increase level of product development projects.
We believe that developing customer solutions at the prototype stage is critical to our strategic product development objectives. We further believe that, in order to meet the changing requirements of our customers, we will need to fund investments in several concurrent product development projects and to assign more employees to these projects. In addition, we intend to devote more resources to development of new products to serve our current market as well as products for expansion into new markets. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses in fiscal 2013 will increase compared to fiscal 2012. The research and development process can be expensive and prolonged and entails considerable uncertainty. As such, we can make no assurances that any of theproducts we plan to develop will be commercially successful, and there is a substantial risk that our research and development expenditures will fail to generate any meaningful return of the investment of such resources.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses increased $1.3 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The increase was primarily due to an increase in salary and other employee related compensation expenses attributable to an increased headcount and an increase in stock-based compensation expense. The increase in stock-based compensation expense in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 was primarily due to additional grants to new and existing employees. We expect sales and marketing expenses in fiscal 2013 will increase compared to fiscal 2012 primarily resulting from an increase in headcount related to our mobile interactive business.
Sales and marketing expenses increased $2.2 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly due to higher salary and compensation expenses driven by an increase in headcount and higher sales commission expenses as a result of increased revenues. Our acquisition of Emit in the third quarter of fiscal 2010 further contributed to the increase in sales and marketing expenses in fiscal 2011 compared to 2010.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses increased $4.3 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The increase was primarily due to higher salary, higher legal expenses related to patent litigation with Finisar and an expense of $3.3 million recognized in 2012 resulting from the litigation settlement we had with Finisar in December 2011. On December 14, 2011, we and our subsidiary, Optical Communications Products, Inc. entered into a Settlement and Cross License Agreement with Finisar, which resolved and settled all pending litigation between the parties and their respective affiliates. As part of the settlement, we paid $4.0 million to Finisar for a fully paid-up license to the Finisar patents asserted against us in the various lawsuits and granted a license to Finisar to our patents asserted against Finisar in the various lawsuits. All legal proceedings initiated by each party in all jurisdictions were dismissed. We determined that the portion of the $4.0 million attributable to past damage was approximately $3.3 million and was included in general and administrative expenses on our consolidated statements of operations in fiscal 2012. The remaining amount of $0.7 million was recorded as a prepaid royalty and will be amortized as cost of revenues over the period which we expect to benefit from the patents beginning in January 2012. During fiscal 2012, $49,000 was amortized as cost of revenues. As of July 1, 2012, $0.1 million was included in prepaid and other current assets and $0.5 million was included in other assets on our consolidated balance sheets.
General and administrative expenses decreased $0.4 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. Excluding the impact of stock-based compensation expense, general and administrative expenses increased $0.9 million, primarily due to higher litigation costs and higher salary and compensation expenses, partially offset by lower facility expenses. Stock-based compensation expense decreased $1.3 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010, mainly due to canceled or fully vested equity awards, partially offset by additional grants to new and existing employees in fiscal 2011.
Amortization of Acquired Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets decreased $2.7 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The decrease was primarily due to intangible assets from certain acquisitions becoming fully amortized. $0.6 million was included in the cost of revenues in fiscal 2012.
Amortization of intangible assets increased $0.2 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 primarily attributable to additional intangible assets acquired from the Emit acquisiton in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. $2.2 million was included in the cost of revenues in fiscal 2011 and 2010.
Net Gain on Sale and Disposal of Assets
Net gain on sale and disposal of assets increased $0.2 million in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. Net gain on sale and disposal of assets decreased $0.8 million in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. In fiscal 2010, we recognized a gain of $0.2 million on sales of certain intellectual property and recorded a gain of approximately $0.6 million on the dissolution of our subsidiaries. The gain on the dissolution of our subsidiaries primarily reflected the resolution of liabilities related to employee pension and compensation.
