|• ANNUAL REPORT • AMENDED AND RESTATED REGULATIONS OF THE BOARD OF CORPORATE AUDITORS • CERTIFICATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 302 • CERTIFICATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 • CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM • XBRL INSTANCE DOCUMENT • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION SCHEMA • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION CALCULATION LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION DEFINITION LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION LABEL LINKBASE • XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION PRESENTATION LINKBASE|
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 25, 2012
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended: March 31, 2012
Commission file number: 001-14948
TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
(Translation of Registrants Name into English)
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City
Aichi Prefecture 471-8571
+81 565 28-2121
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Telephone number: +81 565 28-2121
Facsimile number: +81 565 23-5800
Address: 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan
(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of registrants contact person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuers classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 3,166,809,753 Shares of Common Stock (including 81,289,063 Shares of Common Stock in the form of American Depositary Shares) as of March 31, 2012
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act: Yes x No ¨
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days: Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files): Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer ¨
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP x International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ¨ Other ¨
If Other has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act): Yes ¨ No x
As used in this annual report, the term fiscal preceding a year means the twelve-month period ended March 31 of the year referred to. All other references to years refer to the applicable calendar year, unless the context otherwise requires. As used herein, the term Toyota refers to Toyota Motor Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries as a group, unless the context otherwise indicates.
In parts of this annual report, amounts reported in Japanese yen have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of readers. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for this translation was ¥82.19 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2012.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Written forward-looking statements may appear in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including this annual report, documents incorporated by reference, reports to shareholders and other communications.
The U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a safe harbor for forward-looking information to encourage companies to provide prospective information about themselves without fear of litigation so long as the information is identified as forward looking and is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the information. Toyota relies on this safe harbor in making forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this annual report and include statements regarding Toyotas current intent, belief, targets or expectations or those of its management. In many, but not all cases, words such as aim, anticipate, believe, estimate, expect, hope, intend, may, plan, predict, probability, risk, should, will, would, and similar expressions, are used as they relate to Toyota or its management, to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect Toyotas current views with respect to future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those which are anticipated, aimed at, believed, estimated, expected, intended or planned.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ from those in forward-looking statements as a result of various factors. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or forecasts contained in the forward-looking statements are identified in Risk Factors and elsewhere in this annual report, and include, among others:
(i) the impact of natural calamities including the negative effect on Toyotas vehicle production and sales;
(ii) changes in economic conditions and market demand affecting, and the competitive environment in, the automotive markets in Japan, North America, Europe, Asia and other markets in which Toyota operates;
(iii) fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly with respect to the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar and the British pound, and interest rates fluctuations;
(iv) changes in funding environment in financial markets and increased competition in the financial services industry;
(v) Toyotas ability to market and distribute effectively;
(vi) Toyotas ability to realize production efficiencies and to implement capital expenditures at the levels and times planned by management;
(vii) changes in the laws, regulations and government policies in the markets in which Toyota operates that affect Toyotas automotive operations, particularly laws, regulations and government policies relating
to vehicle safety including remedial measures such as recalls, trade, environmental protection, vehicle emissions and vehicle fuel economy, as well as changes in laws, regulations and government policies that affect Toyotas other operations, including the outcome of current and future litigation and other legal proceedings, government proceedings and investigations;
(viii) political and economic instability in the markets in which Toyota operates;
(ix) Toyotas ability to timely develop and achieve market acceptance of new products that meet customer demand;
(x) any damage to Toyotas brand image;
(xi) Toyotas reliance on various suppliers for the provision of supplies;
(xii) increases in prices of raw materials;
(xiii) Toyotas reliance on various digital and information technologies; and
(xiv) fuel shortages or interruptions in electricity, transportation systems, labor strikes, work stoppages or other interruptions to, or difficulties in, the employment of labor in the major markets where Toyota purchases materials, components and supplies for the production of its products or where its products are produced, distributed or sold.
You should read the U.S. GAAP selected consolidated financial information presented below together with Operating and Financial Review and Prospects and Toyotas consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report.
U.S. GAAP Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data have been derived from Toyotas consolidated financial statements. These financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Toyota normally pays dividends twice per year, including an interim dividend and a year-end dividend. Although Toyotas articles of incorporation provide that retained earnings can be distributed as dividends pursuant to the resolution of its board of directors, Toyotas board of directors recommends the payment of year-end dividends to shareholders and pledgees of record as of March 31 in each year. Year-end dividends are usually paid to the shareholders immediately following approval of the dividends at the general shareholders meeting, normally around the end of June of each year. In addition to these year-end dividends, Toyota may pay interim dividends in the form of cash distributions from its distributable surplus to shareholders and pledgees of record as of September 30 in each year by resolution of its board of directors. Toyota normally pays the interim dividend in late November.
In addition, under the Corporation Act of Japan (the Corporation Act), dividends may be paid to shareholders and pledgees of record as of any record date, other than those specified above, as set forth in Toyotas articles of incorporation or as determined by its board of directors from time to time. Toyotas articles of incorporation also permit Toyota to pay dividends, in addition to interim dividends mentioned in the preceding paragraph, by a resolution of its board of directors. Toyota has incorporated such a provision into its articles of incorporation in order to enable a flexible capital policy. Under the Corporation Act, dividends may be distributed in cash or (except in the case of interim dividends mentioned in the preceding paragraph) in kind, subject to limitations on distributable surplus and to certain other conditions.
The following table sets forth the dividends declared by Toyota for each of the periods shown. The periods shown are the six months ended on that date. The U.S. dollar equivalents for the cash dividends shown are based on the noon buying rate for Japanese yen on the last date of each period set forth below.
The payment and the amount of any future dividends are dependent on the amount of Toyotas future earnings, its financial condition and other factors, including statutory restrictions on the payment of dividends.
Toyota deems the benefit of its shareholders as one of its priority management policies, and it is working to improve corporate structure towards the realization of sustainable growth in order to enhance its corporate value. Toyota will strive to continue to pay stable dividends while giving due consideration to factors such as business results for each term, investment plans and its cash reserves. In order to successfully compete in this highly competitive industry, Toyota plans to utilize its internal funds for the early commercialization of next-generation environment and safety technologies, giving priority to customer safety and reliability. Considering these factors, an annual dividend of 50 yen per share was paid for fiscal 2012, consisting of a year-end dividend of 30 yen per share and an interim dividend of 20 yen per share.
Toyota has decided, for the time being, to refrain from repurchasing its own shares in order to prioritize retention of cash reserves given the uncertain future of global financial condition. Since Toyota began repurchasing shares in fiscal 1997, the cumulative number of shares repurchased as of the end of March 2012 was 736.98 million shares at a total cost of ¥2,868.8 billion. The following table shows the approximate number of shares repurchased and the approximate cost of repurchase of those shares for each of the periods indicated:
Toyotas future share repurchases will be influenced by factors such as Toyotas future earnings and financial position. For a further discussion of Toyotas share repurchases, please see Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers.
In parts of this annual report, yen amounts have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of investors. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for the translations was ¥82.19 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2012.
The following table sets forth information regarding the noon buying rates for Japanese yen in New York City as announced for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York expressed in Japanese yen per $1.00 during the periods shown. At the end of May 2012, the noon buying rate was ¥78.29 = $1.00. The average exchange rate for the periods shown is the average of the month-end rates during the period.
Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar will affect the dollar equivalent of the price of the shares on the Japanese stock exchanges. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations are likely to affect the market price of the American Depositary Shares (ADSs) on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Toyota will declare any cash dividends on shares in Japanese yen. Exchange rate fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar amounts received on conversion of cash dividends.
Exchange rate fluctuations can also materially affect Toyotas reported operating results. In particular, a strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have a material adverse effect on Toyotas reported operating results. For a further discussion of the effects of currency rate fluctuations on Toyotas operating results, please see Operating and Financial Review and Prospects Operating Results Overview Currency Fluctuations.
Risks relating to the Great East Japan Earthquake
Toyota may be adversely affected by the continuing effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and ensuing events.
The Japanese economy as a whole suffered significant damage as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 and the ensuing tsunami and accidents at nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture (collectively, the Great East Japan Earthquake).
The Japanese economy has been negatively impacted by damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, costs associated to rebuild the affected areas and interrupted infrastructure, including energy shortages as a result of suspended operations at nuclear power plants throughout Japan. The duration and impact on the Japanese economy are unclear. In addition, the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture are not yet fully under control and the resolution of the situation at these plants, including timing, remains unclear. Continuing radiation leakage and further aggravation of the nuclear power plants are possible. These various issues in connection with the Great East Japan Earthquake may cause significant and unforeseeable adverse effects on the Japanese economy, Toyotas operations, and demand for Toyotas products.
Industry and Business Risks
The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive.
The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive. Toyota faces intense competition from automotive manufacturers in the markets in which it operates. Although the global economy is gradually recovering, competition in the automotive industry has further intensified amidst difficult overall market conditions. In addition, competition is likely to further intensify in light of further continuing globalization in the worldwide automotive industry, possibly resulting in further industry reorganization. Factors affecting competition include product quality and features, safety, reliability, fuel economy, the amount of time required for innovation and development, pricing, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations. Toyotas ability to adequately respond to the recent rapid changes in the automotive market and to maintain its competitiveness will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets and to maintain its market share. There can be no assurances that Toyota will be able to compete successfully in the future.
The worldwide automotive industry is highly volatile.
Each of the markets in which Toyota competes has been subject to considerable volatility in demand. Demand for vehicles depends to a large extent on social, political and economic conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As Toyotas revenues are derived from sales in markets worldwide, economic conditions in such markets are particularly important to Toyota. During fiscal 2012, in Japan, despite continuing harsh business conditions due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake, the economic environment is gradually recovering as a result of various government policies aimed at economic revival following the disaster. In the United States, there has been a gradual recovery in economic conditions, but in Europe, the economic environment is at a standstill, due to the ongoing sovereign debt crisis, which has also slowed economic development in numerous emerging economies throughout the world. Toyota was adversely affected by changes in the market structures of each region with further shifts in consumer demand to compact and low-priced vehicles. Such weakness in demand for automobiles and changes in market structure is continuing, and it is unclear how this situation will transition in the future. Toyotas financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected if the weakness in demand for automobiles and changes in market structure continue or progress further. Demand may also be affected by factors directly impacting vehicle price or the cost of purchasing and operating vehicles such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations (including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes). Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations.
Toyotas future success depends on its ability to offer new innovative competitively priced products that meet customer demand on a timely basis.
Meeting customer demand by introducing attractive new vehicles and reducing the amount of time required for product development are critical to automotive manufacturers. In particular, it is critical to meet customer demand with respect to quality, safety and reliability. The timely introduction of new vehicle models, at competitive prices, meeting rapidly changing customer preferences and demand is more fundamental to Toyotas
success than ever, as the automotive market is rapidly transforming in light of the changing global economy. There is no assurance, however, that Toyota will adequately and appropriately respond to changing customer preferences and demand with respect to quality, safety, reliability, styling and other features in a timely manner. Even if Toyota succeeds in perceiving customer preferences and demand, there is no assurance that Toyota will be capable of developing and manufacturing new, price competitive products in a timely manner with its available technology, intellectual property, sources of raw materials and parts and components, and production capacity, including cost reduction capacity. Further, there is no assurance that Toyota will be able to implement capital expenditures at the level and times planned by management. Toyotas inability to develop and offer products that meet customers preferences and demand with respect to quality, safety, reliability, styling and other features in a timely manner could result in a lower market share and reduced sales volumes and margins, and may adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations.
Toyotas ability to market and distribute effectively is an integral part of Toyotas successful sales.
Toyotas success in the sale of vehicles depends on its ability to market and distribute effectively based on distribution networks and sales techniques tailored to the needs of its customers. There is no assurance that Toyota will be able to develop sales techniques and distribution networks that effectively adapt to changing customer preferences or changes in the regulatory environment in the major markets in which it operates. Toyotas inability to maintain well-developed sales techniques and distribution networks may result in decreased sales and market share and may adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.
Toyotas success is significantly impacted by its ability to maintain and develop its brand image.
In the highly competitive automotive industry, it is critical to maintain and develop a brand image. In order to maintain and develop a brand image, it is necessary to further increase customers confidence by providing safe, high-quality products that meet customer preferences and demand. If Toyota is unable to effectively maintain and develop its brand image as a result of its inability to provide safe, high-quality products or as a result of the failure to promptly implement safety measures such as recalls when necessary, vehicle unit sales and/or sale prices may decrease, and as a result revenues and profits may not increase as expected or may decrease, adversely affecting its financial condition and results of operations.
Toyota relies on suppliers for the provision of certain supplies including parts, components and raw materials.
Toyota purchases supplies including parts, components and raw materials from a number of external suppliers located around the world. For some supplies, Toyota relies on a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers, whose replacement with another supplier may be difficult. Inability to obtain supplies from a single or limited source supplier may result in difficulty obtaining supplies and may restrict Toyotas ability to produce vehicles. Furthermore, even if Toyota were to rely on a large number of suppliers, first-tier suppliers with whom Toyota directly transacts may in turn rely on a single second-tier supplier or limited second-tier suppliers. Toyotas ability to continue to obtain supplies from its suppliers in a timely and cost-effective manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not within Toyotas control. These factors include the ability of Toyotas suppliers to provide a continued source of supply, and Toyotas ability to effectively compete and obtain competitive prices from suppliers. A loss of any single or limited source supplier or inability to obtain supplies from suppliers in a timely and cost-effective manner could lead to increased costs or delays or suspensions in Toyotas production and deliveries, which could have an adverse effect on Toyotas financial condition and results of operations.
The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive.
The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive. Increased competition in automobile financing may lead to decreased margins. A decline in Toyotas vehicle unit sales, an increase in residual value risk due to lower used vehicle price, an increase in the ratio of credit losses and increased funding costs are factors which may impact Toyotas financial services operations. If Toyota is unable to adequately respond to the changes and competition in automobile financing, Toyotas financial services operations may adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.
Toyotas operations and vehicles rely on various digital and information technologies.
Toyota depends on various information technology networks and systems, some of which are managed by third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information, including sensitive data, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities, including manufacturing, research and development, supply chain management, sales and accounting. In addition, Toyotas vehicles may rely on various digital and information technologies, including information service and driving assistance functions. Despite security measures, Toyotas digital and information technology networks and systems may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attacks by hackers, computer viruses, breaches due to unauthorized use, errors or malfeasance by employees and others who have or gain access to the networks and systems Toyota depends on, service failures or bankruptcy of third parties such as software development or cloud computing vendors, power shortages and outages, and utility failures or other catastrophic events like natural disasters. Such incidents could materially disrupt critical operations, disclose sensitive data, interfere with information services and driving assistance functions in Toyotas vehicles, and/or give rise to legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under applicable laws, which could have an adverse effect on Toyotas brand image and its financial condition and results of operations.
Financial Market and Economic Risks
Toyotas operations are subject to currency and interest rate fluctuations.
Toyota is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and is principally exposed to fluctuations in the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar and the euro and, to a lesser extent, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar and the British pound. Toyotas consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect Toyotas pricing of products sold and materials purchased in foreign currencies. In particular, strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have an adverse effect on Toyotas operating results. The Japanese yen has been appreciating against major currencies including the U.S. dollar in the past year. If the Japanese yen continues to appreciate against major currencies, including the U.S. dollar, Toyotas financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Toyota believes that its use of certain derivative financial instruments including interest rate swaps and increased localized production of its products have reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Nonetheless, a negative impact resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and changes in interest rates may adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations. For a further discussion of currency and interest rate fluctuations and the use of derivative financial instruments, see Operating and Financial Review and Prospects Operating Results Overview Currency Fluctuations, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, and notes 20 and 21 to Toyotas consolidated financial statements.
High prices of raw materials and strong pressure on Toyotas suppliers could negatively impact Toyotas profitability.
Increases in prices for raw materials that Toyota and Toyotas suppliers use in manufacturing their products or parts and components such as steel, precious metals, non-ferrous alloys including aluminum, and plastic parts, may lead to higher production costs for parts and components. This could, in turn, negatively impact Toyotas future profitability because Toyota may not be able to pass all those costs on to its customers or require its suppliers to absorb such costs.
The downturn in the financial markets could adversely affect Toyotas ability to raise capital.
Should the world economy suddenly deteriorate, a number of financial institutions and investors will face difficulties in providing capital to the financial markets at levels corresponding to their own financial capacity,
and, as a result, there is a risk that companies may not be able to raise capital under terms that they would expect to receive with their creditworthiness. If Toyota is unable to raise the necessary capital under appropriate conditions on a timely basis, Toyotas financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Political, Regulatory, Legal and Other Risks
The automotive industry is subject to various governmental regulations.
The worldwide automotive industry is subject to various laws and governmental regulations including those related to vehicle safety and environmental matters such as emission levels, fuel economy, noise and pollution. In particular, automotive manufacturers such as Toyota are required to implement safety measures such as recalls for vehicles that do not or may not comply with the safety standards of laws and governmental regulations. In addition, Toyota may, in order to reassure its customers of the safety of Toyotas vehicles, decide to voluntarily implement recalls or other safety measures even if the vehicle complies with the safety standards of relevant laws and governmental regulations. Many governments also impose tariffs and other trade barriers, taxes and levies, or enact price or exchange controls. Toyota has incurred, and expects to incur in the future, significant costs in complying with these regulations. If Toyota launches products that result in safety measures such as recalls, Toyota may incur various costs including significant costs for free repairs. Furthermore, new legislation or changes in existing legislation may also subject Toyota to additional expenses in the future. If Toyota incurs significant costs related to implementing safety measures or meeting laws and governmental regulations, Toyotas financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Toyota may become subject to various legal proceedings.
As an automotive manufacturer, Toyota may become subject to legal proceedings in respect of various issues, including product liability and infringement of intellectual property. Toyota may also be subject to legal proceedings brought by its shareholders and governmental proceedings and investigations. Toyota is in fact currently subject to a number of pending legal proceedings and government investigations. A negative outcome in one or more of these pending legal proceedings could adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations. For a further discussion of governmental regulations, see Information on the Company Business Overview Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards and for legal proceedings, please see Information on the Company Business Overview Legal Proceedings.
