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QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2012
Commission file number 1-9924
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date:
Common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2012: 2,932,157,453
Available on the web at www.citigroup.com
FIRST QUARTER 2012FORM 10-Q
Citigroup's history dates back to the founding of Citibank in 1812. Citigroup's original corporate predecessor was incorporated in 1988 under the laws of the State of Delaware. Following a series of transactions over a number of years, Citigroup Inc. was formed in 1998 upon the merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc.
Citigroup is a global diversified financial services holding company whose businesses provide consumers, corporations, governments and institutions with a broad range of financial products and services. Citi has approximately 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 160 countries and jurisdictions.
Citigroup currently operates, for management reporting purposes, via two primary business segments: Citicorp, consisting of Citi's Global Consumer Banking businesses and Institutional Clients Group; and Citi Holdings, consisting of Brokerage and Asset Management, Local Consumer Lending and Special Asset Pool. For a further description of the business segments and the products and services they provide, see "Citigroup Segments" below, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Throughout this report, "Citigroup," "Citi" and "the Company" refer to Citigroup Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with Citigroup's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011 (2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K). Additional information about Citigroup is available on Citi's Web site at www.citigroup.com. Citigroup's recent annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, proxy statements, as well as other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), are available free of charge through the Citi's Web site by clicking on the "Investors" page and selecting "All SEC Filings." The SEC's Web site also contains current reports, information statements, and other information regarding Citi at www.sec.gov.
Within this Form 10-Q, please refer to the tables of contents on pages 2 and 88 for page references to Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, respectively.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior periods' financial statements to conform to the current period's presentation. For information on certain recent such classifications, including the transfer of the substantial majority of Citi's retail partner cards businesses (which is now referred to as Citi retail services) from Citi HoldingsLocal Consumer Lending to CiticorpNorth America Regional Consumer Banking, which was effective January 1, 2012, see Citi's Form 8-K furnished to the SEC on March 26, 2012.
As described above, Citigroup is managed pursuant to the following segments:
The following are the four regions in which Citigroup operates. The regional results are fully reflected in the segment results above.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FIRST QUARTER OF 2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Citigroup reported first quarter of 2012 net income of $2.9 billion, or $0.95 per diluted share. Citi's reported net income declined by 2%, or $68 million, from the first quarter of 2011. Results for the first quarter of 2012 included a net negative credit valuation adjustment (CVA) on derivatives (excluding monolines), net of hedges, and debt valuation adjustment (DVA) on Citi's fair value option debt of $1.3 billion, compared to negative $256 million in the first quarter of 2011, as Citi's credit spreads tightened during the quarter. Results for the first quarter of 2012 also included a net pretax gain of $477 million from minority investments, which included pretax gains of $1.1 billion and $542 million on the sale of Citi's remaining stake in the Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd. (HDFC) and its stake in Shanghai Pudong Development Bank (SPDB), respectively, partially offset by the pretax impairment charge relating to Akbank T.A.S. (Akbank) of $1.2 billion. Excluding CVA/DVA and the net gain on minority investments, Citi earned $3.4 billion in the first quarter of 2012, or $1.11 per diluted share, compared to $1.04 per diluted share (excluding CVA/DVA) in the prior-year period. The year-over-year increase in earnings per share, excluding CVA/DVA and the net gain from minority investments, primarily reflected higher revenues, a decline in credit costs and a lower effective tax rate as compared to the prior-year period.
Citi's revenues, net of interest expense, were $19.4 billion, down 2% versus the prior-year period. Excluding CVA/DVA and the net gain on minority investments, revenues were $20.2 billion, up $235 million, or 1%, from the first quarter of 2011 (excluding CVA/DVA) as growth in Citicorp's three businesses (Global Consumer Banking (GCB), Securities and Banking and Transaction Services) exceeded the continued revenue declines in Citi Holdings. Net interest revenues of $11.9 billion were 1% lower than the prior-year period, largely due to continued declining loan balances and lower interest-earning assets (particularly in the Special Asset Pool) in Citi Holdings. Non-interest revenues were $7.5 billion, down 2% from the prior-year period, principally due to the higher negative CVA/DVA versus the prior-year period, partially offset by the net gain on minority investments. Excluding CVA/DVA and the net gain on minority investments, non-interest revenues were $8.3 billion, a 5% increase compared to the first quarter 2011 (excluding CVA/DVA), as growth in Citicorp outpaced a decline in Citi Holdings.
Citigroup expenses were essentially flat versus the prior-year period at $12.3 billion. Both periods included a similar combined level of legal and related costs and repositioning charges of approximately $600 million. Excluding these items, as well as the impact of foreign exchange translation (as used throughout this Form 10-Q, FX translation) (approximately $100 million in the first quarter of 2012), operating expenses grew less than 1% versus the prior-year period. Investment spending was $0.4 billion higher than in the first quarter of 2011 and was more than offset by approximately $0.6 billion in efficiency savings year-over-year.
Citicorp's expenses were $10.3 billion, up 1% from $10.2 billion in the prior-year period, driven primarily by the higher volumes in each of GCB and Transaction Services. Citi Holdings expenses were down 16% year-over-year to $1.2 billion, principally due to the continued decline in assets and thus lower operating expenses, partially offset by higher legal and related costs.
Citi's total provisions for credit losses and for benefits and claims of $3.0 billion declined $165 million, or 5%, from the prior-year period. Net credit losses of $4.0 billion were down $2.3 billion, or 37%, from the first quarter of 2011. Consumer net credit losses declined $1.4 billion, or 25%, to $4.0 billion, driven by continued credit improvement in Citicorp North America Citi-branded cards and Citi retail services (formerly retail partner cards) and in Local Consumer Lending within Citi Holdings. Corporate net credit losses decreased $932 million year-over-year to a net credit recovery of $83 million, driven by a series of recoveries in both Securities and Banking and in the Special Asset Pool in Citi Holdings.
The net release of allowance for loan losses and unfunded lending commitments was $1.2 billion in the first quarter of 2012, compared to a net release of $3.3 billion in the first quarter of 2011. Of the $1.2 billion net reserve release, $1.3 billion related to Consumer and was mainly driven by North America Citi-branded cards and Citi retail services and North America mortgages in Citi Holdings. The $112 million net Corporate reserve build reflected continued growth in the Corporate loan portfolio in Citicorp.