Interest Income and Other, Net
Interest income and other, net was flat in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011, as a decrease in interest income was offset by a decrease in currency exchange loss and an increase in other income in fiscal 2012. The decrease in interest income in fiscal 2012 was attributable to lower average interest rates and lower cash and investment balances during fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. The decrease in interest income and other, net in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was mainly due to lower yields on our investments.
Benefit (Provision) for Income Taxes. We recorded an income tax provision of $8.6 million in fiscal 2012, compared to an income tax benefit of $20.5 million in fiscal 2011. The income tax provision in fiscal 2012 was primarily attributable to the deferred tax implications of the transfer of certain intercompany liabilities. As a result of the transfer, certain deferred tax assets will not be realized by the U.S. entity. The income tax benefit in fiscal 2011 was attributable to the release of the valuation allowance of $22.6 millon.
We are in the process of expanding our international operations and staff to better support our expansion into international markets. This expansion includes the implementation of an international structure that includes certain licenses and other contractual arrangements between us and our wholly-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries. Our foreign subsidiaries have acquired the existing intellectual property for an initial payment. As a result of these changes and an expanding customer base from Asia, we expect that a significant percentage of our consolidated pre-tax income will be derived from, and reinvested in, our Asian operations. We anticipate that this pre-tax income will be subject to foreign income tax rates which are lower than the U.S. rates. We recorded an income tax provision of $8.1 million in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 related to the implementation of the international structure.
We recorded an income tax provision of $1.6 million in fiscal 2010. Excluding the impact of the valuation allowance release in fiscal 2011, our tax provision for fiscal 2011 would have been approximately $2.1 million, a $0.5 million increase compared to fiscal 2010. The increase was mainly due to higher taxable income from all jurisdictions.
We account for deferred taxes under ASC Topic 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”) which involves weighing positive and negative evidence concerning the realizability of our deferred tax assets in each jurisdiction. After considering evidence such as historical financial results, the sources of future taxable income and tax planning strategies, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011 we concluded that a valuation allowance was no longer required for the U.S. federal deferred tax assets and a portion of our state deferred tax assets. Therefore, we released the valuation allowance against the U.S. federal deferred tax assets and a portion of the state deferred tax assets at the end of fiscal year 2011.
At July 1, 2012, we had approximately $40.0 million of federal and $63.3 million of state net operating loss carryforwards. In fiscal 2012, we conducted an Internal Revenue Code Section 382 (“Sec. 382”) analysis with respect to our net operating loss and credit carryforwards and determined that there was no limitation. It is possible that subsequent ownership changes may limit the utilization of these tax attributes.
We are subject to income tax audits by the respective tax authorities in all of the jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of tax liabilities in each of these jurisdictions requires the interpretation and application of complex and sometimes uncertain tax laws and regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the provisions of ASC 740. If we ultimately determine that the payment of such a liability is not necessary, then we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which the determination is made that the liability is no longer necessary. For further information, please see “Note 12 - "Income Taxes" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Quarterly Results of Operations
The following table presents our operating results for the last eight quarters. The information for each of these quarters is unaudited but has been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, have been included to present fairly the unaudited quarterly results when read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes. These operating results are not necessarily indicative of the results of any future period.
Our revenues and operating results are likely to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and, as a result, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results will not be meaningful. You should not rely on our results for any one quarter as an indication of our future performance. Many of the factors that are likely to cause our quarterly results to vary are discussed in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors”.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through issuances of equity. As of July 1, 2012, we had cash, cash equivalents, short-term and long-term investments of $176.2 million, a decrease of $10.5 million compared to fiscal 2011. We had no outstanding debt at July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011. We believe that our current cash, cash equivalents and short-term and long-term investment balances will be sufficient to meet our operating and capital requirements for at least the next 12 months. We may use cash and cash equivalents from time to time to fund our acquisition of businesses and technologies. We may be required to raise funds through public or private financings, strategic relationships or other arrangements. We cannot assure you that such funding, if needed, will be available on terms attractive to us, or at all. Furthermore, any additional equity financing may be dilutive to stockholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants. Our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our ability to pursue our business strategy and achieve and maintain profitability.