Toyota may be adversely affected by natural calamities, political and economic instability, fuel shortages or interruptions in social infrastructure, wars, terrorism and labor strikes.
Toyota is subject to various risks associated with conducting business worldwide. These risks include natural calamities; political and economic instability; fuel shortages; interruption in social infrastructure including energy supply, transportation systems, gas, water, or communication systems resulting from natural hazards or technological hazards; wars; terrorism; labor strikes and work stoppages. Should the major markets in which Toyota purchases materials, parts and components and supplies for the manufacture of Toyota products or in which Toyotas products are produced, distributed or sold be affected by any of these events, it may result in disruptions and delays in the operations of Toyotas business. Should significant or prolonged disruptions or delays related to Toyotas business operations occur, it may adversely affect Toyotas financial condition and results of operations.
Toyota Motor Corporation is a limited liability, joint-stock company incorporated under the Commercial Code of Japan and continues to exist under the Companies Act. Toyota commenced operations in 1933 as the automobile division of Toyota Industries Corporation (formerly, Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd.). Toyota became a separate company on August 28, 1937. In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales
merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation of today. As of March 31, 2012, Toyota operated through 507 consolidated subsidiaries and 212 affiliated companies, of which 57 companies were accounted for through the equity method.
See Business Overview Capital Expenditures and Divestitures for a description of Toyotas principal capital expenditures and divestitures between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2012 and information concerning Toyotas principal capital expenditures and divestitures currently in progress.
Toyotas principal executive offices are located at 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan. Toyotas telephone number in Japan is +81-565-28-2121.
Toyota primarily conducts business in the automotive industry. Toyota also conducts business in finance and other industries. Toyota sold 7,352 thousand vehicles in fiscal 2012 on a consolidated basis. Toyota had net revenues of ¥18,583.6 billion and net income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation of ¥283.5 billion in fiscal 2012.
Toyotas business segments are automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. The following table sets forth Toyotas sales to external customers in each of its business segments for each of the past three fiscal years.
Toyotas automotive operations include the design, manufacture, assembly and sale of passenger cars, minivans and commercial vehicles such as trucks and related parts and accessories. Toyotas financial services business consists primarily of providing financing to dealers and their customers for the purchase or lease of Toyota vehicles. Toyotas financial services also provide retail leasing through the purchase of lease contracts originated by Toyota dealers. Related to Toyotas automotive operations is its development of intelligent transport systems (ITS). Toyotas all other operations business segment includes the design and manufacture of prefabricated housing, information technology related businesses including an e-commerce marketplace called GAZOO.com, and sales promotions for KDDI communication related products (predominantly the au brand).
Toyota sells its vehicles in approximately 170 countries and regions. Toyotas primary markets for its automobiles are Japan, North America, Europe and Asia. The following table sets forth Toyotas sales to external customers in each of its geographical markets for each of the past three fiscal years.
During fiscal 2012, 28.2% of Toyotas automobile unit sales on a consolidated basis were in Japan, 25.5% were in North America, 10.8% were in Europe and 18.0% were in Asia. The remaining 17.5% of consolidated unit sales were in other markets.
The Japanese economy as a whole suffered significant damage as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, including the ensuing tsunami and nuclear incident in Fukushima Prefecture.
After the earthquakes occurrence on March 11, 2011, Toyota temporarily suspended operations at its domestic and overseas factories due to damage to social infrastructure including energy supply, transportation systems, gas, water and communication systems caused by the earthquake, shortages of parts from suppliers, and damage sustained by some subsidiaries of Toyota in regions adjacent to the disaster zone. Toyota was able to achieve full normalization of production and begin its recovery from the disaster sooner than initially anticipated. Toyota is working to minimize the negative impact on production and company activities resulting from the disasters effect on infrastructure, including potential electricity shortages as a result of suspended operations at nuclear power plants throughout Japan.
In addition, with regard to the series of product quality related issues that began in early 2010, in March 2010, Toyota established a Special Committee for Global Quality to thoroughly investigate the cause of the product quality issues and review all of Toyotas processes, including design, production, sales, service, and human resource development. Toyota believes it is making steady and solid improvements in these regards.
Building on the work of the Special Committee for Global Quality, each region is implementing comprehensive improvements to the companys operations and strengthening the companys quality improvement activities.
Further, in order to obtain objective third-party evaluation, in July 2010, Toyota obtained a report concerning Toyotas quality-assurance review-and-improvement measures from the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers and external experts recommended by the union. This report evaluated the preventative measures undertaken by Toyota in response to the series of product quality related issues it experienced beginning in early 2010, such as strengthening analysis of customer information and human resource development, and indicated places where these measures should be deepened in order to bring about further improvement. Toyota has received the evaluation with humility, and is making efforts toward further improvements.
Through the quality control approach described above, Toyota and its officers and employees will unite to do their best to make customer safety their first emphasis, ensure that thorough quality control is a constant element of their work, strengthen quality control infrastructure and cultivate customers trust. For further details concerning recalls and other safety measures, see Operating and Financial Review and Prospects Operating Results Results of Operations Fiscal 2012 Compared with Fiscal 2011 Operating Costs and Expenses.
The Worldwide Automotive Market
Toyota estimates that annual worldwide vehicle sales totaled approximately 78 million units in 2011.
Automobile sales are affected by a number of factors including:
These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially from year to year in different geographic markets and in individual categories of automobiles.
The global economy in fiscal 2012 recovered gradually, with recovery in the United States and strong growth in investment and consumption in the developing economies mainly in Asia, despite downward pressure stemming from the European sovereign debt crisis. The automotive industry was also impacted by this trend. In 2011, markets in developing countries continued to grow, despite the negative effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand. In developed countries, while markets in the United States recovered, market strength in Japan was at lower levels than the previous year due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake. European markets expanded overall, with strong recovery trends in Russia, despite fiscal austerity measures enacted to address the sovereign debt crisis in Europe, and sluggish market activity in southern European nations.
Toyota expects the automotive market to grow in the medium- to long-term driven principally by the growth in resource-rich markets and the emerging markets. Global competition is severe, as competition in compact and low-price vehicles intensifies, and technological development and development of new products become more frequent with a heightened global awareness of the environment.
In 2011, Europe, China, North America, Asia, Central and South America, and Japan were the worlds largest automotive markets. The share of each market across the globe, which we estimate based on the available automobile sales data in each country and region information, was 25% for Europe, 24% for China, 20% for North America (18% excluding Mexico and Puerto Rico), 10% for Asia, 8% for Central and South America, and 7% for Japan. In Europe, new vehicle sales remained at the same level as the previous year at approximately 19.9 million units. In China, new vehicle sales increased to approximately 18.8 million units. In North America, new vehicle sales increased to approximately 15.7 million units. In Asia (including India but excluding Japan and China), new vehicle unit sales increased to approximately 8.0 million units. In Central and South America, new vehicle sales increased to approximately 5.9 million units. In Japan, total new vehicle unit sales (including mini-vehicles) decreased to approximately 4.2 million units.
The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by government regulations aimed at reducing harmful effects on the environment, enhancing vehicle safety and improving fuel economy. These regulations have added to the cost of manufacturing vehicles. Many governments also mandate local procurement of parts and components and impose tariffs and other trade barriers and price or exchange controls as a means of creating jobs, protecting domestic producers or influencing their balance of payments. Changes in regulatory requirements and other government-imposed restrictions can limit an automakers operations. These regulations can also make it difficult to repatriate profits to an automakers home country.
The development of the worldwide automotive market includes the continuing globalization of automotive operations. Manufacturers seek to achieve globalization by localizing the design and manufacture of automobiles and their parts and components in the markets in which they are sold. By expanding production capabilities beyond their home markets, automotive manufacturers are able to reduce their exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates as well as to trade restrictions and tariffs.
Since 2000, various transactions have promoted consolidation within the global automotive industry. There are various reasons behind these transactions including the need to respond to the excessive global capacity in the production of automobiles, the need to reduce costs and improve efficiency by increasing the number of automobiles produced using common vehicle platforms and by sharing research and development expenses for environmental and other technology, the desire to expand a companys global presence through increased size and the desire to expand into particular segments or geographic markets. Recently these have included business alliances and investments between major manufacturers in Japan, the United States, and Europe.
Toyota believes that its research and development initiatives, particularly the development of environmentally friendly new vehicle technologies, vehicle safety and information technology, provide it with a strategic advantage.
Toyotas ability to compete in the global automotive industry will depend in part on Toyotas successful implementation of its business strategy. This is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyotas control. These factors are discussed in Operating and Financial Review and Prospects and elsewhere in this annual report.
Toyota Global Vision
In March 2011, Toyota unveiled its Toyota Global Vision corporate outline for the future, which serves not only to give direction to Toyota employees around the world, but also to convey such direction to customers and to the public at large. Toyota will work to achieve sustained growth through the realization of the following ideals which are parts of the Vision:
The safest and most responsible ways of moving people
Enriching lives around the world
Lead the way to the future of mobility
Our commitment to quality, constant innovation
Continued awareness for the Earth and environment
Exceed expectations and be rewarded with a smile
There is always a better way
Meet challenging goals by engaging the talent and passion of people
With respect to the future business environment, it is expected that the economies of emerging countries, principally China and India, will continue to expand and the economies of developed countries, such as the United States, will continue to slowly recover. However, attention must be paid to risks such as an increase in crude oil prices and high unemployment rates continuing in Europe and the United States and the sovereign debt crisis in Europe. The Japanese economy is expected to recover against the background of positive factors such as the improvement of the overseas economy and the various policy measures by the government, but may be impacted by negative pressure from numerous factors such as the appreciation of the yen, which continues from the previous year, and electricity shortages which may occur due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake resulting in suspended operations at nuclear power plants throughout Japan.
From a medium- to long-term viewpoint, while the automobile market is expected to expand centering around developing economies, competition among small and low-cost vehicles will gain momentum, and fierce global competition is also expected with respect to environmentally-friendly vehicles.
Even in this harsh business environment, the Toyota Group as a whole will make an even greater effort to address the following in order to realize two of Toyotas enduring wishes: to be a company customers choose and to bring smiles to every customer who chooses Toyota:
First, in product development, Toyota intends to make substantial improvements in design and perceived quality and to establish systems by which products launched in a certain region will be developed based on the customer needs of that region. For environmentally-friendly vehicles (eco-cars), Toyota will make efforts to expand its product line-up of hybrid vehicles and develop next-generation eco-cars such as plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, along with the high-efficiency gasoline engine.
Second, as for emerging markets with strong promise for future growth, Toyota intends to reinforce core models for local production such as IMV and newly developed compact vehicles, while launching more hybrid vehicles. Through these efforts, Toyota will build a well-balanced business structure that impartially allocates resources to both developed countries and emerging countries.
(*) IMV is an abbreviation for Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle, which refers to sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and other multi-purpose vehicles that are produced overseas for markets worldwide.
Third, to quickly reflect feedback from customers around the world in Toyotas research and development, production and sales operations, Toyota will build a structure where decisions can be made regionally, in areas closest to the customers.
Fourth, Toyota will further reinforce three basic functions: quality improvement, cost reduction, and human resource development.
Based on these efforts, Toyota will enrich the lives of its communities through manufacturing good automobiles that are accepted by customers and society. This will encourage more customers to purchase Toyota cars and thereby lead to the establishment of a stable business base. By perpetuating this good cycle, Toyota will aim to realize sustainable growth and enhance corporate value. Toyota will fulfill its social responsibilities by carrying out its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Toyotas revenues from its automotive operations were ¥17.0 trillion in fiscal 2012, ¥17.3 trillion in fiscal 2011 and ¥17.2 trillion in fiscal 2010.
Toyota produces and sells passenger cars, minivans and commercial vehicles such as trucks. Toyota Motor Corporations subsidiary, Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (Daihatsu), produces and sells mini-vehicles and compact cars. Hino Motors, Ltd. (Hino), also a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, produces and sells commercial vehicles such as trucks and buses. Toyota also manufactures automotive parts, components and accessories for its own use and for sale to others.
Toyotas vehicles (produced by Toyota, Daihatsu and Hino) can be classified into two categories: hybrid vehicles and conventional engine vehicles. Toyotas product line-up includes subcompact and compact cars, mini-vehicles, mid-size, luxury, sports and specialty cars, recreational and sport-utility vehicles, pickup trucks, minivans, trucks and buses.
The worlds first mass-produced hybrid car was Toyotas Prius. It runs on an efficient combination of a gasoline engine and motor. This system allows the Prius to travel more efficiently than conventional engine vehicles of comparable size and performance. The hybrid design of the Prius also results in the output of 75% less emission than the maximum amount allowed by Japanese environmental regulations. Toyota views the Prius as the cornerstone of its emphasis on designing and producing eco-friendly automobiles. As of the end of March 2012, the total number of Toyotas hybrid vehicles sold was 3.854 million units.
In May 2008, Toyota introduced the hybrid version of the Crown, which is the signature model of the Toyota brand, in Japan. In April 2009, the Lexus RX450h, which is the fully-remodeled Lexus RX400h, was successively introduced in Japan, North America and Europe. The Prius, of which 2.601 million units have been sold (as of the end of March 2012) since it was first introduced in 1997 and whose name has become synonymous with hybrid vehicles, underwent its second full model change in May 2009. The hybrid vehicles HS250h and SAI were introduced in July 2009 and December 2009, respectively. In December 2009, Toyota began leasing the Prius plug-in hybrid equipped with a lithium ion battery targeted at certain corporate users including electrical power companies. In January 2011, the Lexus hybrid vehicle CT200h was also introduced. Further, Toyota introduced the Prius a (Prius Alpha) wagon in May 2011 and is planning further ways to enhance the Prius series lineup. Furthermore, Toyota has strengthened its hybrid lineup by introducing hybrid versions of the Camry in September 2011, the Alphard and the Vellfire in November in 2011, the compact hybrid vehicle Aqua in December 2011, and in January 2012 the Prius plug-in hybrid and the fully remodeled GS450h. Toyota anticipates strong growth in the hybrid vehicles area and will continue to introduce new models.
Toyota began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. In June 2005, Toyotas new fuel cell hybrid passenger vehicle became the first in Japan to acquire vehicle type certification under the Road Vehicles Act, as amended, on March 31, 2005, by Japans Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Leases for the vehicle began in July 2005. By 2007, Toyota was able to make improvements to start-up and cruising distance at temperatures below freezing, which were technological challenges. Toyota has made advances by solving technological issues such as the above and has been working towards the practical use of such solutions.
Toyota aims to continue its efforts to offer a diverse line-up of hybrid vehicles, enhance engine power while improving fuel economy and otherwise work towards increasing the sales of hybrid vehicles.
Conventional Engine Vehicles
Subcompact and Compact
Toyotas subcompact and compact cars include the four-door Corolla sedan, which is one of Toyotas best selling models. The Yaris, marketed as the Vitz in Japan, is a subcompact car designed to perform better and offer greater comfort than other compact cars available in the market, with low emissions that are particularly attractive to European consumers. In Japan, Toyota introduced the micropremium iQ in November 2008, as well as the remodeled Passo in February 2010, Ractis in November 2010, and Vitz in December 2010. In India, Toyota introduced the Etios in October 2010.
Mini-vehicles are manufactured and sold by Daihatsu. Daihatsu manufactures mini-vehicles, passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles and auto parts. Mini-vehicles are passenger cars, vans or trucks with engine displacements of 660 cubic centimeters or less. Daihatsu sold approximately 600 thousand mini-vehicles and 182 thousand automobiles on a consolidated basis during fiscal 2012. Daihatsus largest market is Japan, which accounted for approximately 80% of Daihatsus unit sales during fiscal 2012. From 2011, Toyota began to sell some mini-vehicles manufactured by Daihatsu under the Toyota brand.
Toyotas mid-size models include the Camry, which has been the best selling passenger car in the United States for fourteen of the past fifteen calendar years (from 1997 to present) and also for the last ten consecutive years. The Camry was fully remodeled in August 2011. Camry sales in the United States for 2011 were approximately 308 thousand units (including Camry hybrids). In addition, Toyotas other mid-size models include (i) the REIZ for the Chinese market, (ii) the Avensis, which was remodeled in November 2008 for the European market, and (iii) the Mark X, which was remodeled in October 2009 for the Japanese market.
Luxury & Large
In North America, Europe, Japan and other regions, Toyotas luxury lineup consists primarily of vehicles sold under the Lexus brand name. Lexus passenger car models include the LS, the GS, the ES, the HS, the IS, the CT, and the LFA. Lexus models also include the LX, the GX, and the RX sold as luxury sport-utility vehicles in the United States. Toyota commenced sales of its luxury automobiles in Japan under the Lexus brand in August 2005. As of May 31, 2012, the Lexus brand lineup in Japan includes the LS, the GS, the HS, the IS, the CT, the RX, and the LFA. The Toyota brands full-size luxury car, the Crown, was remodeled in February 2008, and the Crown Majesta was remodeled in March 2009. Toyota also sells the Century limousine in Japan.
Sports and Specialty
In the United States Toyota sells the Scion tC, a sports model targeted at young drivers. In December 2010, Toyota introduced the LFA model under the Lexus brand as the high-performance sports model, and in April 2012, Toyota introduced the 86 (called Scion FR-S in the U.S.), a compact sports car with a front-mounted engine and rear-wheel drive.
Recreational and Sport-Utility Vehicles and Pickup Trucks
Toyota sells a variety of sport-utility vehicles and pickup trucks. Toyota sport-utility vehicles available in North America include the Sequoia, the 4Runner, the RAV4, the Highlander, the FJ Cruiser and the Land Cruiser, and pickup trucks available are the Tacoma and Tundra. The Tacoma, the Tundra, the Highlander and the Sequoia are manufactured in the United States. Toyota also offers three types of sport-utility vehicles under the Lexus brand, including the LX, the GX, and the RX. Toyota also manufactures the RX and RAV4 models in Canada. Toyotas pickup truck, the Hilux, has been the best selling model of all Toyota cars sold in Thailand. In December 2008, Toyota introduced the new Venza in North America. The fully remodeled RX was introduced in February 2009 in North America and in March 2009 in Europe. In Japan, the RX was introduced in January 2009, and the FJ Cruiser in December 2010.