$588 million of the net credit reserve release was attributable to Citicorp and compared to a $1.8 billion release in the prior-year period. The decline in the Citicorp reserve release year-over-year reflected a net build within international GCB (which encompasses Asia, Latin America and EMEA) and Securities and Banking, reflecting continued loan growth in these businesses. The $576 million net credit release in Citi Holdings was down from $1.5 billion in the prior-year period due primarily to lower releases in the Special Asset Pool.
Capital and Loan Loss Reserve Positions
Citigroup's Tier 1 Capital ratio was 14.3% at quarter-end and its Tier 1 Common ratio was 12.5%, up approximately 100 and 120 basis points, respectively, from the prior-year period.
Citigroup's total allowance for loan losses was $29.0 billion at quarter end, or 4.5% of total loans, compared to $36.6 billion, or 5.8%, at the end of the prior-year period. The decline in the total allowance for loan losses reflected asset sales in Citi Holdings, lower non-accrual loans, and overall continued improvement in the credit quality of the loan portfolios.
The Consumer allowance for loan losses was $26.0 billion, or 6.3% of total Consumer loans, at quarter-end, compared to $32.7 billion, or 7.5% of total loans, at March 31, 2011. Total non-accrual assets declined 25% to $12.3 billion compared to the first quarter 2011. Corporate non-accrual loans declined 46% to $3.0 billion, and Consumer non-accrual loans declined 6% to $8.7 billion.
Citicorp net income decreased 3% from the prior-year period to $4.3 billion, largely reflecting a decline in reported revenues as well as higher credit costs, primarily as a result of lower loan loss reserve releases. Reported revenues of $18.0 billion were down 1% from the prior-year period, primarily stemming from negative CVA/DVA in Securities and Banking of $1.4 billion, compared to a negative $229 million in the prior-year period. Excluding CVA/DVA, Citicorp net income increased 13% from the prior-year period to $5.2 billion, mainly reflecting revenue growth across all of Citicorp's businesses.
Excluding CVA/DVA, Citicorp revenues were $19.4 billion, 6% higher than the first quarter 2011. Global Consumer Banking revenues of $10.0 billion grew 5% year-over-year. North America GCB revenues grew 5% to $5.2 billion while international GCB revenues grew 4% to $4.8 billion, each compared to the first quarter 2011. Average retail banking loans increased 16% year-over-year to $139.3 billion, and average deposits increased 3% to $318.6 billion, both driven by North America, Asia and Latin America. Citi-branded and retail services average card loans decreased 1% year-over-year to $148.3 billion, as continued growth in Asia and Latin America was offset by lower average balances in North America (for both Citi-branded cards and Citi retail services) and EMEA. Cards purchase sales grew 6% from the prior-year period to $85.4 billion, and international investment sales decreased 6% to $19.0 billion on weaker retail investor sentiment versus the prior-year period.
Securities and Banking revenues were $5.3 billion in the first quarter of 2012, down 12% year-on-year, driven by the higher negative CVA/DVA. Excluding the impact of CVA/DVA, Securities and Banking revenues were $6.7 billion, 6% higher than the prior-year period. Fixed income markets revenues of $4.7 billion in the first quarter of 2012, excluding CVA/DVA,(1) increased 19% from the prior-year period, primarily reflecting strong performance in rates and currencies across all products and regions as overall market conditions improved in the first quarter of 2012 and client activity increased. Credit and securitized products were down versus the prior-year period, however, largely reflecting lower risk levels in the business. Equity markets revenues of $902 million in the first quarter of 2012, excluding CVA/DVA, were 18% below the prior-year period, largely related to lower industry volumes, particularly in cash equities. Investment banking revenues grew 2% from the prior-year period to $865 million as growth in debt underwriting offset declines in advisory and equity underwriting revenues. Lending revenues of $56 million were down from $255 million in the prior-year period, as higher net interest revenues were more than offset by greater hedge losses in the first quarter of 2012. Private bank revenues of $576 million, excluding CVA/DVA, were up 11% year-over-year due to higher loan and deposit balances as well as stronger capital markets activity.
Transaction Services revenues were $2.7 billion, up 7% from the prior-year period, as growth in Treasury and Trade Solutions (TTS) offset declines in Securities and Fund Services (SFS). TTS revenue growth reflected strong growth in deposits and average assets, particularly in trade finance, while the decline in SFS revenues reflected lower settlement volumes. Transaction Services average deposits and other customer liabilities grew 6% year-over-year to $377 billion, while assets under custody decreased 1% year-over-year to $12.6 trillion.
Citicorp end-of-period loans increased 12% year-over-year to $514 billion, with 6% growth in Consumer loans and 23% growth in Corporate loans.
Citi Holdings net loss of $1.0 billion in the first quarter of 2012 was slightly higher than the loss reported in the first quarter of 2011, as revenue declines and lower credit reserve releases exceeded expense declines and a continued improvement in net credit losses.
Citi Holdings revenues decreased 47% from the prior-year period to $874 million. Excluding CVA/DVA of positive $88 million in the first quarter of 2012, compared to a negative $27 million in the prior-year period, Citi Holdings revenues were $786 million, 53% lower than the first quarter 2011. Net interest revenues declined 32% year-over-year to $701 million, largely driven by declining loan balances in Local Consumer Lending and lower interest-earning assets in the Special Asset Pool. Non-interest revenues, excluding CVA/DVA, decreased 87% to $84 million from the prior-year period, primarily reflecting the absence of positive private equity marks recorded in the Special Asset Pool in the first quarter of 2011 combined with a repurchase reserve build related to private-label mortgage securitizations in the Special Asset Pool in the current quarter.
Citi Holdings assets declined 29% year-over-year to $209 billion at March 31, 2012, and comprised approximately 11% of total Citigroup GAAP assets and 19% of risk-weighted assets as of such date. Local Consumer Lending continued to represent the largest segment within Citi Holdings, with $147 billion of assets. Over 70% of Local Consumer Lending assets, or approximately $104 billion, were mortgage loans in North America real estate lending. At March 31, 2012, approximately $9.4 billion of loan loss reserves were allocated to North America real estate lending in Citi Holdings.