Our operating activities provided cash of $23.6 million in fiscal 2012, a decrease of $12.1 million, compared to fiscal 2011. The net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2012 was primarily attributable to a net loss of $2.6 million adjusted by non-cash charges of 22.2 million and changes in net working capital of $4.0 million. Non-cash charges in fiscal 2012 included $7.7 million in depreciation and amortization, $5.8 million in stock-based compensation expense and $9.2 million of deferred income tax. Net cash provided by working capital related items was $4.0 million in fiscal 2012, primarily driven by a decrease in inventory of $6.4 million, a decrease in accounts receivable of $2.0 millionan, partially offset by an increase in prepayment and other assets of $2.4 million and a decrease in income tax payable of $1.1 million.
The decrease in inventory in fiscal 2012 was primarily attributable to a decrease in revenues and our efforts to align our inventory levels to meet current and future demand. In order to maintain an adequate supply of product for our customers, we must carry a certain level of inventory. Our inventory level may vary based primarily upon orders received from our customers, our forecast of demand for these products and lead-time for materials. These considerations are balanced against risk of obsolescence or potentially excess inventory levels. We generally expect the level of inventory to vary from one period to another as a result of changes in the level of sales.
The decrease in accounts receivable in 2012 was primarily due to the decreased shipments in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 compared to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011. Days sales outstanding (“DSO”) was 71 days for fiscal 2012 compared to 59 days for fiscal 2011. The increase in DSO was due to the longer payment terms extended to our key customers. We typically bill customers on an open account basis with net thirty to ninety day payment terms. We would generally expect the level of accounts receivable at the end of any quarter to reflect the level of sales in that quarter and to change from one period to another in a direct relationship to the change in the level of sales. Our level of accounts receivable would increase if shipments are made closer to the end of the quarter, if customers delayed their payments, or if we offered extended payment terms to our customers, both of which are more likely to occur during challenging economic times when our customers may have difficulty gaining access to sufficient credit on a timely basis.
The increase in prepaid and other assets in fiscal 2012 was primarily due to increases in balance of bankers’ acceptance notes, employee benefits related receivable and prepaid license fees resulting from the litigation settlement with Finisar.
The increase in income tax payable in fiscal 2012 was primarily due to the lower long term income tax payable balance in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011.
Our investing activities provided cash of $28.2 million due to sales and maturities of available for sale investments of $248.9 million and proceeds from sales of equipment of $0.4 million partially offset by purchases of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $208.8 million and purchases of property and equipment of $12.1 million. In addition, we used $0.2 million to purchase non-marketable equity securities in fiscal 2012. We expect our capital expenditure of approximately $10 million to $12 million in fiscal 2013.
Our financing activities used cash of $23.2 million due to $26.4 million cash used to repurchase our common stock and $1.2 million in tax withholding payments related to net share settlements of restricted stock units partially offset by $4.2 million cash proceeds from the exercise of employee stock options and the issuance of stock under our employee stock purchase plan and $0.2 million related to excess tax benefit from share-based compensation.
Our operating activities provided cash of $35.7 million in fiscal 2011 as a result of a net income of $48.5 million in fiscal 2011 increased by $9.3 million in non-cash charges of depreciation and amortization, $5.6 million in non-cash stock-based compensation expenses, and other non-cash items of $0.3 million, partially offset by a change in deferred income taxes of $22.9 million as a result of valuation allowance release, and a decrease in cash of $5.0 million as a result of a net change in assets and liabilities.
The change in net assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase in accounts receivable of $4.4 million, an increase in inventory of $2.3 million and a decrease in accounts payable of $2.5 million, partially offset by an increase in accrued liabilities and other liabilities of $0.8 million, an increase in income tax payable of $1.6 million and a decrease in prepaid expenses, other current assets and other assets of $1.8 million.