Minivans and Cabwagons
Toyota offers several basic models for the global minivan market. Its largest minivan, the Alphard was remodeled in May 2008 in Japan at the same time that the Vellfire was introduced. In addition, the Corolla Verso was introduced in December 2008 in Europe, and the Wish was remodeled in April 2009 in Japan. Toyotas other minivan models include, in Japan, the Hiace, the Regius Ace, the Estima, the Noah, the Voxy, the Sienta, the Isis and, in North America, the Sienna.
Trucks and Buses
Toyotas product lineup includes trucks (including vans) up to a gross vehicle weight of five tons and micro-buses, which are sold in Japan and in overseas markets. Trucks and buses are also manufactured and sold by Hino, a subsidiary of Toyota. Hinos product lineup includes large trucks with a gross vehicle weight of over eleven tons, medium trucks with a gross vehicle weight of between five and eleven tons, and small trucks with a gross vehicle weight of up to five tons. Hinos bus lineup includes medium to large buses used primarily as tour buses and public buses, small buses and micro-buses. Toyota and Hino maintain a large share of the small bus (including micro-buses) market in Japan.
New cars introduced in Japan during fiscal 2012 and thereafter include the Prius Alpha, Avensis, Prius plug-in hybrid Aqua, 86, Pixis Space, Pixis Van/Truck, and Pixis Epoch. Remodeled cars in Japan during fiscal 2012 and thereafter include the Dyna/Toyoace, Camry, Corolla Axio/Fielder, and GS. New vehicles developed during fiscal 2012 and thereafter and introduced outside of Japan include the Prius plug-in hybrid Prius c, Prius V, Scion FR-S, and Scion iQ introduced in the United States, and the Yaris HV, Prius plug-in hybrid Prius c, Prius V, GT86, and iQ introduced in Europe. Remodeled cars outside of Japan during fiscal 2012 and thereafter include the GS, Camry, and Yaris HB in the United States, and the GS, Camry, and Yaris HB in Europe.
In addition, the IMV product lineup based on the IMV project to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems is a lineup of strategic multipurpose vehicles produced from a single platform to meet market demand. The IMV product lineup includes, as of May 31, 2012, the Hilux, Fortuner, and Innova, one or all of which are available in all regions except for Japan.
Markets, Sales and Competition
Toyotas primary markets are Japan, North America, Europe and Asia. The following table sets forth Toyotas consolidated vehicle unit sales by geographic market for the periods shown. The vehicle unit sales below reflect vehicle sales made by Toyota to unconsolidated entities (recognized as sales under Toyotas revenue recognition policy), including sales to unconsolidated distributors and dealers. Vehicles sold by Daihatsu and Hino are included in the vehicle unit sales figures set forth below.
The following table sets forth Toyotas vehicle unit sales and market share in Japan, North America, Europe and Asia on a retail basis for the periods shown. Each markets total sales and Toyotas sales represent new vehicle registrations in the relevant year (except for the Asia market where vehicle registration does not necessarily apply). All information on Japan excludes mini-vehicles. The sales information contained below excludes unit sales by Daihatsu and Hino, each a consolidated subsidiary of Toyota. Vehicle unit sales in Asia do not include sales in Pakistan.
Japan is one of the leading countries with respect to technological advancements and improvements and will continue to demonstrate such strength. Toyota strives to earn customer satisfaction by introducing products distinctive of Japans manufacturing ability such as value-added products including Lexus models, hybrid vehicles, vehicles with 3-seat rows and mini-vehicles. Although the Japanese economy was heavily negatively impacted in various ways by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand, in fiscal 2012 the economy continued its slow recovery as production and consumption gradually improved. Toyotas consolidated sales in the Japanese market in fiscal 2012 was 2,071 thousand units, a 158 thousand unit increase in comparison with the previous year. Toyota endeavors to secure and maintain its large share of and position atop the Japanese market. Toyota held a domestic market share (excluding mini-vehicles) on a retail basis of 48.2% in fiscal 2010, 47.3% in fiscal 2011, and 45.5% in fiscal 2012. Although there were production disruptions temporarily caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand, Toyota maintained its large share of the Japanese market in fiscal 2012 through actively launching vehicles such as the Prius a (Prius Alpha) and Aqua, which were eligible for subsidies and tax breaks, etc. under government policies promoting eco-cars, and by supporting sales of Toyotas existing models.
Although Toyotas principle is to conduct production in regions where there is demand, it considers Japan to be the source of its good manufacturing practices. Toyota supports its operations worldwide through measures such as the development of new technologies and products, low-volume vehicles to complement local production, production of global vehicle models which straddle multiple regions, and supporting overseas factories. In Japan, Toyota is implementing flexible production based on market needs, in order to support its large share of domestic sales.
In January 2011, Central Motor Co., Ltd., Toyotas subsidiary, began production at its Tohoku plant, implementing innovative production technology that realizes cost reductions. The Tohoku plant produces compact vehicles such as the Yaris sedan and the Corolla Axio. In addition, Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Toyota in January 2012. Toyota plans to integrate Central Motor Co., Ltd., Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. and Toyota Motor Tohoku Corporation in July 2012, to establish Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc. as a new company. This integration is intended to enable Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc. to design, develop, and produce globally competitive compact cars, manufacture auto parts, and support Toyotas overseas operations. Toyota has established three domestic production bases, which are Tokai, Kyushu, and Tohoku regions.
In January 2012, Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Toyota. Going forward, Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd. will primarily be responsible for integrating the planning, development, and production of minivans, commercial vehicles, SUVs, etc.
Since Toyota formed an alliance with Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. (FHI) in 2005, Toyota and FHI have utilized each others resources in development and production such as moving some of Toyotas production to FHIs North American production center operated by Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. In April 2008, in order to create synergy and to further strengthen competitiveness, Toyota, Daihatsu and FHI agreed on the following three points: (1) Toyota and FHI will jointly develop a compact rear-wheel-drive sports car that will be marketed by both Toyota and FHI, (2) Toyota will provide FHI with a compact car on an original equipment manufacturing basis (OEM) and (3) Daihatsu will supply FHI with mini-vehicles and an FHI version of the Daihatsu Coo compact car on an OEM basis. In order to promote a smooth cooperation, FHI transferred 61 million FHI shares owned by FHI to Toyota in July 2008. As a result of this transfer, Toyota owns 16.5% of FHI issued shares.
In Japan, there are five major domestic manufacturers, five specialized domestic producers and a growing volume of imports from major United States and European manufacturers. The prolonged economic slump in the Japanese economy has also shifted consumer preference towards more affordable automobiles such as compact and subcompact vehicles and towards utility vehicles such as mini-vans. For more than 40 years, Toyota has maintained its position as the largest automobile manufacturer in Japan. Every year since fiscal 1999, Toyota,
excluding Daihatsu and Hino, has achieved a market share (excluding mini-vehicles) of over 40%, reflecting in part the success of the introduction of new models for subcompact and compact cars, mini-vans and sedans. In August 2005, Toyota launched the Lexus brand in Japan and achieved a record top market share of 24.8% in the luxury market in fiscal 2012. Toyota aims to further distinguish the Lexus brand by continuing to attract new and affluent customers including customers that typically had purchased imported vehicles.
North American market, one of Toyotas most significant markets, has struggled since the financial crisis beginning in 2008. Toyota has, restructured its production system and improved its product lineup. In addition, Toyota is actively working to promote increased local independence of operations in North America, in accordance with the Toyota Global Vision, announced in 2011.
North American market, with U.S. as its central point, is an important market segment with a wide product lineup (excluding large trucks and buses), representing approximately 26% of Toyotas total global unit sales on a consolidated basis with 1,872 thousand vehicles sold in fiscal 2012, 87% of which are retail sales of Toyota vehicles in the United States. Currently, while the bestselling Camry model was fully remodeled in August 2011, due to the impact of shortages in parts and components resulting from the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand, sales figures for fiscal 2012 were 94% of those in the previous fiscal year. In 2011, Toyota brand vehicles accounted for approximately 88%, and Lexus brand for approximately 12%, of the vehicle unit sales in the United States.
Toyota commenced sales of the first-generation Prius hybrid model in North America in 2000. The Prius became Toyotas best selling model behind the Corolla and Camry, having gained particular support among persons concerned for the environment. Toyota released the first hybrid model under the Lexus brand, the RX400h, and Highlander hybrid in 2005. Toyota began sales of the HS250h in 2009 and CT200h in 2011, both models under the Lexus brand. Further, Toyota continued expanding its hybrid models with the introduction of models such as the Prius V and Prius C.
Since introducing the LS and ES models under the premium brand model Lexus in the United States in 1989, Toyota has expanded its Lexus sales with models including the GS, IS and RX, etc. In 2011, Toyota introduced the compact hybrid vehicle CT200h, and unit sales reached 199 thousand units. In 2012, Toyota is planning to further increase sales by the introduction of the new GS and ES models.
Toyota is continuing to revise its production system in North America in order to flexibly respond to the substantially contracting sales market caused by the economic downturn brought by the financial crisis. In November 2008, due to a significant decline in demand for the Tundra, Toyotas Texas plant was designated as the sole production facility for the Tundra, which was previously produced jointly by Toyotas Indiana plant and Texas plant. Toyotas Kentucky plant commenced production of the new Venza model in November 2008 and the Indiana plant began local production of the Highlander in October 2009. Toyota is currently making plans to increase production capacity in Indiana plant next year. Toyota plans to increase production capacity at its automatic transmission plant in West Virginia from 400 thousand units per year to 520 thousand units per year by the summer of 2013. The new Woodstock plant in Canada commenced production of the RAV4 by single shift operation in November 2008 and the Cambridge plant in Canada commenced production of the remodeled Lexus RX in January 2009. Due to an increase in demand, production of the RAV4 at the Woodstock plant changed to double shift operation beginning March 2010. Toyota currently plans to increase production capacity at the Woodstock plant from 150 thousand units per year to 200 thousand units per year during the first half of 2013, as well as to further expand local production of vehicles.
On the other hand, due to the termination of the NUMMI joint venture with GM in the middle of 2009, Toyota ceased placing orders for the Tacoma and Corolla with NUMMI and production was stopped at the NUMMI plant in April 2010. Equipment utilized in the production of the Tacoma model was transferred to the
Texas plant, where production of the Tacoma began in July 2010. The Corolla was produced and supplied by the Cambridge plant in Canada, and finished vehicles were exported into North America from the Takaoka plant and Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. in Japan. Starting October 2011, Toyota, instead of importing from Japan, has began production of the Corolla at its Mississippi plant.
As for Toyotas vehicle development in North America, while the Toyota Technical Center spearheads the design, planning, and evaluation of vehicles and parts as to their ability to meet customer needs, Toyota is actively moving forward with plans to increase the number of staff present at the Center in order for it to function as an independent local entity, in aims that it will produce even better cars in the future.
While the outlook for the future remains unclear in light of the ongoing European sovereign debt crisis, Toyota has continued to build a basic infrastructure to meet local demand in design and production by introducing the new Yaris and by entering into a diesel engine supply agreement with BMW in the fall of 2011. In addition, Toyota is actively promoting the regionally centralized management model in Europe, in accordance with the Toyota Global Vision, announced in 2011.
In 2011, despite little recovery in Western Europe as a result of a cooling of consumer attitudes in Western Europe due to fiscal austerity measures in Southern European countries such as Italy and Portugal, European market performance exceeded the previous years levels, lead by favorable economic conditions in Russia and Eastern Europe, which were encouraged by rising oil prices.
Despite the negative impact of shortages of parts and components due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and little improvement in sales in Western Europe, the overall number of vehicles sold in 2011 exceeded the previous years figures for the first time in the past four years, at 822 thousand units, with large sales contributions from the introduction of the new Yaris in October, sales increases in Russian and Central-Eastern European markets. Toyota aims to further increase its market share with stabilized production and the introduction of additional new vehicle models in the future. Consolidated European sales of Toyota in fiscal 2012 was 798 thousand units, up 0.3% from fiscal 2011.
Toyota has in the past increased local production in response to sales growth, establishing Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. (TMUK) in 1992, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey Inc. in 1994 and Toyota Motor Manufacturing France S.A.S. in 2001 as supply factories to Europe. Further, in 2005, Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile was formed as a result of a joint venture with PSA Peugeot Citroën, allowing for the expansion of local production. However, in light of the current levels of demand in the United Kingdom, TMUK will limit its production to one production line at its Burnaston plant. TMUK will determine whether and when to reopen the second production line based on the direction of the market. Toyota began operation of a factory in 2007 at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia, as a foothold in the Russian market, where future growth is expected. Further, Toyota plans to commence contract assembly of SUVs by Sollers in Vladivostok at the end of 2012.
Toyotas principal European markets are Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Russia. Toyotas principal competitors in Europe are Volkswagen, Opel, Renault, Ford and Peugeot, as well as Korean manufacturers Hyundai and Kia, who have made significant expansions in the region.
In light of the importance of the Asian market that is expected to grow in the long term, Toyota aims to build an operational framework that is efficient and self-reliant as well as a predominant position in the automotive market in Asia. Operating income for Asia in fiscal 2012 decreased compared to fiscal 2011 due to the negative impact of the floods in Thailand. However, the recovery in production capacities, primarily in Thailand and Indonesia, led to an upturn in sales in the fourth quarter. Toyota has responded to increasing competition in Asia by making
strategic investments in the market and developing relationships with local suppliers. Toyota believes that its existing local presence in the market provides it with an advantage over new entrants to the market and expects to be able to promptly respond to demand for vehicles in the region.
In this region, Toyota plans to further strengthen its business foundations by improving its product line-up, expanding local procurement, and increasing production capacities. For example, Toyota began producing IMV models (the Hilux, Fortuner and Innova) in Thailand, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Malaysia in fiscal 2005 and in Vietnam in fiscal 2006. Furthermore, with increased production capacity, the Thailand plant now produces IMV models (the Hilux and Fortuner) for sale outside of Asia, including in Australia and in the Middle East, and has contributed greatly to the expansion of Toyotas automotive business. Furthermore, Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd., Toyotas vehicle production base in Thailand, commenced production of the Camry hybrid in May 2009 and Prius in November 2011. Toyota also plans to start construction on its second new Gateway plant in the middle of 2013, which will increase production capacity by 70 thousand units, and will increase production capacity in Thailand to 760 thousand units. In India, Toyota has expanded its business by constructing a second plant with an annual production capacity of 70 thousand units, Toyota has also commenced production and sales of the Etios compact model designed specifically for the Indian market in December 2010. Toyota plans to further increase production capacity in India during 2012 and 2013. Toyota began exporting the gasoline-fueled model of the Etios to South Africa from India in April 2012. Toyota plans to construct a second plant in Karawang, Indonesia, at the beginning of 2013 in order to meet the diverse customer needs and the expanding market. In addition, in 2012 Toyota began production and sales of the Camry hybrid in Taiwan, to accommodate the spread of environmentally-friendly vehicles. In light of the Korea-USA FTA conclusion, moreover, Toyota has begun sales of the U.S. produced Camry in Korea since January 2012.
Consolidated Asian sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2012 was 1,327 thousand units, up 5.7% from fiscal 2011. In 2011, Toyota had a market share in Asia of 13.4% and achieved annual retail unit sales of approximately 1,055 thousand vehicles. Increased sales in robust economics primarily in Thailand and Indonesia contributed to the growth in the Asian market.
Toyotas principal Asian markets are Thailand, Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Taiwan.
Toyota has been conducting its operations in China through joint ventures, and its success in producing products that meet local demands and in establishing its sales and service network has significantly contributed to Toyotas profits. Based on the firm business foundation that it has established, Toyota is conducting its operations with the aim of promoting further growth and increasing profitability through further development of its sales and service network and expansion of its product lineup.
In China, Toyota has been conducting joint ventures with two major partners. First, with respect to the joint venture with China FAW Group Corporation, since Toyota first launched the Vios through the joint venture in 2002, Toyota has been producing and selling nine car models in China, including the Land Cruiser Prado, Land Cruiser, Corolla, Crown, REIZ, Coaster, RAV4 and Prius. With regard to increasing production capacity, in May 2007, Toyota commenced production of the new Corolla on the second line of the Tianjin Teda plant, which has an annual production capacity of 200 thousand units, and commenced production of the RAV4 on the same line in March 2009. Toyota is currently constructing a new factory in Changchun, China, where Toyota began producing the Corolla in May 2012 with an annual production capacity of 100 thousand units. Guangzhou Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Toyota and Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd., commenced production of the Camry in May 2006 with an annual production capacity of 100 thousand units on a single shift basis and, by late 2006, it expanded its annual production capacity to 200 thousand units on a double shift basis. In addition, it commenced production of the Yaris in May 2008, and the second Guangzhou line commenced production of the Highlander in May 2009 and the Ez in June 2011.
In China, vehicle sales increased 3% from 18.3 million in 2010 to 18.8 million in 2011. In this market, Toyotas sales in 2011 were 880 thousand vehicles. In the locally produced passenger vehicle market (total of approximately 12 million units), Toyotas sales were 800 thousand units, for a market share of 7%. In the 2011 market, favorable conditions in the less-than-1.6 liter market continued, and the SUV market expanded as a result of customers value diversification. Toyota increased the number of the Corolla and Corolla EX, which are Toyotas main models under 1.6 liters, and the RAV4 and Highlander SUV models, which resulted in record high sales. As for Toyotas distribution network, Toyota has been expanding the distribution network for locally produced vehicles in cooperation with Chinese joint venture partners under Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. and Guanqi Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., and for imported vehicles, Toyota has also been expanding primarily the Lexus brand sales network. Toyota plans to further increase sales by expanding the number of dealers and the product lineup for both locally produced and imported vehicles. In addition, as the market in China develops, Toyota plans to promote the so-called Value Chain businesses such as used cars, services, financing and insurance.