(1) For the summary of CVA/DVA by business within Securities and Banking, for the first quarter of 2012 and comparable periods, see "CiticorpInstitutional Clients GroupSecurities and Banking" below.
Statement continues on the next page, including notes to the table.
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The following tables show the income (loss) and revenues for Citigroup on a segment and business view:
Citicorp is Citigroup's global bank for consumers and businesses and represents Citi's core franchises. Citicorp is focused on providing best-in-class products and services to customers and leveraging Citigroup's unparalleled global network. Citicorp is physically present in approximately 100 countries, many for over 100 years, and offers services in over 160 countries and jurisdictions. Citi believes this global network provides a strong foundation for servicing the broad financial services needs of large multinational clients and for meeting the needs of retail, private banking, commercial, public sector and institutional clients around the world. Citigroup's global footprint provides coverage of the world's emerging economies, which Citi continues to believe represent a strong area of growth. At March 31, 2012, Citicorp had approximately $1.4 trillion of assets and $839 billion of deposits, representing approximately 73% of Citi's total assets and approximately 93% of its deposits.
At March 31, 2012, Citicorp consisted of the following businesses: Global Consumer Banking (which included retail banking and Citi-branded cards in four regionsNorth America, EMEA, Latin America and Asia, as well as Citi retail services in North America) and Institutional Clients Group (which includes Securities and Banking and Transaction Services).
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GLOBAL CONSUMER BANKING
Global Consumer Banking (GCB) consists of Citigroup's four geographical Regional Consumer Banking (RCB) businesses that provide traditional banking services to retail customers through retail banking, local commercial banking, Citi-branded cards and Citi retail services. GCB is a globally diversified business with 4,150 branches in 39 countries around the world. At March 31, 2012, GCB had $389 billion of assets and $323 billion of deposits.
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NORTH AMERICA REGIONAL CONSUMER BANKING
North America Regional Consumer Banking (NA RCB) provides traditional banking and Citi-branded card and Citi retail services to retail customers and small to mid-size businesses in the U.S. NA RCB's 1,020 retail bank branches and 12.5 million customer accounts, as of March 31, 2012, are largely concentrated in the greater metropolitan areas of New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Miami, Washington, D.C., Boston, Philadelphia and certain larger cities in Texas. At March 31, 2012, NA RCB had $40.6 billion of retail banking loans and $153.5 billion of deposits. In addition, NA RCB had 103.6 million Citi-branded and Citi retail services credit card accounts, with $109.4 billion in outstanding card loan balances.
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1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income increased 41% as compared to the prior-year period, driven by lower net credit losses and higher revenues from higher gains on sale of mortgages, partly offset by lower loan loss reserve releases and higher expenses.
Revenues increased 5% year-over-year as lower net interest margin and loan balances in the cards businesses were more than offset by higher non-interest revenue on sale of mortgages. Net interest revenue decreased 2% year-over-year, driven primarily by lower cards net interest margin which continued to be negatively impacted by the look-back provision of The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act (CARD Act). (The CARD Act requires a review be done once every six months for card accounts where the annual percentage rate (APR) has been increased since January 1, 2009 to assess whether changes in credit risk, market conditions or other factors merit a future decline in APR.) In addition, net interest revenues for cards was negatively impacted by higher low margin revenue promotional balances and lower total average loans. NA RCB believes the negative impact of the CARD Act and promotional balances should dissipate over the course of 2012 as the population of card accounts subject to the CARD Act look-back provisions declines and promotional balances convert or close. Non-interest revenue increased 46% year-over-year primarily due to the higher gains on sale of mortgages.
Expenses increased 3%, primarily driven by the higher investment spending in the business, particularly in cards marketing and new branches and technology, partially offset by efficiency savings and the absence of a litigation reserve relating to the interchange litigation recorded in the first quarter of 2011.
Provisions decreased 32%, primarily due to lower credit losses in the cards portfolio, partly offset by the continued lower loan loss reserve releases ($1.2 billion in the first quarter of 2011 compared to $841 million in the current quarter).
EMEA REGIONAL CONSUMER BANKING
EMEA Regional Consumer Banking (EMEA RCB) provides traditional banking and Citi-branded card services to retail customers and small to mid-size businesses, primarily in Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The countries in which EMEA RCB has the largest presence are Poland, Turkey, Russia and the United Arab Emirates. EMEA RCB had 286 retail bank branches with 4.0 million customer accounts, $4.5 billion in retail banking loans and $12.8 billion in deposits. In addition, the business had 2.6 million Citi-branded card accounts with $2.9 billion in outstanding card loan balances.
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1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income declined by $65 million year-over-year, due to lower revenues and higher operating expenses and credit costs. Effective January 1, 2012, Akbank, Citi's equity investment in Turkey, was moved from EMEA RCB to Corporate/Other due to Citi's announced potential reduction in share holdings in Akbank. The decline in net income year-over-year was driven by lower revenues, including the absence of Akbank, and higher expenses, partially offset by lower net credit losses.
Revenues decreased 10% from the prior-year period, driven by the impact of FX translation (negative 4%), as well as the absence of Akbank. Net interest revenue increased 8% driven by the removal of Akbank investment funding costs in the current quarter, partially offset by the impact of FX translation. Excluding these items, net interest revenue was essentially flat, as better spreads on deposits and retail loan growth were mostly offset by loan spread compression. Interest rate caps on credit cards, particularly in Turkey, and the continued liquidation of the higher yielding non-strategic retail banking portfolio were the main contributors to the lower spreads. Non-interest revenue decreased 35%, reflecting the absence of the Akbank contribution in the current quarter. Cards purchase sales grew 17%.
Expenses increased 13%, primarily due to the impact of continued account acquisition-focused investment spending, increased volumes and repositioning charges in Poland and Egypt.
Provisions increased 53%, primarily due to lower loan loss reserve releases, partially offset by continued lower net credit losses. Net credit losses declined 41% due to the ongoing improvement in credit quality and the move towards lower risk products. Provisions will likely continue to negatively impact the results of operations of EMEA RCB during 2012 as net credit losses have largely stabilized and loan loss reserve releases will generally remain lower than comparable prior-year period levels.