Accounts receivable used $4.4 million of cash primarily due to higher shipments in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 and improvement in our collection. Days sales outstanding (“DSO”) at the end of fiscal years ended July 3, 2011 and 2010 were 59 days and 77 days, respectively. Inventory used $2.3 million of cash in fiscal 2011 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases as a result of higher shipments. Prepaid expenses, other current assets and other assets provided $1.8 million mainly reflecting a decrease in the balance of bankers’ acceptance notes. Accounts payable used $2.5 million of cash in fiscal 2011, largely due to the change in the level of inventory purchase and a timing of payments to our vendors.
Our investing activities used cash of $26.0 million in fiscal 2011 as a result of purchases of available-for-sale investments of $185.7 million and purchases of equipment of $11.9 million, partially offset by sales and maturities of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $171.3 million and equipment sales of approximately $0.3 million. Approximately $4.6 million of our property and equipment purchases was prepayments for our facilities in China.
Our financing activities provided $1.8 million of cash in fiscal 2011 due to $19.0 million in proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options and purchase of our common stock through our employee stock purchase plan, partially offset by cash used for the repurchases of our common stock of $17.2 million.
Our operating activities provided cash of $16.9 million in fiscal 2010 as a result of a net income of $11.1 million for the period adjusted by $10.3 million in non-cash charges of depreciation and amortization, $6.0 million in non-cash stock-based compensation expenses and a change in deferred income taxes of $0.7 million, partially offset by a decrease in cash of $10.8 million as a result of a net change in assets and liabilities and other non-cash items of $0.4 million.
The change in net assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase in inventory of $10.2 million, an increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $6.0 million and a decrease in accrued liabilities and other liabilities of $0.2 million, partially offset by a decrease in accounts receivables of $0.4 million, an increase in accounts payable and other assets of $4.8 million and $0.4 million, respectively.
Accounts receivable provided $0.4 million of cash mainly driven by improved collections of receivables in fiscal 2010, partially offset by slightly higher shipments in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2010. DSO at the end of fiscal years ended June 27, 2010 and June 28, 2009 were 77 days and 80 days, respectively. Inventory used $10.2 million of cash in fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases as a result of anticipated higher shipments. Prepaid expenses and other current assets used $5.1 million of cash in fiscal 2010 primarily reflecting increased balance of bankers’ acceptance notes. Accounts payable provided cash of $4.8 million in fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increased level of inventory purchases to support increased revenue levels and a timing of payments to our vendors.
Our investing activities used cash of $10.6 million in fiscal 2010 as a result of purchases of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $231.0 million, net cash used in the acquisitions of Emit and Oridus, Inc. (“Oridus”) of $5.8 million, and purchases of equipment of $5.5 million, partially offset by sales and maturities of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments of $231.1 million and equipment sales of approximately $0.6 million. Approximately $0.7 million of our property and equipment purchases was for the construction of a second dormitory in Zhuhai, China.
Our financing activities used $15.3 million of cash in fiscal 2010 due to cash usage of $20.8 million for the repurchases of our common stock, partially offset by $5.5 million in proceeds from issuance of common stock in connection with the exercise of stock options and purchase of our common stock through our employee stock purchase plan.
As of July 1, 2012, we did not have any off-balance-sheet financing arrangements and have never established any special purpose entities.