South and Central America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East
Consolidated sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2012 in South and Central America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East (collectively, the Four Regions) was 1,284 thousand units, a decrease of 2.2% from fiscal 2011, on the backdrop of reduced production due to the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand. The core models in this region are global models such as the Corolla, IMV (the Hilux) and Camry, which are designed to satisfy regional demands, while keeping production costs down by using common platforms and core parts and components with vehicle models in other regions. Furthermore, with respect to production, Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd., Toyotas vehicle production base in Australia, commenced production of the Camry hybrid in the beginning of 2010. In addition, in order to increase production of IMV models, Toyota expanded the annual production capacity of its Argentina factory from 70 thousand units to 90 thousand units during the second half of 2011. In order to expand business in Brazil, Toyota constructed a new factory in Sorocaba with an annual production capacity of 70 thousand units, and plans to begin production and sales of the compact vehicles introduced to the Indian market in late 2012. Further, Toyota began local production of the Fortuner in Egypt in April 2012, and plans to sell 3 thousand units per year.
In these regions, which are expected to become increasingly important to Toyotas business strategy, Toyota aims to develop new products which meet the specific demands of each region, increase production and further promote sales.
Toyotas principal markets in the Four Regions are Brazil in South and Central America, Australia in Oceania, South Africa in Africa and Saudi Arabia in the Middle East.
Toyota and its affiliates produce automobiles and related parts and components through more than 50 overseas manufacturing companies in 27 countries and regions besides Japan. Toyotas major manufacturing facilities include plants in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Thailand, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Brazil. Daihatsu brand vehicles are produced at 4 factories in Japan and 4 manufacturing companies in 4 other countries, including Indonesia and Malaysia. Hino brand vehicles are produced at 2 factories in Japan and 5 manufacturing companies in 5 countries, including Indonesia and Thailand. For a listing of Toyotas principal production facilities, see Information on the Company Property, Plants and Equipment.
In promoting a sustainable growth strategy, establishing a system capable of providing optimal supply of products in the global market is integral to Toyotas strategy. In May 2010, Toyota announced its production strategy aimed at achieving an optimal supply system in the global market. For example, Toyota will increase its local production capacities to meet a wide range of growing customer demands in a timely manner in emerging
countries such as China and India. On the other hand, in developed countries with mature markets, Toyota will reconsider production models to respond to changes in market demand and establish a flexible and efficient production system that can withstand currency fluctuations. In 2011, approximately 71% of Toyota vehicles sold in overseas markets were manufactured in overseas plants by Toyota and its unconsolidated affiliates. In 2011, approximately 67% of Toyota vehicles sold in North America were produced in North America. Of the vehicles sold in Europe in 2011, approximately 57% were produced in Europe. In fiscal 2012, Toyota produced on a consolidated basis approximately 3,940 thousand vehicles in Japan and approximately 3,495 thousand vehicles overseas, compared to approximately 3,721 thousand vehicles in Japan and approximately 3,448 thousand vehicles overseas in fiscal 2011.
The following table shows the worldwide vehicle unit production by Toyota for the periods shown. These production figures do not include vehicles produced by Toyotas unconsolidated affiliates. The sales unit information elsewhere in this annual report includes sales of vehicles produced by these affiliates. Vehicles produced by Daihatsu and Hino are included in the vehicle production figures set forth below.
Toyota closely monitors its actual units of sale, market share and units of production data and uses this information to allocate resources to existing manufacturing facilities and to plan for future expansions.
See Capital Expenditures and Divestitures for a description of Toyotas recent investments in completed plant constructions and for a description of Toyotas current investments in ongoing plant constructions.
The Toyota Production System
Toyota pioneered the internationally recognized production system known as the Toyota Production System. The Toyota Production System is based on Toyotas own concepts of efficient production of only necessary and quality products and efficient cost reduction, and has the following two principal elements:
Just-in-Time is an approach in which necessary parts and components are manufactured and delivered in just the right quantity in a timely manner just as they are needed. This allows Toyota to maintain low levels of inventory while maintaining operating efficiency.
Jidoka is a production concept which involves immediate stop of work when problems arise in the production line in order to stop the production of defective items from being passed on to subsequent stages of the process, and therefore making quality assurance an inherent part of the production process. To achieve this, Toyotas equipment is designed to detect and highlight abnormalities and to stop whenever abnormalities occur. Toyota also authorizes its machine operators and other members of its production team to stop production whenever they note anything suspicious. This helps Toyota to build quality into the production process by avoiding defects and preventing the waste that would result from producing a series of defective items.
Toyota believes that the Toyota Production System allows it to achieve mass-production efficiencies even in high-mix low-volume production. This belief gives Toyota the flexibility to respond to changing consumer demand without significantly increasing production costs. While the Toyota Production System remains the basis of Toyotas automobile production, the system has been expanded for use in Toyotas parts production, logistics and customer service activities as well.
Through the Toyota Production System, issues are identified and analyzed at the actual site, the entire production process is made visible, and production efficiency as well as product quality are improved through the application of measures to address the sources of problems. As one method to implement these measures, Toyota utilizes sophisticated information technologies to improve each step of its vehicle development process, from product planning to commencement of mass-production. These technologies are intended to enhance flexibility, simplification, quality, cost competitiveness, and speed. Specifically, detailed computer simulation of the assembly and test-run of a new vehicle or new vehicle production equipment or system is conducted before a prototype is made. An actual prototype is made only after defects and related issues have been identified and resolved by computer simulation, thereby minimizing the time required for rebuilding prototypes and significantly shortening the time required for production. Moreover, this system is used to prepare virtual factories and other visual aids in order to facilitate training and communication at overseas plants and enable the efficient transfer of necessary technology and skills.
In order to strengthen manufacturing and promote localization of overseas production, Toyota established the Global Production Center (GPC) in July 2003 as a development and training center for global human resources. The GPC is intended to introduce local managers to the Toyota methodology, allowing them to train their subordinates with the local management. GPC develops simple, easy-to-understand and efficient training systems for the development of explicit knowledge. One characteristic of the GPC is that managers and supervisors, new hires and experienced workers can all receive common skill training. GPCs training system involves a pre-training phase where trainees learn basic skills and discover the skills that they must acquire through image training. This is followed by various steps, from basic skill training, elemental task training, to standard task training, which is a sure method of training. The fruits of this training method are reduced training time, higher levels of achievement and the efficiency of training. Since January 2006, Toyota has opened regional GPCs in North America, Europe and Asia. In each region, Toyota commenced courses where trainees from each department are trained by local trainers to become trainers themselves. Since its establishment, GPC (including regional GPCs) has trained approximately 41 thousand people in nine years.
With the aim of enhancing its competitive edge in self-manufacturing, Toyota, since 2001, has been developing and implementing the simple and user-friendly operation systems & facilities that can be handled by anyone, anywhere. Toyota is developing its innovative production system, facilities and processing technologies and is currently promoting it at a global level.
Toyotas automotive sales distribution network is the largest in Japan. As of March 31, 2012, this network consisted of 283 dealers employing approximately 34 thousand sales personnel and operating approximately 4.7 thousand sales and service outlets. Toyota owns 15 of these dealers and the remainder are independent.
Toyota believes that this extensive sales network has been an important factor in its success in the Japanese market. A large number of the cars sold in Japan are purchased from salespersons who visit customers in their homes or offices. In recent years, however, the traditional method of sales through home visits is being replaced by showroom sales and the percentage of automobile purchases through showrooms has been gradually increasing. Toyota expects this trend to continue, and accordingly, plans to improve its sales activities such as customer reception and meticulous service at showrooms to increase customer satisfaction.
Sales of Toyota vehicles in Japan are conducted through four sales channels Toyota, Toyopet, Corolla and Netz. In addition, Toyota introduced the Lexus brand to the Japanese market in August 2005, and currently distributes the Lexus brand vehicles through a network of 170 sales outlets in order to enhance its competitiveness in the domestic luxury automobile market. The following table provides information for each channel as of March 31, 2012.
Outside Japan, Toyota vehicles are sold through approximately 170 distributors in approximately 170 countries and regions. Through these distributors, Toyota maintains networks of dealers. The chart below shows the number of Toyota distributors as of March 31, 2012 by country and region:
Toyota is working on the following to create a structure allowing for efficient development, production and sales that can respond flexibly to changes in the external environment:
Toyota also plans to improve profitability and enhance operating efficiency by continuing to pursue aggressive cost reduction programs, including:
Toyota is further improving production efficiency by installing more versatile equipment and systems, modifying vehicle body designs to allow for a greater variety of models on each production line and sharing more parts among vehicles, not simply among different models, but also among different platforms.
Toyota continues to focus on reducing costs and improving efficiency through various measures. One of these measures is the reduction in the number of platforms used in vehicle production. Platforms are the essential structures that form the base of different vehicle models. By using a common platform for the production of a greater number of models, Toyota believes that it will be able to decrease the substantial expenditures required to design and develop vehicles. In addition, Toyota believes that it will be able to achieve the scale benefits of producing larger volumes per platform, thereby reducing manufacturing cost per vehicle.
In April 2012, Toyota announced a new development framework, the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA), which reconciles sweeping advances in product appeal with cost reductions. The new framework aims for the development of new vehicle platforms that not only pursue the three fundamental vehicle functions of moving, turning and stopping, but also ideal engineering for occupants, such as driving position, and also freedom of design. These new platforms are to be shared across regions worldwide to efficiently develop cars with high basic-performance attributes. The TNGA provides for handling multiple models simultaneously in grouped development projects that will increase the sharing of parts and core vehicle components. This sharing, carried out in cooperation with suppliers, will result in lowered costs, thereby allowing developmental manpower and funds to be divided between R&D to meet consumer preferences and R&D to meet regional needs, resulting in further product improvement.
Enhancing Vehicle Functionality and Intelligent Transport Systems Realizing a Smart Mobility Society
Toyota is striving to enhance vehicle functionality that will increase the attractiveness of vehicles and the excitement of driving. Toyota is also working in various ways to comprehensively realize enhanced transport systems that are aimed at transporting people and goods in a smooth and efficient manner and to build a safe transportation environment. ITS combines automotive technologies and information technologies in an effort to provide vehicle occupants with an array of information and enhanced safety features. Additionally technological innovations allow automobiles to function not just as a means of transport but also additional roles in peoples lives and society. Toyota will continue to face this challenging goal and aim to innovate technology that will realize an affluent lifestyle that offers people peace of mind in a smart mobility society where vehicles will manifest new kinds of value-added and attractive functions and features that is closely connect all aspects of human activity and life as a part of smart communities worldwide. Toyota aims to realize a Smart Mobility Society where people feel relief and excitement in every scene of their lives, by connecting vehicles, people and their communities with advanced Information Communication Technologies (ICT).
Enhancing Vehicle Functionality Information service functions.
To Toyota, enhancing vehicle functionality means advancing information service functions that integrate vehicles with telecommunication systems, and driving assistance functions that use communication technologies and sensing technologies to create vehicles with intelligent features. Information service
functions can improve the convenience and enrich the driving experience by means of information communication technologies, which add new functions connected to the basic vehicle functions of running, turning and stopping. Examples include the following:
In addition to the above, Toyota also operates a Japanese-language website, GAZOO.com. The name Gazoo originates from the Japanese word gazo meaning images. Gazoo was established as a membership Internet service linking Toyota, its national dealer network and Gazoo members, and has provided information on new and used Toyota vehicles and related services as well as online shopping capabilities. Currently, in addition to information on Toyota vehicles, Gazoo provides information on automobile companies, while providing information through an enhanced blog on an automobile portal site where customers can experience the enjoyment that cars offer. Furthermore, Toyota is using new content such as GAZOO Racing and GAZOO Mura to further add to its content line-up. In October 2008, Toyota introduced the new Internet-based service GAZOO METAPOLIS, which is Toyotas own virtual city using 3-D images, to inspire new interest in cars and propose new ways for people to enjoy their vehicles through the Internet. Toyota utilized its GAZOO technology to further expand its automobile information service by launching the G-BOOK telematics service in Japan in fall 2002 and G-Link, which is a service exclusive to Lexus, in August 2005. Toyota also offers a theft detection system, vehicle tracking service, operator support service as standard to enhance services aiming to provide safety, security and comfort for G-BOOK and G-Link users in their lifestyle using vehicles. With G-BOOK mX announced in April 2007, Toyota started offering services that allow drivers to use more convenient navigation systems such as Map-on-Demand the worlds first technology for automatically updating map data. Also, Toyota has further strengthened its linkage between Gazoo and G-BOOK and has, for example, allowed map information searched on a blog on GAZOO.com to be used on G-BOOK, further maturing as a comprehensive telematics service. In Japan, Toyota is seeking to promote the use of the G-BOOK by equipping all Crown models with navigation systems with the G-BOOK and increasing the number of car navigation system models that are compatible with G-BOOK. Toyota has also licensed its G-BOOK technology to certain other competitors in Japan. Toyota is applying the technology and experience it has accumulated in Japan to regions outside Japan. G-BOOK services have been available in China since March
2009, and its unique telematics services in the United States was launched in August 2009. In addition, Toyota began offering the new G-BOOK software for smartphones starting from December 2010 in Japan, and began to offer the same service in Thailand starting March 2012.
In addition, in March 2004, Toyota launched its CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system called e-CRB (evolutionary Customer Relationship Building) in Thailand. e-CRB builds on a technology cultivated through the development of Gazoo and G-BOOK and offers its customers a variety of services such as providing information of new vehicles, accepting requests for brochures and estimates and notifying customers when it is time for maintenance by keeping track of the vehicles maintenance history and mileage. In addition, e-CRB offers an advanced operation system that can be utilized comprehensively at dealers including new and used cars and services. Toyota is currently promoting e-CRB in countries such as China, Thailand, Australia, India and Brazil where steady progress has been made as the service-in ratio has increased.
Also, Toyota introduced a system called Sales Logistics Integrated Management (SLIM) in Guangzhou, China. By utilizing real sales information and linking with production and distribution, Toyota is able to realize the Just-in-Time production system of producing and delivering only the number of vehicles that have been sold. SLIM has been recognized to significantly increase the freshness of inventory and improve cash flow.
In September 2010, Toyota announced its smart-grid initiatives, which are intended to demonstrate efficient energy use toward the realization of a low-carbon and energy-saving society. By utilizing technology cultivated through the Internet and telematics services mentioned above, Toyota developed the Toyota Smart Center (TSC) that optimally controls electricity and links EV (electric vehicles) and PHV (plug-in hybrid vehicles) with homes, and commenced in Rokkasho Village in Aomori, a demonstration project aimed to reduce overall CO2 emissions and users electricity costs. In addition, in April 2010, Toyota City was selected as a Model Region for Next-Generation Energy Systems by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Toyota has since joined the Toyota City Low-Carbon Society Verification Council (established in August 2010), and has conducted research on two themes: Optimization of Energy Use in Homes and Transportation and Establishment of a System for Low-Carbon Emission Transportation in Commutation and Travel. Combining the results of these studies, Toyota conducts experiments to optimize energy consumption across a broad range of lifestyle activities. Toyota will utilize the element technologies developed as a result of these experiments to implement in Japan and overseas energy systems that meet the needs of different environments and societies, and to play a role in the energy management to help spread the next generation eco-cars. In addition, in order to develop a global platform of the Toyota Smart Center, Toyota announced a partnership with Microsoft Corp. in April 2011 and a partnership with Salesforce.com in May 2011. As a first step Toyota began eConnect for PHV and TOYOTA friend services from January 2012. Toyota is implementing cooperative efforts to work with the new information technology and industry to establish a framework for Toyota Smart Centers global implementation and to realize a mobility society in the future.
Enhancing Vehicle Functionality Driving Assistance Functions.
Toyotas driving assistance functions offer functions that assist drivers with an aim to lessen the burden of driving, enhance safety and provide pleasure of driving to everyone. Toyota is proceeding with enhancements to commercialize various functions that assist the driver in sensing external information, avoiding danger and making appropriate maneuvers. These functions have started to be incorporated in some Toyota vehicles. Examples of driving assistance functions include the following:
Enhancing Transport Systems.
Enhancing transport systems requires taking a general approach that addresses various factors across a wide scope that are pertinent not only to vehicles but also roads, people and public transport systems in order to ensure smooth and efficient movement of people and vehicles and to build a safe transportation environment. Recent advances in information technology and ITS are making it possible to develop various systems that used to be mere concepts, such as the VICS and the ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System), which are already standard in Japan, as well as the Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative Systems that Support Safety Driving that has begun to be partially implemented. The following are examples of transport systems enhancements.
Toyota is committed to developing new ITS products. Toyota believes that intelligent transport systems will become an integral part of its overall automotive operations and enhance the competitiveness of its vehicles. As familiarity with and demand for ITS products grows, Toyota expects an increasing number of ITS products to become commercially available and achieve greater acceptance each year.
Toyotas financial services include loan programs and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value-added service. In July 2000, Toyota established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services Corporation (TFSC), to oversee the management of Toyotas finance companies worldwide, through which Toyota aims to strengthen the overall competitiveness of its financial business, improve risk management and streamline decision-making processes. Toyota plans to expand its network of financial services, in accordance with its strategy of developing auto-related financing businesses in significant markets. Accordingly, Toyota currently operates financial services companies in 34 countries and regions, which support its automotive operations globally.