LATIN AMERICA REGIONAL CONSUMER BANKING
Latin America Regional Consumer Banking (LATAM RCB) provides traditional banking and branded card services to retail customers and small to mid-size businesses, with the largest presence in Mexico and Brazil. LATAM RCB includes branch networks throughout Latin America as well as Banco Nacional de Mexico, or Banamex, Mexico's second-largest bank, with over 1,700 branches. At March 31, 2012, LATAM RCB had 2,201 retail branches, with 31.1 million customer accounts, $26.1 billion in retail banking loans and $46.1 billion in deposits. In addition, the business had 13.1 million Citi-branded card accounts with $14.3 billion in outstanding loan balances.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income declined 21% as higher cost of credit more than offset increased operating margin as revenues grew 6% with expenses remaining flat.
Revenues increased 6%, which included a negative 500 basis point impact of FX translation. Revenue growth was driven by growth in personal and card loans, primarily in Mexico. Net interest revenue increased 6% as growth in lending volumes of 16% offset reduced spreads as new loan origination was focused in higher credit quality customer segments. Non-interest revenue increased 7%, predominantly driven by an increase in fees resulting from higher banking transactions and Cards purchase sales, which grew 12%.
Expenses remained flat as compared to the first quarter of 2011 as higher account and transaction volumes, increased compensation due to increased sales incentives and legal and related items were offset by the impact of FX translation and ongoing savings initiatives across the region.
Provisions increased 97% from the prior-year period, reflecting a loan loss reserve build of $113 million in the current period versus a $147 million release in the prior-year period. The build was driven by higher volumes and portfolio seasoning in the personal loans portfolio. Net credit losses were 6% higher, resulting from portfolio growth.
ASIA REGIONAL CONSUMER BANKING
Asia Regional Consumer Banking (Asia RCB) provides traditional banking and Citi-branded card services to retail customers and small to mid-size businesses, with the largest Citi presence in South Korea, Australia, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, India and Indonesia. Citi's Japan Consumer Finance business, which Citi has been exiting since 2008, is included in Citi Holdings. At March 31, 2012, Asia RCB had 643 retail branches, 16.5 million customer accounts, $68.8 billion in retail banking loans and $110.7 billion in deposits. In addition, the business had 15.7 million Citi-branded card accounts with $19.6 billion in outstanding loan balances.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income increased 11% year-over-year, driven by higher revenues and lower net credit losses, partially offset by lower loan loss reserve releases and marginally higher expenses.
Revenues increased 5% year-over-year, primarily driven by higher business volumes and the absence of charges relating to the repurchase of certain Lehman structured notes ($70 million) recorded in the prior-year period, partially offset by continued spread compression. Net interest revenue was flat year-over-year as continued increases in lending and deposit volumes were offset by spread compression. Spread compression continued to be driven by stricter underwriting criteria arising from a lowering of the risk profile for personal and other loans, and this will likely continue to have a negative impact on net interest revenue in the near-term. Non-interest revenue increased 17%, reflecting growth in Citi-branded cards purchase sales and higher revenues from foreign exchange products and the absence of the above mentioned Lehman related charges, partially offset by a 26% decrease in investment sales year-over-year. Investment sales increased 40% from the fourth quarter of 2011.
Expenses increased 2%, largely due to growth in business volumes, partially offset by ongoing productivity savings.
Provisions increased 7% as lower loan loss reserve releases were partially offset by continued lower net credit losses, although the pace of improvement in net credit losses has slowed. The increase in credit provisions reflected the increasing volumes in the region, partially offset by continued credit quality improvement, particularly in Japan and India. India remained a significant driver of the improvement in credit quality, as it continued to de-risk elements of its legacy portfolio. Assuming the underlying core portfolio continues to grow and season in 2012, Citi expects credit costs could continue to increase marginally in line with portfolio growth.
INSTITUTIONAL CLIENTS GROUP
Institutional Clients Group (ICG) includes Securities and Banking and Transaction Services. ICG provides corporate, institutional, public sector and high-net-worth clients around the world with a full range of products and services, including cash management, foreign exchange, trade finance and services, securities services, sales and trading, institutional brokerage, underwriting, lending and advisory services. ICG's international presence is supported by trading floors in approximately 75 countries and jurisdictions and a proprietary network within Transaction Services in over 95 countries and jurisdictions. At March 31, 2012, ICG had approximately $1.0 trillion of assets and $516 billion of deposits.
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SECURITIES AND BANKING
Securities and Banking (S&B) offers a wide array of investment and commercial banking services and products for corporations, governments, institutional and retail investors, and high-net-worth individuals. S&B transacts with clients in both cash instruments and derivatives, including fixed income, foreign currency, equity, and commodity products. S&B includes investment banking and advisory services, lending, debt and equity sales and trading, institutional brokerage, derivative services and private banking.
S&B revenue is generated primarily from fees and spreads associated with these activities. S&B earns fee income for assisting clients in clearing transactions, providing brokerage and investment banking services and other such activities. Revenue generated from these activities is recorded in Commissions and fees. In addition, as a market maker, S&B facilitates transactions, including holding product inventory to meet client demand, and earns the differential between the price at which it buys and sells the products. These price differentials and the unrealized gains and losses on the inventory are recorded in Principal transactions. S&B interest income earned on inventory and loans held is recorded as a component of Net interest revenue.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income of $1.2 billion decreased 28%, primarily due to negative $1.4 billion of CVA/DVA in the current quarter (see table below). Excluding CVA/DVA, net income increased 13%, primarily driven by an increase in revenues. The decline in expenses year-over-year was more than offset by higher provisions.
Revenues of $5.3 billion decreased 12% from the prior year due to the negative CVA/DVA. Excluding CVA/DVA, S&B revenues increased 6%, reflecting better results in fixed income markets, private bank, and a slight increase in investment banking, partially offset by lower revenues in equity markets and lending.
Fixed income markets revenues increased 19% excluding CVA/DVA. The results primarily reflected strong performance in rates and currencies across all products and regions, as overall market conditions improved in the first quarter of 2012 and client activity increased. While a return of liquidity and two-way flows in the credit markets in the first quarter of 2012 resulted in strong performance from credit and securitized products, revenues declined in these areas relative to the prior-year period, largely reflecting lower risk levels in the business.
Equity markets revenues decreased 18% excluding CVA/DVA, driven by lower industry volumes, particularly in cash equities.