Our contractual obligations as of July 1, 2012 have been summarized below (in thousands):
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For further information, please see “Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are exposed to market risk related to fluctuations in interest rates, in foreign currency exchange rates and marketable and non-marketable equity security prices as follows:
Interest Rate Exposure
The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while maximizing the income we receive from our investments without significantly increasing risk. Some of the securities that we invest in are subject to market risk. To minimize this risk, we maintain our portfolio of cash equivalents and investments primarily in highly liquid debt instruments of commercial paper, money market funds, government and non-government debt securities and corporate bonds. We invest our excess cash in short-term and long term investments to utilize higher yields generated by these investments. The majority of these investments pay a fixed rate of interest. Investments in both fixed rate and floating rate interest earning securities carry a degree of interest rate risk. We do not hold any instruments for trading purposes. As of July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011, the gross unrealized losses on our investments classified as available-for-sale and held-to-maturity securities were immaterial. We have the intent and the ability to hold these investments for a reasonable period of time sufficient for a forecasted recovery of fair value up to (or beyond) the initial cost of the investments. We expect to realize the full value of all of these investments upon maturity. In addition, we do not believe that we will be required to sell these securities to meet our cash or working capital requirements or contractual or regulatory obligations. Therefore, we have determined that the gross unrealized losses on our debt securities as of July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011 were temporary in nature. However, liquidating investments before maturity could have a material impact on our interest income. In addtion, declines in interest rates could have a material impact on interest income for our investment portfolio.
The following table summarizes our investment in debt securities (in thousands, except percentages):
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Exposure
We operate in the United States, primarily manufacture in China, and the majority of our sales to date have been made in U.S. dollars. The majority of expenses from our China operations are incurred in the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”). As a result, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the RMB could cause foreign currency transaction gains or losses that we would recognize in the period incurred. A 10% fluctuation in the dollar at July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011 would have an immaterial impact on our net dollar position in outstanding trade receivables and payables.
We use the U.S. dollar as the reporting currency for our consolidated financial statements. Any significant revaluation of the RMB may materially and adversely affect our results of operations upon translation of our Chinese subsidiaries’ financial statements into U.S. dollars. We generate a significant amount of our revenue in RMB and the majority of our labor and manufacturing overhead expenses are in RMB. Additionally, a significant portion of our operating expenses are in RMB. Therefore, a fluctuation in RMB against the U.S. dollar could impact our gross profit, gross profit margin and operating expenses upon translation to U.S. dollars. A 10% appreciation or depreciation in RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an immaterial impact on our results of operations for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011.
We expect our international revenues to continue to be denominated largely in U.S. dollars. We also believe that our China operations will likely expand in the future if our business continues to grow. As a result, we anticipate that we may experience increased exposure to the risks of fluctuating currencies and may choose to engage in currency hedging activities to reduce these risks. However, we cannot be certain that any such hedging activities will be effective, or available to us at commercially reasonable rates.
Equity price risk
We are also exposed to equity price risk inherent in our portfolio of publicly traded equity securities, which had an estimated fair value of $13.5 million at July 1, 2012. We monitor these investments for impairment and make appropriate reductions in carrying value when an impairment is deemed to be other-than-temporary. We do not purchase our equity securities with the intent to use them for speculative purposes. The hypothetical adverse changes of 10%, 20% and 30% in the stock prices of our publicly traded equity securities as of July 1, 2012 are as follows (in thousands):
The privately held company in which we invested is in the startup or development stage. This investment is inherently risky because the market for the technologies or products this company is developing is in the early stages and may never materialize. We could lose our entire investment in this company. Our evaluation of the investment in privately held company is based on the general market conditions, the investee’s financial condition, near-term prospects, market comparables and subsequent rounds of financing. The valuation also takes into account the investee’s capital structure, liquidation preferences for its capital and other economic variables. As of July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011, the aggregate cost of investments in privately-held companies was $0.6 million and $0.4 million, respectively, and was included in other assets on our consolidated balance sheets.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Oplink Communications, Inc.
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Oplink Communications, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended July 1, 2012. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in Item 15(a)(2). These consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Oplink Communications, Inc. and its subsidiaries as of July 1, 2012 and July 3, 2011, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended July 1, 2012, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of July 1, 2012 based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated September 14, 2012 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
/s/ Burr Pilger Mayer, Inc.
San Jose, California
September 14, 2012
OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
OPLINK COMMUNICATIONS, INC.