Toyotas revenues from its financial services operations were ¥1,100.3 billion in fiscal 2012, ¥1,192.2 billion in fiscal 2011 and ¥1,245.4 billion in fiscal 2010. In fiscal 2011, the financial services operations were steady overall, as a result of expansions of demand in Asia and other emerging countries, an increase in exports from Japan and the effects of the economic stimulus measures in countries throughout the world. Also in fiscal 2012, the financial services operations were steady overall, as a result of timely joint sales promotions with dealers in various countries and regions, despite the harsh economic environment due to the negative impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the floods in Thailand. Toyota also maintained more than 30% of financing share in fiscal 2012, with the number of new financings also reaching a high level. Meanwhile, Toyota is making efforts to provide both its customers and dealers with stable financial services, by diversifying its funding mechanisms with ABCP (Asset Backed Commercial Paper) and ABS (Asset Backed Securities), in addition to mid- to long-term financings, primarily in commercial paper issuances, corporate bonds and bank borrowings. Additionally, in fiscal 2011, the percentage of credit losses improved by 0.31% from fiscal 2010 to 0.41%, as Toyota performed timely revisions to its lending standards and strengthened its collection management system. In fiscal 2012, Toyota continued to perform detailed credit appraisals and serve customers by monitoring bad debt and loan payment extensions, and the percentage of credit losses improved by 0.19% from fiscal 2011 to 0.22%. Additionally, operating income of Toyotas financial service operations reached their second highest level to date with decreases in the percentages of credit and residual value losses to lower levels in comparison with previous years, as a result of the favorable impacts of external factors such as rising prices of used cars in the United States. Toyota continues to work towards improving its risk management measures in connection with credit and residual value risks.
Toyota Motor Credit Corporation is Toyotas principal financial services subsidiary in the United States. Toyota also provides financial services in 33 other countries and regions through various financial services subsidiaries, including:
Toyota Motor Credit Corporation provides a wide range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, wholesale financing and insurance. Toyota Finance Corporation also provides a range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, credit cards and housing loans. Toyotas other finance subsidiaries provide services including retail financing, retail leasing and wholesale financing.
In May 2011, Toyota established Toyota Financial Services India Limited, a financial services company, in India.
Net finance receivables for all of Toyotas dealer and customer financing operations were approximately ¥9.7 trillion as of March 31, 2012, representing an increase of approximately 0.2% as compared to the previous year. The majority of Toyotas financial services are provided in North America. As of March 31, 2012,
approximately 58.1% of Toyotas finance receivables were derived from financing operations in North America, 12.0% from Japan, 10.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Asia and 12.5% from other areas.
Approximately 48% of Toyotas unit sales in the United States during fiscal 2012 included a finance or lease arrangement with Toyota. Because the majority of Toyotas financial services operations are related to the sale of Toyota vehicles, a decrease in vehicle unit sales may lead to a contraction of Toyotas financial services operations.
The worldwide financial services market is highly competitive. Toyotas competitors in retail financing and retail leasing include commercial banks, credit unions and other finance companies. Commercial banks and other automobile finance subsidiary companies serving their parent automobile companies are competitors of Toyotas wholesale financing activities. Competitors in Toyotas insurance operations are primarily national and regional insurance companies.
The following table provides information for Toyotas finance receivables and operating leases as of March 31, 2011 and 2012.
Toyotas finance subsidiaries acquire new and used vehicle installment contracts primarily from Toyota dealers. Installment contracts acquired must first meet specified credit standards. Thereafter, the finance company retains responsibility for contract collection and administration. Toyotas finance subsidiaries acquire
security interests in the vehicles financed and can generally repossess vehicles if customers fail to meet their contractual obligations. Almost all retail financings are non-recourse, which relieves the dealers from financial responsibility in the event of repossession. In most cases, Toyotas finance subsidiaries require their retail financing customers to carry automobile insurance on financed vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the customer.
Toyota has historically sponsored, and continues to sponsor, special lease and retail programs by subsidizing below market lease and retail contract rates.
In the area of retail leasing, Toyotas finance subsidiaries acquire new vehicle lease contracts originated primarily through Toyota dealers. Lease contracts acquired must first meet specified credit standards after which the finance company assumes ownership of the leased vehicle. The finance company is generally permitted to take possession of the vehicle upon a default by the lessee. Toyotas finance subsidiaries are responsible for contract collection and administration during the lease period. The residual value is normally estimated at the time the vehicle is first leased. Vehicles returned to the finance subsidiaries at the end of their leases are sold by auction. For example, in the United States, vehicles are sold through a network of auction sites as well as through the Internet. In most cases, Toyotas finance subsidiaries require lessees to carry automobile insurance on leased vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the lessee.
Toyotas finance subsidiaries also provide wholesale financing primarily to qualified Toyota vehicle dealers to finance inventories of new Toyota vehicles and used vehicles of Toyota and others. The finance companies acquire security interests in vehicles financed at wholesale. In cases where additional security interests would be required, the finance companies take dealership assets or personal assets, or both, as additional security. If a dealer defaults, the finance companies have the right to liquidate any assets acquired and seek legal remedies.
Toyotas finance subsidiaries also make term loans to dealers for business acquisitions, facilities refurbishment, real estate purchases and working capital requirements. These loans are typically secured with liens on real estate, other dealership assets and/or personal assets of the dealers.
Toyota provides insurance services in the United States through Toyota Motor Credit Corporations wholly-owned subsidiary, Toyota Motor Insurance Services, Inc. (TMIS) and its wholly-owned insurance company subsidiaries. Their principal activities include marketing, underwriting and claims administration. TMIS also provides coverage related to vehicle service agreements and contractual liability agreements through Toyota dealers to customers. In addition, TMIS also provides coverage and related administrative services to affiliates of Toyota Motor Credit Corporation. Toyota dealers in Japan and in other countries and regions also engage in vehicle insurance sales.
Toyota held approximately 34% of the voting rights in leading domestic insurance company Aioi Insurance Company, Limited (Aioi) until Aiois business integration with the Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group (Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group Holdings, Inc. and Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company, Limited) and Nissay Dowa General Insurance Company, Limited in April 2010. As a result of the share transfer effecting the business integration, Toyota now holds approximately 8% of the voting rights in the combined holding company MS&AD Insurance Group Holdings, Inc.
Other Financial Services
Toyota Finance Corporation launched its credit card business in April 2001 and began issuing Lexus credit cards in 2005 when the Lexus brand was introduced in Japan. As of March 31, 2012, Toyota Finance Corporation has exceeded 10 million members with 10.9 million card holders (including Lexus credit card holders).
As part of Toyotas restructuring of its domestic financial services businesses, Toyota assigned all of the stock of Toyota Financial Services Securities Corporation (TFSS), a subsidiary of Toyota Financial Services Corporation (TFSC), to Tokai Tokyo Financial Holdings, Inc. (TTFH) and agreed to the merger of TFSS with Tokai Tokyo Securities Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of TTFH. In order to ensure the smooth implementation of the merger and to support the new company after the merger, TFSC made a 5% investment in TTFH.
All Other Operations
In addition to its automotive operations and financial services operations, Toyota is involved in a number of other non-automotive business activities. Net sales for these activities totaled ¥1,048.9 billion in fiscal 2012, ¥972.2 billion in fiscal 2011 and ¥947.6 billion in fiscal 2010. Sales to external customers of all other operations in fiscal 2012 represented 2.9% of Toyotas net revenues for fiscal 2012. Substantially all of Toyotas revenues from other operations were derived in Japan.
Toyota established its subsidiary Toyota Housing Corporation in April 2003 and has transferred to it product planning and sales operations related to the manufacture and sale of housing. Furthermore, in order to quickly and accurately grasp clients needs and to plan, develop and sell products on a timely basis, in April 2008, Toyota transferred the product development operation to Toyota Housing Corporation. In October 2010, Toyota spun-off its housing operations (project planning, technology development and manufacturing) through a statutory demerger and integrated them into Toyota Housing Corporation. Toyota believes that in the vastly changing housing market environment, the integration of the development, manufacture and sales functions will expedite decision making and lead to flexible business operations that will enable Toyota to better respond to the needs of even more customers. In March 2005, Toyota, together with institutional investors, agreed to jointly invest in Misawa Home Holdings, Inc. (Misawa; renamed Misawa Homes Co., Ltd.) pursuant to its request for assistance in its rehabilitation. In April 2010, determining that a stronger collaboration with Misawa would be desirable in order to achieve further growth in the difficult operating environment of the housing industry, Toyota Housing Corporation agreed to purchase Misawa shares from an institutional investor. In addition, Toyota transferred ownership of Misawa to Toyota Housing Corporation in October 2010. Through these activities, Toyota intends to strengthen the housing business of both companies.
See Enhancing Vehicle Functionality and Intelligent Transport Systems for a description of Toyotas information technology.
Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards
Toyota is subject to laws in various jurisdictions regulating the levels of pollutants generated by its plants. In addition, Toyota is subject to regulations relating to the emission levels, fuel economy, noise and safety of its products. Toyota has incurred significant costs in complying with these laws and regulations and expects to incur significant compliance costs in the future. Toyotas management views leadership in environmental protection as an important competitive factor in the marketplace.
The Air Pollution Control Law of Japan and the Road Vehicle Law and the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas regulate vehicle emissions in Japan. In addition, both the Noise Regulation Law and the Road Vehicles Law provide for noise reduction standards on automobiles in Japan. Toyotas vehicles manufactured for sale in Japan comply with all Japanese exhaust emission and noise level standards.
U.S. Federal Standards
The federal Clean Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish and enforce air quality standards, including emission control standards on passenger cars, light trucks and heavy-duty vehicles. The EPA decided in February 2000 to adopt more stringent vehicle emission and fuel economy standards applicable to passenger cars and light trucks produced in model years 2004 and beyond. In the standards adopted for model years 2004 and beyond, manufacturers must guarantee that their vehicles meet the requirements for ten years or 120 thousand miles, whichever occurs first. Manufacturers are not permitted to sell vehicles in the United States that do not meet the standards. In April 2007, EPA regulations that further restrict emissions from passenger cars and light trucks operating at cold temperatures became effective. The new emissions standards set by these regulations are being phased in between 2010 and 2013. Similar standards that further restrict emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating at cold temperatures will be phased in from 2012 to 2015.
Furthermore, in April 2007 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the EPA has the authority to regulate automobile emissions of greenhouse gases. In response to this ruling, on April 1, 2010 the EPA and the federal National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a joint final rule to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2012 through 2016. These vehicles are required to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250 grams of carbon dioxide per mile, equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon if the requirements were met through fuel economy standards. The NHTSA also set Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for passenger cars and light trucks that will require manufacturers of those vehicles to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 34.1 miles per gallon in model year 2016. In addition, in December 2011, the EPA and the NHTSA issued a joint proposed rule to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy for passenger vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2017 through 2025. In the proposed rule, these vehicles would be required to meet an estimated combined average emission level of 163 grams of carbon dioxide per mile in model year 2025, equivalent to 54.5 miles per gallon if these requirements were met through improvements in fuel economy standards. At the same time, the NHTSA also issued proposed CAFE standards for passenger vehicles and light trucks that would require manufacturers to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 49.6 miles per gallon in model year 2025. A joint final rule is expected in 2012.
Under the federal Clean Air Act, states are permitted to establish their own vehicle emission control standards if they receive a waiver from the EPA. As a result, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) established the Low Emission Vehicle Program and set emission standards for certain regulated pollutants that were phased in beginning in the 2004 model year. Under these standards most light trucks and passenger cars are required to meet the same emissions standards, which were stricter than the federal standards. As part of the original Low Emission Vehicle Program, the CARB also required that a specified percentage of a manufacturers passenger cars and light trucks sold in California for all model years 1998 and after be zero-emission vehicles (vehicles producing no emissions of regulated pollutants). The CARB subsequently eliminated the zero-emission vehicles mandate for model years before 2005, and decided to adopt a zero-emission vehicles requirement for model years 2005 and beyond. This zero-emission vehicles requirement also permitted certain advanced technology vehicles such as PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles), hybrid cars and alternative fuel vehicles that meet partial zero-emission vehicles requirements to be granted partial qualification as EV (Electronic Vehicles) or FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle). Toyotas battery-powered RAV4 EV compact sport-utility vehicle and the Toyota FCHV qualify as zero-emission vehicles. The current Prius plug-in hybrid, Prius model and the Camry Hybrid qualify as partial zero-emission vehicles under the zero-emission vehicles requirement adopted by the CARB. Toyota intends to continue to develop additional advanced technologies and alternative fuel technologies that will allow other vehicles using such technologies to qualify as zero-emission vehicles or partial-zero-emission vehicles.
In July 2002, the California legislature passed legislation that required the CARB to develop and adopt, by the end of 2004, regulations that achieved the maximum feasible reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. In September 2004, the CARB adopted regulations that required a 20 to 30 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles, light trucks and other noncommercial vehicles to be phased in between the 2009 and 2016 model years.
In December 2007, the EPA denied Californias request for a waiver under the Clean Air Act that would have allowed the state to enforce these regulations to control greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. However, the EPA reconsidered its decision pursuant to a direction issued by the U.S. President in January 2009, and in July 2009 decided to allow the state to enforce such regulations.
In February 2010, the CARB enacted regulations that deem automobile manufacturers that produced vehicles in model years 2012 through 2016 that are in compliance with the greenhouse gas emission regulations of the EPA to be in compliance with Californias greenhouse gas emission regulations. Toyota is currently developing plans to comply with the EPA regulations.
In January 2012, the CARB approved a new emission control program for model years 2017 to 2025 called Advanced Clean Cars. The program covers greenhouse gas standards for cars and light trucks, reductions of smog-forming emissions, zero-emission vehicles regulations and clean fuels outlet regulations. The CARB is in the process of developing specific rules for the program.
The states of New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Delaware and Colorado have either adopted, or plan to adopt, regulations substantially similar to Californias zero-emission vehicles requirement and greenhouse gas emissions regulations.
Canada has established vehicle emission standards equivalent to the federal standards in the United States, including the heightened requirements that became applicable to passenger cars and light trucks in model years 2004 and beyond. In October 2010, the Canadian government also established its proposed greenhouse gas emission regulations that are similar to those enacted by the EPA. Furthermore, certain Canadian provinces are currently considering enacting their own regulations on vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases.
The European Union adopted a directive that establishes increasingly stringent emissions standards for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles in October 1998. Under this directive, the standards adopted beginning with year 2000 require manufacturers to recall any vehicles which fail to meet the standards for five years or 80 thousand kilometers, whichever occurs first. Toyota introduced vehicles complying with this directive in 1999. Under standards adopted in 2005, manufacturers are obligated to meet the more stringent standards for five years or 100 thousand kilometers, whichever occurs first. In 2007, the European Parliament adopted more stringent emission standards for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles. The effective dates for phasing in these stricter standards for passenger cars were September 2009 for Euro 5 and September 2014 for Euro 6. For light commercial vehicles, the effective dates are September 2010 for Euro 5 and September 2015 for Euro 6. Euro 5 provides for lower emission levels for gasoline and diesel powered vehicles and also extends the manufacturers responsibility for emission performance to 160 thousand kilometers. The primary focus of Euro 6 is to limit further emissions of diesel powered vehicles and bring them down to a level equivalent to gasoline powered vehicles.
Emissions regulations are being implemented throughout China pursuant to the Chinese National Standards (GB) of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Peoples Republic of China, and the manufacture and sale of models not meeting these regulations are prohibited. As for passenger vehicles, pursuant to GB18352.3-2005, Level 3 Emissions Regulations (corresponding to Euro 3 standards) apply to new models after July 2007, and Level 4 Emissions Regulations (corresponding to Euro 4 standards) apply to new models after July 2010. New models after July 2008 are also required to be equipped with on-board diagnostics. As for diesel-powered commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB17691-2005, new Level 3 Emissions Regulations apply to models after January 2007, Level 4 Emissions Regulations apply to new models after January 2010, and Level 5 Emissions Regulations will apply to new models after July 2012. As for gasoline-powered commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB14762-2008, Level 3 Emissions Regulations apply to new models after July 2009, and Level 4
Emissions Regulations will apply to new models after July 2012. After the first day the regulation is implemented to a new model, all new models released during the following approximate one-year period are also subject to the regulation. In addition, in some areas such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and the Pearl River Delta region, the above mentioned regulations were implemented several years earlier by regional environmental preservation authorities with the authorization of the Chinese State Council. With respect to passenger vehicles, adoption procedures regarding the Level 5 Emissions Regulations corresponding to Euro 5 are currently in progress, in order to implement the regulations soon.
Compliance with new emission control standards will present significant technological challenges to automobile manufacturers and will likely require significant expenditures. Examples of these challenges include the development of advanced technologies, such as high performance batteries and catalytic converters, as well as the development of alternative fuel technologies. Manufacturers that are unable to develop commercially viable technologies within the time frames set by the new standards will lose their market share and will be forced to decrease the number of types of vehicles and engines in their principal markets.
Standards of Other Countries
Countries other than Japan, the United States and Europe are also proactively introducing the emission regulations. Especially Eastern Europe, Taiwan and Hong Kong have followed the Europes lead and considered implementing emission regulations. And also, Australia and other countries in Asia have followed.
Vehicle Fuel Economy
The Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (the Act) requires automobile manufacturers to improve their vehicles to meet specified fuel economy standards. Fuel economy standards are established according to the types of vehicles specified below, and are required to be met by either fiscal 2011 (April 2010-March 2011) or fiscal 2016 (April 2015-March 2016). In addition, the introduction of new fuel economy standards which are required to be met by fiscal 2021 is under consideration.
Among qualifying passenger vehicles are:
Among qualifying cargo vehicles are:
Toyota is in compliance with the fuel economy standards that currently apply and is promoting the improvement of its vehicles in order to achieve compliance with the standards that will apply beginning in fiscal 2016.
Japan is a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and has agreed to take measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Improved vehicle fuel economy is contributing to the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.
The Federal Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires automobile manufacturers to comply with CAFE standards. Under this law, limits are imposed on the amount of regulated pollutants that may be emitted by new motor vehicles in the United States. A manufacturer is subject to substantial civil penalties if, in any model year, its vehicles do not meet the CAFE standards. Manufacturers that exceed the CAFE standards earn credits determined by the difference between the average fuel economy performance of their vehicles and the CAFE standards. Credits earned for the five model years preceding the current model year, and credits projected to be earned for the next three model years, can be used to meet CAFE standards in a current model year.
In April 2006, the NHTSA established CAFE standards applicable to light trucks for model year 2008 and beyond. These CAFE standards aimed to shift the framework from one that used to be advantageous only to compact car manufacturers to one that is fair to full line manufacturers. The requirements were changed so that the CAFE standards are now determined by a sales rate based on vehicle size (measured by the area of the wheel and wheel base) for each manufacturer.