Investment banking revenues increased 2%, as growth in debt underwriting revenues offset declines in advisory and equity underwriting revenues. The growth in debt underwriting was due to volume growth in certain products and gains in market share, while the lower results in advisory and equity underwriting revenues reflected market wide declines in activity levels.
Lending revenues decreased 78%, mainly as a result of losses on credit default swap hedges as credit spreads narrowed during the quarter (see the table below). Excluding the impact of these hedging losses, lending revenues increased 24%, primarily driven by increased volumes in the Corporate loan portfolio.
Private bank revenues increased 11% excluding CVA/DVA due to higher loan and deposit balances, spread improvement, and stronger capital markets activity.
Expenses decreased 2%, driven by efficiency savings from ongoing reengineering programs.
Provisions increased by $245 million to a positive $58 million, primarily due to reserve builds as a result of portfolio growth compared to releases in the prior-year period, partially offset by a specific recovery in the first quarter of 2012 which resulted in net credit recoveries for the quarter.
Transaction Services is composed of Treasury and Trade Solutions and Securities and Fund Services. Treasury and Trade Solutions provides comprehensive cash management and trade finance and services for corporations, financial institutions and public sector entities worldwide. Securities and Fund Services provides securities services to investors, such as global asset managers, custody and clearing services to intermediaries such as broker-dealers, and depository and agency/trust services to multinational corporations and governments globally. Revenue is generated from net interest revenue on deposits and trade loans as well as fees for transaction processing and fees on assets under custody and administration.
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1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income increased 10% year-over-year, reflecting growth in revenues, partially offset by growth in expenses.
Revenues grew 7% year-over-year as increased customer balances and higher fees more than offset spread compression on deposits. Treasury and Trade Solutions revenues increased 11% primarily attributable to growth in the trade services and finance business as average trade loans grew 50% and spreads in the portfolio widened. Cash management revenues also increased year-over-year as growth in fees and deposit balances more than offset the impact of the continued low rate environment. Securities and Fund Services revenues declined 4% year-over-year driven by lower transaction and settlement volumes, reflecting lower levels of market activity, which resulted in decreased fee revenues.
Expenses increased 3% year-over-year, primarily driven by higher volumes.
Average deposits grew 6% from the prior-year period, driven by North America reflecting market demand for the U.S. dollar deposits. (For additional information on potential impacts of credit rating downgrades to Transaction Services deposits, see "Capital MarketsFunding and LiquidityCredit Ratings" below.)
Citi Holdings contains businesses and portfolios of assets that Citigroup has determined are not central to its core Citicorp businesses. Citi Holdings consists of the following: Brokerage and Asset Management, Local Consumer Lending and Special Asset Pool.
Consistent with its strategy, Citi intends to continue to exit these businesses and portfolios as quickly as practicable in an economically rational manner. To date, the decrease in Citi Holdings assets has been primarily driven by asset sales and business dispositions, as well as portfolio run-off and pay-downs. Asset levels have also been impacted, and will continue to be impacted, by charge-offs and revenue marks as and when appropriate.
As of March 31, 2012, Citi Holdings' GAAP assets were approximately $209 billion, a decrease of approximately 29% year-over-year and a decrease of 7% from year end 2011. The decline in assets from year end 2011 was comprised of approximately $4 billion of asset sales and business dispositions, $11 billion of run-off and pay-downs, and $1 billion of charge-offs and revenue marks. Citi Holdings represented approximately 11% of Citi's GAAP assets as of March 31, 2012, while Citi Holdings' risk-weighted assets of approximately $187 billion at March 31, 2012 represented approximately 19% of Citi's risk-weighted assets as of such date.
BROKERAGE AND ASSET MANAGEMENT
Brokerage and Asset Management (BAM) primarily consists of Citi's investment in, and assets related to, the Morgan Stanley Smith Barney Joint Venture (MSSB JV). At March 31, 2012, BAM had approximately $26 billion of assets, or approximately 12% of Citi Holdings' assets, of which approximately $25 billion related to the MSSB JV. The remaining assets in BAM consist of other retail alternative investments.
For information on the terms and conditions of the MSSB JV, see the Forms 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 16, 2009 and June 3, 2009. See also Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
The net loss increased by $125 million from the prior-year period to $137 million in the current quarter, as lower revenues were only partly offset by lower expenses.
Revenues decreased by $183 million year-over-year driven by higher funding costs for MSSB JV assets and lower revenues from the MSSB JV.
Expenses decreased 10% year-over-year driven by divestitures.
Provisions decreased by $9 million due to the absence of certain benefits and claims in the prior-year period.
LOCAL CONSUMER LENDING
Local Consumer Lending (LCL) included a substantial portion of Citigroup's North America mortgage business (see "North America Consumer Mortgage Lending" below), CitiFinancial North America (consisting of the OneMain and CitiFinancial Servicing businesses), remaining student loans and credit card portfolios, and other local consumer finance businesses globally (including Western European cards and retail banking and Japan Consumer Finance). At March 31, 2012, LCL consisted of approximately $147 billion of assets (with approximately $133 billion in North America), or approximately 71% of Citi Holdings assets, and thus represents the largest segment within Citi Holdings. The North America assets primarily consisted of residential mortgages (residential first mortgages and home equity loans) ($104 billion at March 31, 2012).
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
The net loss decreased 37% year-over-year, driven primarily by the continued improving credit environment, including lower net credit losses in both the North America and international portfolios.
Revenues decreased 13%, driven primarily by a 9% decline year-over-year in net interest revenue due to lower loan balances driven by asset sales, divestitures and run-offs, partially offset by a reserve release related to customer refunds in the Japan Consumer Finance business (see "Citi HoldingsLocal Consumer LendingJapan Consumer Finance" in Citi's 2011 Annual Report of Form 10-K for additional information).
Non-interest revenue decreased 21% from the prior-year period primarily due to the impact of divestitures and a higher reserve build relating to the repurchase reserve ($185 million in the current quarter compared to $122 million in the first quarter of 2011) (see "CitigroupResidential MortgagesRepresentations and Warranties" below).
Expenses decreased 16% year-over-year, driven by lower volumes and divestitures. The decrease in overall LCL expenses was partly offset by increased expenses in the current quarter relating to the independent foreclosure review process required by the Consent Orders entered into by Citi (and other large financial institutions) with the Federal Reserve and OCC in April 2011. To comply with this requirement, Citi has retained an independent consultant to conduct a review of a sample of foreclosure actions pending, or foreclosure sales that occurred, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and is required to remediate potential financial injury to borrowers caused by any deficiencies identified through the review. In addition, pursuant to the independent foreclosure reviews, Citi is required to proactively contact borrowers included within the group above and offer them an opportunity to complain against improper foreclosure actions. Any such complaints will be reviewed by the independent consultant and Citi will be required to remediate potential financial injury. Borrower outreach commenced in November 2011 and the outreach process (excluding the subsequent review period) was to be completed by April 2012; however, the OCC has extended the borrower outreach process to July 2012 and has made other changes to expand the scope and size of the review. Citi expects its expenses relating to this aspect of the Consent Orders will remain elevated during the remainder of 2012 and will also be dependent on future changes, if any, in the size and scope of the process (e.g., borrower response rates). Citi continues to believe its ongoing expenses associated with the implementation of the servicing standards required by the Consent Orders, as well as the incremental servicing standards required by the national mortgage settlement approved in April 2012, will not be material. See also "Managing Global RiskCredit RiskNational Mortgage Settlement" below.
Provisions decreased 29% year-over-year driven by lower credit losses. Net credit losses decreased 25% driven by credit improvements in both the North America ($425 million) and international ($170 million) portfolios. North America mortgage net credit losses included approximately $370 million of incremental charge-offs related to previously deferred principal balances on modified mortgages, substantially all of which were offset by a specific reserve release. These charge-offs were
related to anticipated forgiveness of principal in connection with the national mortgage settlement, and Citi expects mortgage net credit losses will continue to be impacted by principal forgiveness related to the national mortgage settlement. See also "Managing Global RiskCredit RiskNational Mortgage Settlement" below. However, Citi also continues to believe that its loan loss reserves will be sufficient to cover these charge-offs. Excluding the incremental charge-offs, net credit losses in LCL would have declined 41%. Loan loss reserve releases decreased 6%. This decrease was partly offset by the aforementioned reserve release related to the charge-offs on previously deferred principal balances on modified mortgages.
Assets declined 25% from the prior-year period, driven by the impact of asset sales and portfolio run-off, including declines in North America mortgages ($17 billion) and international loans ($8 billion).
SPECIAL ASSET POOL
Special Asset Pool (SAP) had approximately $36 billion of assets as of March 31, 2012, which constituted approximately 17% of Citi Holdings assets as of such date. SAP consists of a portfolio of securities, loans and other assets that Citigroup intends to continue to reduce over time through asset sales and portfolio run-off.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
Net income decreased $258 million year-over-year, driven by the decline in revenues due to lower asset balances as well as lower loan loss reserve releases, partially offset by lower expenses and lower net credit losses.
Revenues decreased $399 million from the prior-year period driven by a net interest revenue decline of $161 million and a non-interest revenue decline of $238 million. The decrease in net interest revenue was driven by the continued decline in interest-earning assets. Citi continues to expect to incur negative carrying costs in SAP going forward as the non-interest-earning assets in SAP, which require funding, represent the larger portion of the total asset pool. The decrease in non-interest revenue was driven by lower positive private equity marks as compared to the prior-year period and a repurchase reserve build of $150 million related to private-label mortgage securitizations, partly offset by lower losses on asset sales and the absence of a $709 million pretax net loss from the transfer of $12.7 billion of securities out of investments held-to-maturity during the first quarter of 2011.
Expenses decreased 23%, driven by lower volume and asset levels, as well as lower legal and related costs.
Provisions increased 76% year-over-year as a decrease in loan loss reserve releases ($29 million in the current quarter compared to a release of $1 billion in the prior-year period) was partially offset by a $688 million decrease in net credit losses.
Assets in SAP declined 51% year-over-year, primarily driven by sales, amortization and prepayments.
Corporate/Other includes unallocated global staff functions (including finance, risk, human resources, legal and compliance), other corporate expense and unallocated global operations and technology expenses, Corporate Treasury and Corporate items and discontinued operations. At March 31, 2012, this segment had approximately $312 billion of assets, or 16% of Citigroup's total assets, consisting primarily of Citi's liquidity portfolio.
1Q12 vs. 1Q11
The net loss of $380 million improved by $59 million year-over-year. The improvement in the net loss was primarily due to an increase in revenues that was offset by an increase in expenses as well as the absence of a net pretax gain of $40 million on the announced sale of the Egg Banking PLC credit card business recorded in discontinued operations in the prior-year period.
Revenues increased $561 million year-over-year, primarily driven by the net pretax gain of $477 million from minority investments (see the "Executive Summary" above for details on the net gain/(loss) from minority investments in the first quarter of 2012). Gains from portfolio repositioning, primarily from the sale of available-for-sale securities, were offset by losses on hedging activities.
Expenses increased by 23%, largely driven by higher legal and related costs.
BALANCE SHEET REVIEW
The following sets forth a general discussion of the changes in certain of the more significant line items of Citi's Consolidated Balance Sheet during the first quarter of 2012. For additional information on Citigroup's deposits, short-term and long-term debt and secured financing transactions, see "Capital Resources and LiquidityFunding and Liquidity" below.
Cash and Deposits with Banks
Cash and deposits with banks is comprised of both Cash and due from banks and Deposits with banks. Cash and due from banks includes (i) cash on hand at Citi's domestic and overseas offices, and (ii) non-interest-bearing balances due from banks, including non-interest-bearing demand deposit accounts with correspondent banks, central banks (such as the Federal Reserve Bank), and other banks or depository institutions for normal operating purposes. Deposits with banks includes interest-bearing balances, demand deposits and time deposits held in or due from banks (including correspondent banks, central banks and other banks or depository institutions) maintained for, among other things, normal operating and regulatory reserve requirement purposes.
During the first quarter of 2012, Citi's cash and deposits with banks increased 14% as compared to the prior quarter, driven by a $28 billion, or 18%, increase in deposits with banks offset by a $2 billion, or 8%, decrease in cash and due from banks. These changes resulted from Citi's normal operations during the quarter, including growth in customer deposits.