In addition to the CAFE standards, there are multiple standards in the United States including the EPAs emission regulations and the California standard. Automobile manufacturers had called for uniform standards, as they would need to comply with standards that varied by state if all standards became effective. On April 1, 2010 the EPA and the NHTSA issued a joint final rule to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2012 through 2016. These vehicles are required to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250 grams of carbon dioxide per mile, equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon if the requirements were met through fuel economy standards. The NHTSA also set CAFE standards for passenger cars and light trucks that will require manufacturers of those vehicles to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 34.1 miles per gallon in model year 2016. Furthermore, the EPA and NHTSA joint final rule allows the two agencies and California standards to act in a unified way, and creates a regulatory framework that makes compliance less burdensome for the manufacturers. In addition, in December 2011, the EPA and the NHTSA issued a joint proposed rule to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy for passenger vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2017 through 2025. In the proposed rule, these vehicles would be required to meet an estimated combined average emission level of 163 grams of carbon dioxide per mile in model year 2025, equivalent to 54.5 miles per gallon if these requirements were met through improvements in fuel economy standards. At the same time, the NHTSA also issued proposed CAFE standards for passenger vehicles and light trucks that would require manufacturers to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 49.6 miles per gallon in model year 2025. A joint final rule is expected in 2012. However, the standards of fuel economy are stringent, and Toyota strives to meet the fuel economy standards by further developing fuel-efficient technology, alternative fuel technology and other advanced technology.
In addition, the Energy Tax Act of 1978 imposes a gas guzzler tax on automobiles with a fuel economy rating below specified levels.
The European Union has signed the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 8% during the years 2008 to 2012, as measured from the 1990 base year. In early 1999, the European Commission and the European Automotive Manufacturers Association (ACEA) reached a voluntary agreement which establishes an average emissions target of 140 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer for new cars sold in the European Union in 2008 (the voluntary agreement applied to the 15 states who were members of the European Union at that time). The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Korean Automobile Manufacturers Association have also reached a voluntary agreement, similar to that entered into by the European Commission, with the year 2009 as a target year.
In December 2008, the European Parliament approved a new regulation that establishes an average emission standard of 130 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2012 for passenger vehicles sold in member states, made effective in June 2009. The regulation will phase in gradually, initially requiring 65% of new cars to comply with the new standards in 2012 and increasing to 100% of new cars in 2015. As a result of the new
regulations, different targets will apply to each manufacturer, based on their respective fleets of vehicles and weight. Penalties will apply to those manufacturers who fail to meet their targets from 2012, in amounts corresponding to the degree of shortfall. Manufacturers failing to meet their targets between 2012 and 2018 will incur penalties of between 5 and 95 per each gram of carbon dioxide per kilometer shortfall for each non-compliant vehicle, and such penalties will rise to 95 in 2019 and beyond. Furthermore, a medium- to long-term target of reducing emissions to 95 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2020 has also been proposed. This represents a remarkably ambitious target, even in comparison to other fuel efficiency requirements worldwide. Furthermore, in June 2011, a new carbon dioxide emission standard applicable to light commercial vehicles entered into force establishing an average emissions target of 175 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. This regulation has the same basic regulatory framework as passenger vehicles, raising the compliance rate from 70% in 2014 to 100% in 2017, and as a longer term objective, 147 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2020.
An increasing number of European Union member states are introducing vehicle tax laws based on carbon dioxide emission levels, pursuant to the directive issued by the European Commission in 2005. This trend is expected to continue, in accordance with the recent increases in environmental awareness.
Fuel consumption regulations are being implemented pursuant to the Chinese National Standards (GB), and the manufacture and sale of vehicle models not meeting these regulations are prohibited. As for passenger vehicles, pursuant to GB19578-2004, Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after July 2005, and Level 2 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after July 2006. As for small commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB20997-2007, Level 2 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after February 2008, Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to all vehicles as of January 2009, and Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to all models as of January 2011. Each of these regulations applies to all applicable models beginning one year after first applying to new models. These regulations determine the consumption standards that apply depending on the mass of the applicable vehicle, and sets forth a method for determining if each model has met the regulation. Standards to strengthen fuel consumption regulations from 2012 are currently being developed. In these Level 3 Fuel Consumption Regulations, substantial revisions to the regulation framework are planned, such as a change from regulations requiring each model to meet consumption standards to regulations requiring automobile manufacturers to meet standards of average consumption across models.
Standards of Other Countries
As momentum gathers to prevent global warming, other countries in addition to Japan, the United States, and Europe are moving to introduce fuel consumption regulations. In particular, Korea, Australia, Taiwan, India, Mexico, Canada, Vietnam and Brazil are actively considering the introduction of new fuel consumption regulations using the regulations of Japan, Europe and the United States as a base, and may implement them by approximately 2015. Toyota predicts that this trend will spread to other countries, and in the future many nations will consider new regulations related to fuel consumption and CO2.
Standards requiring protection against electrocution will apply to hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles manufactured on and after July 2012. In addition, the technological standards established by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), which are harmonized with Japanese passenger protection standards against electrocution, have been introduced. The standards will apply to new vehicle models manufactured on and after June 2014 and vehicles that continue to be manufactured on and after June 2016.
For the purpose of harmonizing with UNECE standards, electromagnetic compatibility standards will apply to vehicles manufactured on and after August 2016. The pedestrian leg protection standards will apply gradually to new type-designated vehicles manufactured on and after April 2013 and non-new type-designated vehicles manufactured on and after February 2018.
In addition, the rear underrun protection standards have been revised and will be applied to vehicles manufactured on and after July 2015, and preparations for the introduction of UNECE standards to tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) and electronic vehicle stability control (EVSC) for heavy vehicles are currently in progress.
Furthermore, in Japan, considerations regarding the standardization of brake override systems, the strengthening of anti-spinal injury measures, lithium-ion battery safety and anti-drunk driving measures are currently under consideration.
Collision damage mitigating braking system standards for cargo vehicles have been introduced and the system will be required gradually to be applied to new vehicle models manufactured on and after November 2014 and vehicles that continue to be manufactured on and after September 2017.
The U.S. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or Safety Act, requires vehicles and equipment sold in the United States to meet various safety standards issued by the NHTSA. The Safety Act also authorizes the NHTSA to investigate complaints relating to vehicle safety and to order manufacturers to recall and repair vehicles found to have safety-related defects. The cost of these recalls can be substantial depending on the nature of the repair and the number of vehicles affected.
The Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act was enacted in the United States on November 1, 2000. This Act required the NHTSA to regulate the dynamic rollover standards and to upgrade federal motor vehicle safety standards relating to tires. It also required the NHTSA to enhance its authority to gather information potentially relating to motor vehicle defects. This Act substantially increases the NHTSAs authority to impose civil penalties for noncompliance with regulatory requirements and specifies possible criminal penalties for violations of the federal Fraud and False Statements Act. In 2002, the NHTSA expanded its New Car Assessment Program to implement consumer information programs for vehicle rollover resistance and child restraints and, beginning in 2003, adopted extensive early warning defect reporting requirements. Regulations regarding tire-pressure monitoring systems were strengthened in 2005.
Legislation on a transportation budget plan promoting a safe and efficient vehicle safety program for drivers, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) was passed in August 2005. The legislation requires the NHTSA to propose and issue safety standards to reduce rollover accidents, to complete the creation of standards for the reduction of vehicle passengers released from cars at the time of rollover accidents, to upgrade door lock standards, to complete the upgrade of roof crash standards, to decide on the side impact protection standards for passengers in all seat locations, to review seat belt wearing technology and complete a study that includes a proposal for improving the rate of seat belt usage, to establish standards to display New Car Assessment Program ratings on new car labels, and to complete the upgrade of the standard for power windows that will require pulling up switches. Some actions have already been taken and completed in response to the above requirements.
In February 2008, legislation to prevent non-traffic related injuries to young children caused by vehicles, the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act, was passed. The legislation requires the NHTSA to make rules to ensure safety on all passenger vehicles, including the following: (1) to consider requiring features that will prevent children from getting caught in power windows and decide on the standards or on the discontinuance of the establishment of standards (by August 30, 2010); (2) to begin drafting standards for rearward visibility to prevent children from being struck by backing vehicle and finalize the standards (by February 28, 2011); and (3) to require brake shift interlock systems, currently a voluntary regulation, after September 1, 2010.
In April 2010, the Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010 (the 2010 Safety Act), which includes the brake-override standard, was submitted to Congress, but has not yet been deliberated by the House or Senate floor, and
only the alert sound requirement for hybrid and electric vehicles was signed into law. However, even without the enactment of the 2010 Safety Act, NHTSA has begun to consider the revision of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations.
Toyota actively invests in technology development designed to increase the safety of its vehicles. Toyota is developing technologies to increase the availability of existing safety systems to all types of its vehicles. These technologies include supplemental restraint system (SRS) airbags, anti-lock braking systems, side airbags, curtain shield airbags, vehicle stability control and other safety features.
In Europe, following the White Paper European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide adopted in 2001, which targets halving the number of deaths caused by road accidents by 2010, various groups in different fields have conducted research and analyses.
As a next-generation policy, the Traffic Safety Policy from 2011 to 2020 was newly adopted by the board of directors at the end of fiscal 2010. The policy aims to reduce fatalities from traffic accidents by half over the next 10 years, starting in 2010. Because the built-in effectiveness of the new technical system depends on users behavior, user instructions, training, and traffic law enforcement are crucial. However, with road safety systems, human error as well as inappropriate behavior needs to be corrected. Seven goals were established in order to consider the steps necessary to prevent and control the negative impact of human error, with a strong focus on vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, etc.). The topics to be discussed are speed limits for small commercial vehicles, installing alcohol interlocks for specific vehicles, the introduction and promotion of the newest technologies, such as ITS for road security, as well as road departure warnings, preventative rear-end collision warnings, a pedestrian detection system, the proliferation of emergency alarm systems (eCall), and the enhanced safety of motorcycles and EV.
Regarding the spread of eCall, the European Commission concluded that a legislative approach is effective as a result of the impact assessment by the Commission in 2011, and accordingly eCall is expected to become mandatory for light-duty passenger vehicles and light-duty commercial vehicles within the framework of Whole Vehicle Type Approval. However, in the event eCall becomes mandatory, it will be necessary at the same time to maintain infrastructures such as a communication bases in different countries, and Toyota anticipates standardizing of eCall depends on the status of such infrastructure maintenances in the future.
On the other hand, the European Commission and the ACEA have established CARS 21, a High Level Group that aims to strengthen the competitiveness of the European automotive industry, and examined the recommendations with the legal framework of a decade later in mind. The CARS 21 final report issued at the end of 2005 contains recommendations relating to the simplification of legislation and road safety, among other issues, and indicates a Ten Year Roadmap, and in February 2007, the European Commission issued a communication regarding the CARS 21 final report, in which concrete action plans for future legislation were announced, and much legislation had proceeded.
In October 2010, the newsletter regarding resumption of CARS 21 was issued in order to proceed with the realization of 2020 Strategy by the European Commission that aims for high-level, sustainable and comprehensive growth, and the CARS 21 interim report was issued in 2011. A wide variety of proposals such as eCall, EV, HV, PHV, road safety and activities for conforming to United Nations regulatory standards are currently under discussion. The High Level Group is scheduled to convene in June 2012 along with the release of its final report. The final report is expected to contain a specific roadmap with respect to areas that need to be regulated in the future.
In 2009, based on the CARS 21 final report released in February 2007, the European Commission enacted a new regulation and established a simplified framework, repealing more than 50 existing European Commission directives and replacing them with a single regulation aimed at incorporating the United Nations standards. The
new regulation also requires the adoption of advanced safety systems. The incorporation of the United Nations standards will commence in 2012, and as to new regulations on advanced safety systems, the European Commission plans to require new model cars from 2011 to have electronic stability control systems, to introduce regulations relating to low rolling resistance tires in 2013, to require tire pressure monitoring systems starting in 2012 and to require heavy vehicles to have advanced emergency braking systems and lane departure warning systems from 2013. All of the technical requirements for these advanced safety systems were discussed in the United Nations. The technical requirements for advanced emergency braking in medium-duty passenger vehicles will be under consideration.
From April 2009, the applicable scope for Whole Vehicle Type Approval was extended to cover all vehicle categories, and are being phased in over five years depending on vehicle category. Furthermore, revisions to this regulation have been ongoing, and the amendment took place in 2011 to clarify the categories (especially those for passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles). Through this amendment, the criteria for light-duty commercial vehicles was clarified, and there is a possibility that vehicles currently classified as light-duty commercial vehicles become classified as passenger vehicles. In addition, revisions to laws and regulations related to vehicle dimensions are currently under deliberation, and will clarify the definitions which will become the basis for vehicle bodies (as well as for vehicle fuel economy).
United Nations Standards
1958 Agreement: While originally based on the European standards, it is developing as an established international law, and Japan, Thailand and Malaysia as well as other countries outside the EU have become members after the amendment in 1995, and many other countries are expected to join in the future. The countries bound by the 1958 Agreement have incorporated the UNECE regulations into their own domestic policies (The EU and Japan have directly included the UNECE regulations into their domestic legislations). While automotive parts and vehicle systems are regulated by the UN standards, there are currently no regulations with respect to Whole Vehicle Type Approval such as those in Europe. Japan proposed legislation establishing Whole Vehicle Type Approval under the United Nations in 2016, and the matter is currently being deliberated by the United Nations. If IWVTA (International Whole Vehicle Type Approval) is established, integration of global registration procedures of automobiles and regulations governing the manufacture of automobiles, abolishment of the individual standards of each country, and simplification of registration procedures are expected.
1998 Agreement: As a US-led agreement, the 1998 agreement aims to harmonize technology regulations, and defines each law as a Global Technical Regulation (GTR). At present, there are 11 GTRs in total. And currently, numerous provisions are under discussion in order to include more regulations. The countries bound by the 1998 agreement are required to incorporate the GTRs into their domestic laws. The 1998 agreement includes China and India that were not a part of the 1958 agreement, therefore, the direction taken by the GTRs will influence also those countries.
Vehicle safety regulations in China were drafted with reference to the UNECE Regulations and cover the almost same matters as the UNECE Regulations. However, these laws also include unique provisions which take into account the distinctive characteristics of the Chinese market environment and the rules differ from the latest UNECE Regulations since they do not confirm to the UNECE amendment. As for future safety regulations, standards related to airbag technologies and electric vehicle collision safety equipment, are currently in planning.
Standards of Other Countries
Vehicle safety regulations in Canada are similar to those in the United States. Among the ASEAN countries, in 2006, Thailand and Malaysia acceded to the 1958 agreement of the United Nations and both countries plan to develop a legal system in order to incorporate UNECE Regulations into domestic laws. Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines will soon follow suit by acceding to the 1958 agreement, whereby ASEAN countries will be
required to comply with the UNECE Regulations. Countries in South America and the Middle East have also adopted automobile safety regulations, with South America generally following standards set by the United Nations, or the United States, and the Middle East basing their domestic laws primarily on international regulations or legal standards.
Toyotas automotive operations in Japan are subject to substantial environmental regulation under laws such as the Air Pollution Law, the Water Pollution Control Law, the Noise Regulation Law and the Vibration Control Law. Under these laws, if a business entity establishes or alters any facility that is regulated by these laws, the business entity is required to give prior notice to regulators, and if a business entity discharges, uses or stores substances that are environmental burdens or causes noise or vibration from such facility, the business entity is also required to comply with the applicable standards. Toyota is also subject to local regulations, which in some cases impose more stringent obligations than the Japanese central government requirements. Toyota has complied with these regulations. Under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law, producers of industrial waste must dispose of industrial waste in the manner prescribed in the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law. Toyota has also complied with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law.
In February 2003, the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law became effective in Japan. The Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law requires that land owners conduct contamination testing and submit a report at the time they cease to use hazardous substances, such as in connection with the sale of a former factory, or if there is a possibility of health hazards due to land contamination. If it is found that land contamination exceeds a certain level, the relevant prefectural authority designates the area considered to be contaminated and orders the land owner to take necessary measures. Toyota is suitably managing its land in accordance with the same law. In addition, the Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles was promulgated in July 2002. Under the Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles, vehicle manufacturers are required to take back and recycle specified materials (automotive shredder residues, air bags and fluorocarbons) of end-of-life vehicles and the provisions concerning such obligations of vehicle manufacturers became effective in January 2005. Toyota has coordinated with relevant parties to establish a vehicle take-back and recycle system throughout Japan. As a result, in fiscal 2012, Toyota achieved a recycling rate of 93% for automobile shredder residue (the legal requirement being 50%) and 94% for air bags (the legal requirement being 85%) and reached the targets set forth in this law.
Toyotas assembly, manufacturing and other operations in the United States are subject to a wide range of environmental regulation under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Pollution Prevention Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Toyota is also subject to a variety of state legislation that parallels, and in some cases imposes more stringent obligations than, federal requirements. These federal and state regulations impose severe restrictions on air- and water-borne discharges of pollution from Toyota facilities, the handling of hazardous materials at Toyota facilities and the disposal of wastes from Toyota operations. Toyota is subject to many similar requirements in its operations in Europe, Canada and other countries.
Moreover, the EPA has promulgated more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone and Particulate Matter, which define strategies needed to attain the new standards. Toyota expects growing pressure in the next several years to further reduce emissions from motor vehicles and manufacturing facilities.
In October 2000, the European Union brought into effect a directive that requires member states to promulgate regulations implementing the following:
Laws to implement this directive came into effect in each of the European Union member states. Currently, there are uncertainties surrounding the implementation of the applicable regulations in different European Union member states, particularly regarding automotive manufacturer responsibilities and resultant expenses that may be incurred.
In addition, under this directive, the member states must take measures to ensure that car manufacturers, distributors and other auto-related economic operators establish adequate used vehicle collection and treatment facilities and to ensure that hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to shredding. This directive impacts Toyotas vehicles sold in the European Union. Toyota is planning to accommodate, in offering its products, any measures the European Union member states will choose to take in order to comply with this directive.