Federal Funds Sold and Securities Borrowed or Purchased Under Agreements to Resell (Reverse Repos)
Federal funds sold consist of unsecured advances of excess balances in reserve accounts held at the Federal Reserve Banks to third parties. During the first quarter of 2012, Citi's federal funds sold were not significant.
Reverse repos and securities borrowing transactions increased by 5% as compared to the fourth quarter of 2011 and increased by 11% as compared to the first quarter of 2011. The majority of this increase was driven by additional lending to clients in response to increased client demand for secured financing.
Trading Account Assets
Trading account assets includes debt and marketable equity securities, derivatives in a net receivable position, residual interests in securitizations and physical commodities inventory. In addition, certain assets that Citigroup has elected to carry at fair value, such as certain loans and purchase guarantees, are also included in trading account assets.
As of the end of the first quarter of 2012, trading account assets increased 5% compared to the fourth quarter of 2011 primarily due to increases in equity securities ($13 billion, or 38%) and corporate bonds ($3 billion, or 8%), partially offset by a $6 billion, or 9%, decrease in derivative assets. Excluding net revaluation gains, trading account assets were $250 billion at the end of the first quarter of 2012, compared to $229 billion at the end of the fourth quarter of 2011 and $276 billion at the end of the first quarter of 2011. The increase in trading account assets quarter-over-quarter reflected increased customer activity and the improved operating environment in the first quarter as compared to the prior quarter, where trading assets decreased during the latter part of the quarter.
Average trading account assets were $247 billion in the first quarter of 2012, compared to $248 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011 and $276 billion in the first quarter of 2011.
For further information on Citi's trading account assets, see Notes 1 and 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Investments consist of debt and equity securities that are available-for-sale, debt securities that are held-to-maturity, non-marketable equity securities that are carried at fair value, and non-marketable equity securities carried at cost. Debt securities include bonds, notes and redeemable preferred stock, as well as certain mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities and other structured notes. Marketable and non-marketable equity securities carried at fair value include common and nonredeemable preferred stock. Non-marketable equity securities carried at cost primarily include equity shares issued by the Federal Reserve Bank and the Federal Home Loan Banks that Citigroup is required to hold.
During the first quarter of 2012, Citi's investments increased by 1%, primarily due to a $5 billion, or 2%, increase in available-for-sale securities (predominantly U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities and foreign government securities), partially offset by $2 billion in sales, primarily reflecting the sales of HDFC and SPDB in the first quarter of 2012 (see the "Executive Summary" above). The increase in available-for-sale securities was partially offset by a $1 billion decrease in held-to-maturity securities.
For further information regarding Investments, see Notes 1 and 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Loans represent the largest asset category of Citi's balance sheet. Citi's total loans (as discussed throughout this section, net of unearned income) were $648 billion at March 31, 2012, compared to $647 billion at December 31, 2011 and $637 billion at March 31, 2011. Excluding the impact of FX translation in all periods, loans decreased 1% versus December 31, 2011, reflecting continued declines in Citi Holdings as well as seasonal declines in card loans in Citicorp, which outpaced growth in Corporate loans during the quarter. However, loans increased 2% versus March 31, 2011, as growth in Citicorp outpaced the continued loan declines in Citi Holdings. At March 31, 2012, Consumer and Corporate loans represented 64% and 36%, respectively, of Citi's total loans.
In Citicorp, loans have increased for seven consecutive quarters, including the first quarter of 2012. On a sequential basis, while Citicorp Consumer loans remained flat, Corporate loans increased 4%. The Corporate loan growth quarter-over-quarter was driven by Transaction Services (13% growth), particularly from increased trade finance lending in Asia, Latin America and EMEA. Consumer loans were flat quarter-over-quarter as the impact of FX translation and retail loan growth was offset by lower card loans, as the higher balances resulting from holiday-season spending in the fourth quarter of 2011 were repaid, particularly in North America.
Year-over-year, Citicorp loans were up 12% to $514 billion as of March 31, 2012, including 6% growth in Consumer (7%, excluding the impact of FX translation) and 23% growth in Corporate loans (23%, excluding the impact of FX translation). The year-over-year growth in Consumer loans was primarily driven by international Global Consumer Banking, which increased 8%, led by Asia and Latin America. Citi believes this growth reflected the continued economic growth in these regions, as well as its investment spending in these areas, which drove growth in both cards and retail banking loans. North America Consumer loans increased 4% year-over-year driven by retail banking loans as the cards market continued to reflect both consumer de-leveraging as well as CARD Act and other regulatory changes. The increase in Corporate loan growth year-over-year was largely due to Transaction Services (up 45% year-over-year), primarily from increased trade finance lending in Asia, Latin America and EMEA, as well as growth in the Corporate loan portfolio within Securities and Banking (up 15% year-over-year).
In contrast, Citi Holdings loans declined 5% as compared to December 31, 2011 and 26% year-over-year, due to the continued run-off and asset sales in the portfolios.
During the first quarter of 2012, average loans of $647 billion yielded an average rate of 7.8%, compared to $645 billion and 7.7% in the fourth quarter of 2011 and $639 billion and 7.8%, respectively, in the first quarter of 2011.
For further information on Citi's loan portfolios, see generally "Managing Global RiskCredit Risk" below and Notes 1 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other assets consists of Brokerage receivables, Goodwill, Intangibles and Mortgage servicing rights in addition to Other assets (including, among other items, loans held-for-sale, deferred tax assets, equity-method investments, interest and fees receivable, premises and equipment, certain end-user derivatives in a net receivable position, repossessed assets and other receivables). During the first quarter of 2012, other assets increased 5%, primarily due to a $12 billion increase in Brokerage receivables resulting from increased customer activity and the timing of trade date versus settlement date receivables.
For further information regarding Goodwill and Intangible assets, see "Credit RiskMortgage Servicing Rights" below and Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Deposits represent customer funds that are payable on demand or upon maturity. For a discussion of Citi's deposits, see "Capital Resources and LiquidityFunding and Liquidity" below.
Federal Funds Purchased and Securities Loaned or Sold Under Agreements To Repurchase (Repos)
Federal funds purchased consist of unsecured advances of excess balances in reserve accounts held at the Federal Reserve Banks from third parties. During the first quarter of 2012, Citi's federal funds purchased were not significant.