Based on the legislation that has been enacted to date, Toyota has provided for its estimated liability related to covered vehicles in existence as of March 31, 2012. The amount of estimated liability may change depending on the legislation that will be enacted and subject to other circumstances. Although Toyota does not expect its compliance with the directive to result in significant cash expenditures, Toyota is continuing to assess the impact of this future legislation on its results of operations, cash flows and financial position.
The European Union has also issued directives and made proposals relating to the following subjects on environmental matters:
Toyota believes that its operations are materially in compliance with environmental regulatory requirements concerning its facilities and products in each of the markets in which it operates. Toyota continuously monitors these requirements and takes necessary operational measures to ensure that it remains in material compliance with all of these requirements.
Toyota believes that environmental regulatory requirements have not had a material adverse effect on its operations. However, compliance with environmental regulations and standards has increased costs and is expected to lead to higher costs in the future. Therefore, Toyota recognizes that effective environmental cost management will become increasingly important. Moreover, innovation and leadership in the area of
environmental protection are becoming increasingly important to remain competitive in the market. As a result, Toyota has proceeded with the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, such as hybrid vehicles, fuel-cell vehicles and high fuel efficiency, low emission engines.
In addressing environmental issues, based on an assessment of the environmental impact of its products through their life cycles, Toyota, as a manufacturer, strives to take all possible measures in each life stage of a product, from development through production and sales, and continues to work toward technological innovations to make efficient use of resources and to reduce the burden on the environment.
Research and Development
Toyotas research and development activities focus on the environment and energy, safety, IT/ITS technology and product development. For a detailed discussion of the companys research and development policies for the last three years, see Operating and Financial Review and Prospects Research and Development, Patents and Licenses.
The following table provides information for Toyotas principal research and development facilities.
The success of Toyotas research and development activities is a key element of Toyotas strategy. The effectiveness of Toyotas research and development activities is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyotas control. These factors include the introduction of innovations by Toyotas competitors that may reduce the value of Toyotas initiatives and Toyotas ability to convert its research and development into commercially successful technologies and products.
Components and Parts, Raw Materials and Sources of Supply
Toyota purchases parts, components, raw materials, equipment and other supplies from multiple competing suppliers located around the world. Toyota works closely with its suppliers to pursue the most optimal purchasing possible. Toyota believes that this policy encourages technological innovation, cost reduction and other measures to strengthen its vehicle competitiveness. No single supplier accounted for more than 5% of Toyotas consolidated purchases of raw materials, parts and equipment during fiscal 2012, except for Denso Corporation, an affiliate of Toyota, which supplied approximately 10% of Toyotas purchases during fiscal 2012. Toyota plans to continue purchases based on the same principle and does not anticipate any difficulty in obtaining stable supplies in the foreseeable future.
Because Toyota had more than 50 overseas operations in 27 countries and regions as of March 31, 2012, procurement of parts and components is being carried out not only locally in the country of the production site but also from third countries, and the distribution network has become increasingly more complex. In order to realize timely and efficient distribution at the same time as keeping total costs at a minimum, Toyota is promoting efforts to optimize each stage of the supply-chain. To this end, Toyota has developed a standardized system of global distribution and is supporting the operation of the system at each production base. The use of the global distribution system aims at implementing parts procurement that meets changes in vehicle production in a timely manner. These varying efforts, combined together, have led to maximized customer satisfaction, as well as to building a good working relationship with Toyotas suppliers.
Toyota has placed ongoing efforts into other methods for pursuing the commoditization of components and parts used in various vehicle models. This includes minimizing the differences between models and reducing the number of parts used for each model. Toyota uses a shared global database in order to purchase parts and materials from the most competitive suppliers among Toyota factories located in various areas worldwide. By doing so, Toyota aims to boost the efficiency of its sourcing from external suppliers. In addition, Toyota has been working on a cost reduction measure referred to as RR-CI activities. RR-CI activities aim to improve competitive power through thorough localization, sharing parts and components, and manufacturing reforms together with producing products matching customers needs in each region and vehicle category. Urgent VA (value analysis) Activities that began in fiscal 2008 implements cost reductions as part of a unified effort with suppliers for the various types of vehicles already on sale. Toyota has constantly been working on All-Toyota VA Activities since the beginning of fiscal 2010. In addition, Toyota has been working on sweeping advances in product appeal by sharing more parts and components, and cost reductions by activities related to the TNGA.
At present, the market prices of raw materials such as steel are falling compared to fiscal 2011, but the direction of prices through entire fiscal 2012 is still unforeseeable. Toyota is continually promoting cost reduction efforts, such as reducing the amount of raw materials it uses.
Toyotas ability to continue to obtain supplies in an efficient manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyotas control. These factors include the ability of its suppliers to provide a continued source of supplies and the effect on Toyota of competition by other users in obtaining the supplies.
Toyota holds numerous Japanese and foreign patents, trademarks, design patents and some utility model registrations. It also has a number of applications pending for Japanese and foreign patents. While Toyota considers all of its intellectual property to be important, it does not consider any one or group of patents, trademarks, design patents or utility model registrations to be so important that their expiration or termination would materially affect Toyotas business.
Capital Expenditures and Divestitures
Set forth below is a chart of Toyotas principal capital expenditures between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2012, the approximate total costs of such activity, as well as the location and method of financing of such activity, presented on a by subsidiary basis and as reported in Toyotas annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.
Set forth below is information with respect to Toyotas material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities between April 2012 and March 2013, presented on a by subsidiary basis and as reported in Toyotas annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.
Set forth below is additional information with respect to Toyotas material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities, presented on a by facility basis.
Tohoku Region Plant. In April 2008, Toyota decided to build an engine plant in Kurokawa, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. However, while the commencement of production at this plant, which was initially expected to occur at the end of 2010, was postponed, in July 2011, Toyota decided to task Toyota Motor Tohoku Corporation (Toyota Tohoku) with commencing assembly of small-size engines at the end of 2012. Toyota Tohoku will be merged with Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. and Central Motor Co.,Ltd. into Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc. in July 2012.
Sorocaba Plant. In August 2010, Toyota decided to construct a vehicle plant in Sorocaba, Brazil. This plant is expected to produce the Etios small vehicle introduced in India with an annual production capacity of 70 thousand units. The plant is expected to commence production in late 2012.
Karawang No. 2 Plant. In November 2011, Toyota decided to establish a vehicle plant in Karawang, West Java, Indonesia. Production at the facility is scheduled to begin at the beginning of 2013, and production capacity at the time of launch of the plant is expected to be 70 thousand units, which will increase to 120 thousand units by 2014. The plant is also expected to produce new vehicles that meet market demand.
Toyota does not collect information on the amount of expenditures already paid for each plant under construction because Toyota believes that it is difficult and it would require unreasonable effort or expense to identify and categorize each expenditure item with reasonable accuracy as past and future expenditures. Toyotas construction projects consist of numerous expenditures, each of which is continually being adjusted and incurred in variable and constantly changing amounts as part of the overall work-in-progress.
Toyota has historically experienced slight seasonal fluctuations in unit sales. For each of the past three fiscal years, Toyotas unit sales levels have been highest in March of each year, with approximately 10% to 12% of annual unit sales generated during that month, and for each of the remaining months, its unit sales have generated approximately 6% to 9% of its annual unit sales.
From time-to-time, Toyota issues vehicle recalls and takes other safety measures including safety campaigns relating to its vehicles. In November 2009, Toyota announced a safety campaign in North America for certain models of Toyota and Lexus vehicles related to floor mat entrapment of accelerator pedals, and later expanded it to include additional models. In January 2010, Toyota announced a recall in North America for certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking and slow-to-return accelerator pedals. Also in January 2010, Toyota recalled in Europe and China certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking accelerator pedals. In February 2010, Toyota announced a worldwide recall related to the software program that controls the antilock braking system (ABS) in certain vehicle models including the Prius. Set forth below is a description of various claims, lawsuits and government investigations involving Toyota in the United States relating to these recalls and other safety measures.
Class Action and Consolidated Litigation
There are approximately 200 putative class actions that have been filed since November 2009 alleging that certain Toyota, Lexus and Scion vehicles contain defects that lead to unintended acceleration. Many of the putative class actions allege that malfunctions involving the floor mats and accelerator pedals do not cover the full scope of possible defects related to unintended acceleration. Rather, they allege that Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent (ETCS-i) is the true cause and that Toyota has failed to inform consumers despite its awareness of the problem. In general, these cases seek recovery for the alleged diminution in value of the vehicles, injunctive and other relief. In April 2010, the approximately 190 federal cases were consolidated for pretrial proceedings into a single multi-district litigation in the United States District Court for the Central District of California. In addition, of more than 300 individual product liability personal injury cases relating to unintended acceleration pending against Toyota, the federal cases have been consolidated into the multi-district litigation. This consolidated federal action has included document production, depositions and various motions. The remaining individual product liability personal injury cases relating to unintended acceleration remain pending in various state courts in the United States. Additionally, there were approximately 10 putative class actions in various state courts, including California. All cases except the California case have been consolidated into the multi-district litigation. The claims are similar to the class actions in federal court. One of the putative California class actions was filed by the Orange County District Attorney and, among other things, seeks statutory penalties alleging that Toyota sold and marketed defective vehicles and that consumers have been harmed as a result of diminution in value of their vehicles.
Beginning in February 2010, Toyota has also been sued in approximately 20 putative class actions alleging defects in the antilock braking systems in various hybrid vehicles that cause the vehicles to fail to stop in a timely manner when driving in certain road conditions. The plaintiffs seek an order requiring Toyota to repair the vehicles and claim that all owners and lessees of vehicles, including those for which recalls have been implemented, should be compensated for the defects related to the antilock braking systems. These cases have been consolidated into 2 actions, one in federal court in the United States District Court for the Central District of California and one in state court in the Los Angeles County Superior Court.
From February through March 2010, Toyota was sued in 6 putative shareholder class actions on behalf of investors in Toyota American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) and common stock. The cases have been consolidated into a single action in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, and a lead plaintiff has been appointed. The consolidated complaint, filed October 4, 2010, alleges violations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Japans Financial Instruments and Exchange Act on the basis that defendants made statements that were false or misleading in that they failed to disclose problems with, or the causes of, unintended acceleration in a number of vehicle models. The plaintiffs seek monetary damages in an amount to be proven at trial, interest and attorneys fees and costs. The judge dismissed with prejudice the claims based on Japans Financial Instruments and Exchange Act. The lead plaintiff has moved for certification of a class of purchasers of Toyotas ADRs from April 7, 2008 through February 2, 2010. A hearing on the motion is currently set for July 23, 2012.
Toyota believes that it has meritorious defenses to all of these cases and claims, and will vigorously defend against them.
In February 2010, Toyota received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York and a voluntary request and subpoena from the SEC. The subpoenas and the voluntary request primarily seek documents related to unintended acceleration and certain financial records. This is a coordinated investigation and has included interviews of Toyota and non-Toyota witnesses, as well as production of documents. In June 2010, Toyota received a second voluntary request and subpoena from the SEC and a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. The subpoenas and the voluntary request primarily seek production of documents related to the recalls of the steering relay rod.
In February 2012, the NHTSA initiated a preliminary investigation of a potentially faulty power window master switch in the driver-side doors in model year 2007 Camry and RAV4 vehicles. In June 2012, the NHTSA upgraded the preliminary investigation to an engineering analysis and expanded the scope to include model year 2007 through 2009 Camry, Camry hybrid, RAV4 and Yaris as well as model year 2008 Highlander hybrid.
Toyota has also received subpoenas and formal and informal requests from various states attorneys general, including the Executive Committee for a group of 30 states plus one territorys attorney general, and certain local governmental agencies regarding various recalls, the facts underlying its recent recalls and customer handling related to those recalls.
Toyota is cooperating with the government agencies in their investigations, which are on-going.
The recalls and other safety measures described above have led to a number of claims, lawsuits and government investigations against Toyota in the United States as set forth in the preceding paragraphs. Amounts accrued as of March 31, 2012 related to these legal proceedings and governmental investigations are not material to Toyotas financial position, results of operations or cash flow. Beyond the amounts accrued, Toyota is unable to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss, if any, for the cases described above because (i) many of the proceedings are in evidence gathering stages, (ii) the likelihood of classes being certified or the ultimate size of the classes, if any, is uncertain, (iii) the outcome of pending or future appeals or motions is unknown, (iv) significant factual issues need to be resolved, (v) in some cases, novel legal issues are presented, and/or (vi) the differences between the matters as well as their interrelations further complicate the prediction of outcomes. In reaching this conclusion, Toyota considers the stages of these matters, the discovery in and information available about these matters, Toyotas experience with similar matters and Toyotas assessment of the matters. Although an estimation is not possible based on current information, the resolution of these matters could have an adverse effect on Toyotas financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
United States Antitrust Proceedings
In February 2003, Toyota, GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, Nissan, BMW and their sales subsidiaries in the Unites States and Canada, as well as the National Automobile Dealers Association and the Canadian Automobile Dealers Association were named as defendants in approximately 85 purported federal and state class action lawsuits on behalf of all purchasers of new motor vehicles who purchased their vehicles in the United States on or after January 1, 2001. As of April 1, 2005, the federal lawsuits were consolidated in the State of Maine, and lawsuits in the State of California and the State of New Jersey were also consolidated within the respective states.
The complaints allege that the defendants violated the Sherman Antitrust Act or state anti-trust law by conspiring among themselves and with their dealers to prevent the sale to United States citizens of vehicles produced for the Canadian market, resulting in higher prices to United States consumers. Toyota believes that its actions have been lawful. In the interest of resolving these legal actions, however, Toyota entered into a settlement agreement with the plaintiffs in February 2006. The settlement agreement has been approved by the federal court and all state cases have been dismissed.
Toyota has various other legal actions, other governmental proceedings and other claims pending against it, including other product liability claims in the United States. For the same reasons discussed above relating to the recall-related legal proceedings, Toyota is unable to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss, if any, beyond the amounts accrued, with respect to these claims. However, based upon information currently available to Toyota, Toyota believes that its losses from these matters, if any, would not have a material adverse effect on Toyotas financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
As of March 31, 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation had 262 Japanese subsidiaries and 245 overseas subsidiaries. The following table sets forth for each of Toyota Motor Corporations principal subsidiaries, the country of incorporation and the percentage ownership interest and the voting interest held by Toyota Motor Corporation.
As of March 31, 2012, Toyota and its affiliates produce automobiles and related components through more than 50 overseas manufacturing organizations in 27 countries and regions besides Japan. The facilities are located principally in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Czech Republic, Thailand, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, Argentina and Brazil.
In addition to its manufacturing facilities, Toyotas properties include sales offices and other sales facilities in major cities, repair service facilities, and research and development facilities.
The following table sets forth information, as of March 31, 2012, with respect to Toyotas principal facilities and organizations, all of which are owned by Toyota Motor Corporation or its subsidiaries. However, small portions, all under approximately 20%, of some facilities are on leased premises.
Toyota is constantly engaged in upgrading, modernizing and revamping the operations of its manufacturing facilities, based on its assessment of market needs and prospects. To respond flexibly to fluctuations in demand in each of its production operations throughout the world, Toyota continually reviews and implements appropriate production measures such as revising takt time and adjusting days of operation. As a result, Toyota believes it would require unreasonable effort to track the exact productive capacity and the extent of utilization of each of its manufacturing facilities with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
As of March 31, 2012, property, plant and equipment having a net book value of approximately ¥52.8 billion was pledged as collateral securing indebtedness incurred by Toyota Motor Corporations consolidated subsidiaries. Toyota believes that there does not exist any material environmental issues that may affect the companys utilization of its assets.
Toyota considers all its principal manufacturing facilities and other significant properties to be in good condition and adequate to meet the needs of its operations.
See Business Overview Capital Expenditures and Divestitures for a description of Toyotas material plans to construct, expand or improve facilities.
All financial information discussed in this section is derived from Toyotas consolidated financial statements that appear elsewhere in this annual report. The financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
The business segments of Toyota include automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. Automotive operations are Toyotas most significant business segment, accounting for 89% of Toyotas total revenues before the elimination of intersegment revenues for fiscal 2012. Toyotas primary markets based on vehicle unit sales for fiscal 2012 were: Japan (28%), North America (25%), Europe (11%) and Asia (18%). Japans economy suffered from the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and its aftermath (collectively, the Great East Japan Earthquake). As a result, in Japan and other regions, Toyota experienced negative impacts on its production in the first half of fiscal year 2012. See Information on the Company Business Overview for more detailed information of the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Automotive Market Environment
The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive and volatile. The demand for automobiles is affected by a number of factors including social, political and general economic conditions; introduction of new vehicles and technologies; and costs incurred by customers to purchase or operate vehicles. These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially in different geographic markets and for different types of automobiles.
During fiscal 2012, automotive markets developed steadily in the U.S. and emerging countries such as Asia. However, many Japanese manufacturers, including Toyota, were forced to adjust or stop productions due to shortages of parts supplies caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and by the flood in Thailand that occurred in October 2011. Toyota and its group companies together exerted every effort to normalize production, and Toyota was able to achieve full normalization of production and begin its recovery from the disaster sooner than initially anticipated.
The following table sets forth Toyotas consolidated vehicle unit sales by geographic market based on location of customers for the past three fiscal years.
During fiscal 2011, Toyotas consolidated vehicle unit sales in Japan decreased as compared with the prior fiscal year because market conditions in Japan deteriorated as compared with the prior fiscal year. During fiscal 2012, Toyotas consolidated vehicle unit sales in Japan increased as compared with the prior fiscal year reflecting frequent introduction of new products and sales efforts of domestic dealers. Toyota and Lexus brands market share in Japan excluding mini-vehicles was 45.5%, and Toyotas market share (including Daihatsu and Hino brands) in Japan including mini-vehicles was 43.2%, both maintaining the high level of market share in Japan from the prior fiscal year. Overseas consolidated vehicle unit sales increased during fiscal 2011, whereas they decreased during fiscal 2012. During fiscal 2011, total overseas vehicle unit sales increased in Asia and Other. During fiscal 2012, total overseas vehicle unit sales decreased, particularly in North America due to impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the flood in Thailand, although an increase in Asia resulted from steady demand in spite of the flood in Thailand.
Toyotas share of total vehicle unit sales in each market is influenced by the quality, safety, reliability, price, design, performance, economy and utility of Toyotas vehicles compared with those offered by other manufacturers. The timely introduction of new or redesigned vehicles is also an important factor in satisfying customer needs. Toyotas ability to satisfy changing customer preferences can affect its revenues and earnings significantly.
The profitability of Toyotas automotive operations is affected by many factors. These factors include:
Changes in laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions can also materially impact the profitability of Toyotas automotive operations. These laws, regulations and policies include those attributed to environmental matters, vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions that can add significantly to the cost of vehicles. The European Union has enforced a directive that requires manufacturers to be financially responsible for taking back end-of-life vehicles and to take measures to ensure that adequate used vehicle disposal facilities are established and those hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to scrapping. See Legislation Regarding End-of-Life Vehicles, Information on the Company Business Overview Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards and note 23 to the consolidated financial statements for a more detailed discussion of these laws, regulations and policies.
Many governments also regulate local content, impose tariffs and other trade barriers, and enact price or exchange controls that can limit an automakers operations and can make the repatriation of profits unpredictable. Changes in these laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions may affect the production, licensing, distribution or sale of Toyotas products, cost of products or applicable tax rates. In February 2003, Toyota was named as one of the defendants in purported national class actions alleging violations of the U.S. Sherman Antitrust Act. Toyota believes that its actions have been lawful. In order to avoid a protracted dispute, however, Toyota entered into a settlement agreement with the plaintiffs at the end of February 2006. The federal court approved the settlement agreement, and all related actions were dismissed. From time-to-time when potential safety problems arise, Toyota issues vehicle recalls and takes other safety measures including safety campaigns with respect to its vehicles. In November 2009, Toyota announced a safety campaign in North America for certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands vehicles related to floor mat entrapment of accelerator pedals, and later expanded it to include additional models. In January 2010, Toyota announced a recall in North America for certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking and slow-to-return accelerator pedals. Also in January 2010, Toyota recalled in Europe and China certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking accelerator pedals. In February 2010, Toyota announced a recall in markets including Japan, North America and Europe related to the braking control system in certain vehicle models including the Prius. The recalls and other safety measures described above have led to a number of claims, lawsuits and government investigations against Toyota in the United States. For a more detailed description of these claims, lawsuits and government investigations, see note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.
The worldwide automotive industry is in a period of global competition which may continue for the foreseeable future, and in general the competitive environment in which Toyota operates is likely to intensify. Toyota believes it has the resources, strategies and technologies in place to compete effectively in the industry as an independent company for the foreseeable future.
Financial Services Operations
The competition of worldwide automobile financial services industry is intensifying despite the recovery trend in the automotive markets. As competition increases, margins on financing transactions may decrease and market share may also decline as customers obtain financing for Toyota vehicles from alternative sources.
Toyotas financial services operations mainly include loans and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value added service. Therefore, Toyota has expanded its network of finance subsidiaries in order to offer financial services in many countries.
Toyotas competitors for retail financing and retail leasing include commercial banks, credit unions and other finance companies. Meanwhile, commercial banks and other captive automobile finance companies also compete against Toyotas wholesale financing activities.
Although Toyotas total finance receivables, net was affected by the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates, the total finance receivables, net increased during fiscal 2012 mainly due to an decrease in allowance for credit losses.
The following table provides information regarding Toyotas finance receivables and operating leases in the past two fiscal years.
Toyotas finance receivables are subject to collectability risks. These risks include consumer and dealer insolvencies and insufficient collateral values (less costs to sell) to realize the full carrying values of these receivables. See discussion in Critical Accounting Estimates Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Credit Losses and note 11 to the consolidated financial statements.
Toyota continues to originate leases to finance new Toyota vehicles. These leasing activities are subject to residual value risk. Residual value losses could be incurred when the lessee of a vehicle does not exercise the option to purchase the vehicle at the end of the lease term. See discussion in Critical Accounting Estimates Investment in Operating Leases and note 2 to the consolidated financial statements.
Toyota enters into interest rate swap agreements and cross currency interest rate swap agreements to convert its fixed-rate debt to variable-rate functional currency debt. A portion of the derivative instruments are entered into to hedge interest rate risk from an economic perspective and are not designated as a hedge of specific assets or liabilities on Toyotas consolidated balance sheet and accordingly, unrealized gains or losses related to derivatives that are not designated as a hedge are recognized currently in operations. See discussion in Critical Accounting Estimates Derivatives and Other Contracts at Fair Value and Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk and note 20 to the consolidated financial statements.
The fluctuations in funding costs can affect the profitability of Toyotas financial services operations. Funding costs are affected by a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyotas control. These factors include general economic conditions, prevailing interest rates and Toyotas financial strength. Funding costs decreased during fiscal 2011 and 2012, mainly as a result of lower interest rates.
Toyota launched its credit card business in Japan in April 2001. As of March 31, 2011, Toyota had 8.9 million cardholders, an increase of 1.2 million cardholders compared with March 31, 2010. As of March 31, 2012, Toyota had 10.9 million cardholders, an increase of 2.0 million cardholders compared with March 31, 2011. The credit card receivables at March 31, 2011 increased by ¥8.1 billion from March 31, 2010 to ¥263.5 billion. The credit card receivables at March 31, 2012 increased by ¥44.0 billion from March 31, 2011 to ¥307.5 billion.
Other Business Operations
Toyotas other business operations consist of housing including the manufacture and sale of prefabricated homes, information technology related businesses including information technology and telecommunications, intelligent transport systems and GAZOO, and other businesses.
Toyota does not expect its other business operations to materially contribute to Toyotas consolidated results of operations.
Toyota is affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition to the Japanese yen, Toyota is exposed to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and the euro and, to a lesser extent, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the British pound, and others. Toyotas consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk.
Translation risk is the risk that Toyotas consolidated financial statements for a particular period or for a particular date will be affected by changes in the prevailing exchange rates of the currencies in those countries in which Toyota does business compared with the Japanese yen. Even though the fluctuations of currency exchange rates to the Japanese yen can be substantial, and, therefore, significantly impact comparisons with prior periods and among the various geographic markets, the translation risk is a reporting consideration and does not reflect Toyotas underlying results of operations. Toyota does not hedge against translation risk.
Transaction risk is the risk that the currency structure of Toyotas costs and liabilities will deviate from the currency structure of sales proceeds and assets. Transaction risk relates primarily to sales proceeds from Toyotas non-domestic operations from vehicles produced in Japan.
Toyota believes that the location of its production facilities in different parts of the world has significantly reduced the level of transaction risk. As part of its globalization strategy, Toyota has continued to localize production by constructing production facilities in the major markets in which it sells its vehicles. In calendar 2010 and 2011, Toyota produced 73.4% and 71.3% of its non-domestic sales outside Japan, respectively. In North America, 72.6% and 66.8% of vehicles sold in calendar 2010 and 2011 respectively were produced locally. In Europe, 59.0% and 57.7% of vehicles sold in calendar 2010 and 2011 respectively were produced locally. Localizing production enables Toyota to locally purchase many of the supplies and resources used in the production process, which allows for a better match of local currency revenues with local currency expenses.
Toyota also enters into foreign currency transactions and other hedging instruments to address a portion of its transaction risk. This has reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which in some years can be significant. See notes 20 and 21 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Generally, a weakening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has a positive effect on Toyotas revenues, operating income and net income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation. A strengthening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has the opposite effect. In fiscal 2011 and 2012, the Japanese yen was on average and at the end of each fiscal year stronger against the U.S. dollar and the euro in comparison to the prior fiscal year. See further discussion in Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk Market Risk Disclosures Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk.
During fiscal 2011 and 2012, the average exchange rate of the Japanese yen strengthened against the major currencies including the U.S. dollar and the euro compared with the average exchange rate of the prior fiscal year. The operating results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations described in Results of Operations Fiscal 2012 Compared with Fiscal 2011 and Results of Operations Fiscal 2011 Compared with Fiscal 2010 show results of net revenues obtained by applying the Japanese yens average exchange rate in the previous fiscal year to the local currency-denominated net revenues for fiscal 2011 and 2012, respectively, as if the value of the Japanese yen had remained constant for the comparable periods. Results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations year-on-year are not on the same basis as Toyotas consolidated financial statements and do not conform with U.S. GAAP. Furthermore, Toyota does not believe that these measures are a substitute for U.S. GAAP measures. However, Toyota believes that such results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations year-on-year provide additional useful information to investors regarding the operating performance on a local currency basis.
Toyotas most significant business segment is its automotive operations. Toyota carries out its automotive operations as a global competitor in the worldwide automotive market. Management allocates resources to, and assesses the performance of, its automotive operations as a single business segment on a worldwide basis. Toyota does not manage any subset of its automotive operations, such as domestic or overseas operations or parts, as separate management units.
The management of the automotive operations is aligned on a functional basis with managers having oversight responsibility for the major operating functions within the segment. Management assesses financial and non-financial data such as vehicle unit sales, production volume, market share information, vehicle model plans and plant location costs to allocate resources within the automotive operations.
The following table sets forth Toyotas net revenues in each geographic market based on the country location of the parent company or the subsidiaries that transacted the sale with the external customer for the past three fiscal years.
Results of Operations Fiscal 2012 Compared with Fiscal 2011
Toyota had net revenues for fiscal 2012 of ¥18,583.6 billion, a decrease of ¥410.0 billion, or 2.2%, compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease reflects unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others of ¥717.7 billion, partially offset by changes in numbers of the vehicle unit sales and sales mix of approximately ¥320.0 billion and other factors. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥717.7 billion, net revenues would have been approximately ¥19,301.3 billion during fiscal 2012, a 1.6% increase compared with the prior fiscal year. The automotive market in fiscal 2012 increased by 9.7% in North America and 3.9% in Asia compared with the prior fiscal year due to that market in the U.S. and emerging countries such as Asia have developed in a steady manner. Under these automotive market conditions, despite the Great East Japan Earthquake and the flood in Thailand, Toyotas consolidated vehicle unit sales increased to 7,352 thousand vehicles by 0.6% compared with the prior fiscal year.
The table below shows Toyotas net revenues from external customers by product category and by business.
Toyotas net revenues include net revenues from sales of products, consisting of net revenues from automotive operations and all other operations, which decreased by 1.7% during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥17,511.9 billion, and net revenues from financial services operations which decreased by 8.6% during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥1,071.7 billion. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥650.8 billion, net revenues from sales of products would have been ¥18,162.7billion, a 1.9% increase during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. The increase in net revenues from sales of products is due to an increase in Toyota vehicle unit sales by 44 thousand vehicles. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥66.9 billion, net revenues from financial services operations would have been approximately ¥1,138.6 billion, a 2.9% decrease during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease was mainly due to the decrease of ¥18.3 billion rental revenue generated by vehicles and equipment on operating lease.
The following table shows the number of financing contracts by geographic region at the end of the fiscal 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Geographically, net revenues (before the elimination of intersegment revenues) for fiscal 2012 decreased by 12.5% in North America, 1.2% in Asia, and 2.7% in Other, whereas net revenues increased by 1.6% in Japan and 0.6% in Europe compared with the prior fiscal year. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥717.7 billion, net revenues in fiscal 2012 would have decreased by 5.1% in North America, and would have increased by 1.6% in Japan, 5.3% in Europe, 3.8% in Asia and 1.7% in Other compared with the prior fiscal year.
The following is a discussion of net revenues in each geographic market (before the elimination of intersegment revenues).
Although Toyotas domestic and exported vehicle unit sales decreased due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake in the first half of fiscal 2012, Toyotas domestic and exported vehicle unit sales over the fiscal year increased by 130 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year. The increase in vehicle unit sales resulted primarily from introduction of new products such as Prius a and Aqua.
In North America, the vehicle unit sales decreased by 159 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year due to decreased production as a result of shortages of parts supplies caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the flood in Thailand, consisting of a 67 thousand vehicles, or 30.7%, decrease in RAV4 sales, a 26 thousand vehicles, or 22.4%, decrease in Tundra sales, and a 21 thousand vehicles, or 7.3%, decrease in Corolla sales. Net revenues in North America decreased compared with the prior fiscal year due to the decrease in vehicle unit sales and the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of ¥398.9 billion.
Net revenues in Europe as a whole increased due primarily to the 2 thousand vehicles increase in vehicle unit sales compared with the prior fiscal year, such as a 49 thousand vehicles increase in Russia, where the economy has been strong, although sales of Toyota brands vehicles decreased in some European countries compared with the prior fiscal year, such as a 18 thousand vehicles decrease in Italy and a 7 thousand vehicles decrease in Portugal, both of which mainly due to the European credit crisis.
Despite the flood in Thailand, Toyotas vehicle unit sales in Asia increased by 72 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year due to steady growth in automotive markets. Although Toyotas vehicle unit sales in Asia increased, net revenues in Asia decreased compared with the prior fiscal year mainly due to the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of ¥168.8 billion and others.
Net revenues in Other decreased due to decreases in Toyotas vehicle unit sales primarily as a result of shortages of parts supplies caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the flood in Thailand. Toyotas vehicle unit sales decreased by 25 thousand vehicles in Oceania, and by 19 thousand vehicles in the Middle East, respectively, compared with the prior fiscal year.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating costs and expenses decreased by ¥297.3 billion, or 1.6%, to ¥18,228.0 billion during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease resulted from the ¥432.3 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others, and the ¥150.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, partially offset by the ¥150.0 billion impact of changes in vehicle unit sales and sales mix and other operational factors and the ¥134.9 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others.
The increase in miscellaneous costs and others was due mainly to a ¥100.0 billion increase in labor costs, a ¥50.0 billion increase in research and development expenses and the ¥104.9 billion increase in other various costs, partially offset by the ¥120.0 billion impact of decrease in product quality related expenses and others. This cost decreased because costs related to recalls and other safety measures occurred at a high level during the prior fiscal year. See note 14 to the consolidated financial statements.
During fiscal 2012, Toyota announced recalls and other safety measures including the following:
In June 2011, Toyota announced in Japan and other regions a voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands vehicles in relation to damage to elements of the substrate and potential shutdown of the hybrid system that may have resulted from improper manufacturing of electronic converter control substrate. The affected vehicle models included Harrier Hybrid, Kluger Hybrid, RX400h, and Highlander Hybrid, 111 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.
In September 2011, Toyota announced in Japan the service campaign of certain models of Toyota in relation to abnormal noise and oil leakage that may have resulted from slack of bolts in the sub transmission and the rear wheel differential. The affected vehicle models included EstimaL, EstimaT and Wish, 181 thousand vehicles were included in this service campaign.
In November 2011, Toyota announced in Japan and other regions the voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands vehicles in relation to abnormal noise, charge warning light indicators, and increasing of handle operation force resulted from peeling of a bonded part of the engine crankshaft pulley. The affected vehicle models included AlphardG, AlphardV, EstimaL, EstimaT, KlugerV, KlugerL, Kluger Hybrid, Harrier, Harrier Hybrid, Windom, RX300, RX330, RX400h, ES300, ES330, Solara, Camry, Avalon, Sienna, Highlander, and Highlander Hybrid, 549 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.
Cost Reduction Efforts
During fiscal 2012, Toyotas continued cost reduction efforts reduced operating costs and expenses by ¥150.0 billion. The amount of effect of cost reduction efforts includes the impact of fluctuation in the price of steel, precious metals, non-ferrous alloys including aluminum, plastic parts and other production materials and parts. In fiscal 2012, raw materials prices were on an increasing trend; however, continued cost reduction efforts together with suppliers contributed to the improvement in earnings by more than offsetting the effects from raw materials price increase. These cost reduction efforts related to ongoing value engineering and value analysis activities, the use of common parts resulting in a reduction of part types and other manufacturing initiatives designed to reduce the costs of vehicle production.
Cost of Products Sold
Cost of products sold decreased by ¥189.8 billion, or 1.2%, to ¥15,795.9 billion during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. The decrease resulted from the ¥343.6 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others, and the ¥150.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, partially offset by the ¥135.0 billion impact of changes in vehicle unit sales and sales mix and other operational factors, and ¥110.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others. The increase in miscellaneous costs was due mainly to the ¥50.0 billion increase in research and development expenses and the ¥80.0 billion increase in labor costs.
Cost of Financing Operations
Cost of financing operations decreased by ¥36.8 billion, or 5.9%, to ¥592.6 billion during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. The decrease resulted from the ¥35.7 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others, partially offset by the ¥20.8 billion recording of valuation losses on interest rate swaps stated at fair value.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by ¥70.6 billion, or 3.7%, to ¥1,839.4 billion during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease reflects the ¥53.0 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others, and the ¥19.2 billion decrease for the financial services operations.
Toyotas operating income decreased by ¥112.6 billion, or 24.1%, to ¥355.6 billion during fiscal 2012 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease was due mainly to the ¥285.4 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others, and the ¥100.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others, partially offset by the ¥170.0 billion of favorable impact by changes in vehicle unit sales and sales mix and other operational factors and the ¥102.7 billion increase of cost reduction efforts, financial services operations, and others. The unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and others included ¥250.0 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency transaction rates. The ¥102.7 billion increase of cost reduction efforts, financial services operations, and others reflects the ¥150.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, partially offset by the ¥10.0 billion decrease in operating income in the financial services operations.
During fiscal 2012, operating loss (before elimination of intersegment profits), decreased by ¥155.3 billion in Japan compared with the prior fiscal year. During fiscal 2012, operating income (before elimination of intersegment profits), increased by ¥4.6 billion, or 35.4%, in Europe compared with the prior fiscal year, whereas it decreased by ¥153.0 billion, or 45.1%, in North America, decreased by ¥56.2 billion, or 18.0%, in Asia, and decreased by ¥51.3 billion, or 32.0%, in Other.
The following is a description of operating income and loss in each geographic market.