For further information on Citi's secured financing transactions, including repos and securities lending transactions, see "Capital Resources and LiquidityFunding and Liquidity" below.
Trading Account Liabilities
Trading account liabilities includes securities sold, not yet purchased (short positions) and derivatives in a net payable position, as well as certain liabilities that Citigroup has elected to carry at fair value.
During the first quarter of 2012, trading account liabilities increased by 8%. In the first quarter of 2012, average trading account liabilities were $77 billion, compared to $76 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011 and $81 billion in the first quarter of 2011.
For further information on Citi's Trading account liabilities, see Notes 1 and 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Debt is composed of both short-term and long-term borrowings. Long-term borrowings include senior notes, subordinated notes, trust preferred securities and securitizations. Short-term borrowings include commercial paper and borrowings from unaffiliated banks and other market participants. For further information on Citi's long-term and short-term debt, see "Capital Resources and LiquidityFunding and Liquidity" below and Notes 1 and 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other liabilities consists of Brokerage payables and Other liabilities (including, among other items, accrued expenses and other payables, deferred tax liabilities, certain end-user derivatives in a net payable position, and reserves for legal claims, taxes, restructuring, unfunded lending commitments, and other matters). During the first quarter of 2012, Other liabilities decreased by 1% as compared to the fourth quarter of 2011, and increased by 4% as compared to the first quarter of 2011.
SEGMENT BALANCE SHEET AT MARCH 31, 2012(1)
Capital is used primarily to support assets in Citi's businesses and to absorb market, credit or operational losses. Citi generates capital through earnings from its operating businesses. Citi may augment its capital through issuances of common stock, perpetual preferred stock and equity issued through awards under employee benefit plans, among other issuances. Citi has also augmented its regulatory capital through the issuance of debt underlying trust preferred securities, although the treatment of such instruments as regulatory capital will be phased out under Basel III and The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (see the "Regulatory Capital Standards" and "Risk FactorsRegulatory Risks" sections of Citi's 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K). Further, the impact of future events on Citi's business results, such as corporate and asset dispositions, as well as changes in regulatory and accounting standards, may also affect Citi's capital levels.
For additional information on Citi's capital resources, including an overview of Citigroup's capital management framework and regulatory capital standards and developments, see "Capital Resources and LiquidityCapital Resources" and "Risk Factors" in Citigroup's 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Citigroup is subject to the risk-based capital guidelines issued by the Federal Reserve Board. Historically, capital adequacy has been measured, in part, based on two risk-based capital ratios, the Tier 1 Capital and Total Capital (Tier 1 Capital + Tier 2 Capital) ratios. Tier 1 Capital consists of the sum of "core capital elements," such as qualifying common stockholders' equity, as adjusted, qualifying noncontrolling interests, and qualifying trust preferred securities, principally reduced by goodwill, other disallowed intangible assets, and disallowed deferred tax assets. Total Capital also includes "supplementary" Tier 2 Capital elements, such as qualifying subordinated debt and a limited portion of the allowance for credit losses. Both measures of capital adequacy are stated as a percentage of risk-weighted assets.
In 2009, the U.S. banking regulators developed a new measure of capital termed "Tier 1 Common," which is defined as Tier 1 Capital less non-common elements, including qualifying perpetual preferred stock, qualifying noncontrolling interests, and qualifying trust preferred securities. For more detail on all of these capital metrics, see "Components of Capital Under Regulatory Guidelines" below.
Citigroup's risk-weighted assets are principally derived from application of the risk-based capital guidelines related to the measurement of credit risk. Pursuant to these guidelines, on-balance-sheet assets and the credit equivalent amount of certain off-balance-sheet exposures (such as financial guarantees, unfunded lending commitments, letters of credit and derivatives) are assigned to one of several prescribed risk-weight categories based upon the perceived credit risk associated with the obligor or, if relevant, the guarantor, the nature of the collateral, or external credit ratings. Risk-weighted assets also incorporate a measure for market risk on covered trading account positions and all foreign exchange and commodity positions whether or not carried in the trading account. Excluded from risk-weighted assets are any assets, such as goodwill and deferred tax assets, to the extent required to be deducted from regulatory capital. See "Components of Capital Under Regulatory Guidelines" below.
Citigroup is also subject to a Leverage ratio requirement, a non-risk-based measure of capital adequacy, which is defined as Tier 1 Capital as a percentage of quarterly adjusted average total assets.
To be "well capitalized" under current federal bank regulatory agency definitions, a bank holding company must have a Tier 1 Capital ratio of at least 6%, a Total Capital ratio of at least 10%, and not be subject to a Federal Reserve Board directive to maintain higher capital levels. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board expects bank holding companies to maintain a minimum Leverage ratio of 3% or 4%, depending on factors specified in its regulations. The following table sets forth Citigroup's regulatory capital ratios as of March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011:
Citigroup Regulatory Capital Ratios
As indicated in the table above, Citigroup was "well capitalized" under the current federal bank regulatory agency definitions as of March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011.
In addition to the current regulatory capital ratios and guidelines discussed above, as more fully described in "Capital Resources and LiquidityCapital ResourcesRegulatory Capital Standards" of Citi's 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Basel Committee has issued final rules to further strengthen existing capital requirements (Basel III). While the U.S. banking agencies have yet to issue the proposed U.S. version of the Basel III rules, Citi estimates that, as of March 31, 2012, its Basel III Tier 1 Common ratio was 7.2%. Citi's estimate of its Tier 1 Common ratio under Basel III as of March 31, 2012 is based on its current interpretation, expectations and understanding of the Basel III requirements, and is subject to final regulatory clarity and rulemaking, model calibration and other final implementation guidance.
Components of Capital Under Current Regulatory Guidelines
Common Stockholders' Equity
Citigroup's common stockholders' equity increased during the three months ended March 31, 2012 by $4.0 billion to $181.5 billion, and represented 9% of total assets as of March 31, 2012. The table below summarizes the change in Citigroup's common stockholders' equity during the first quarter of 2012:
Tangible Common Equity and Tangible Book Value Per Share
Tangible common equity (TCE), as defined by Citigroup, represents common equity less goodwill, intangible assets (other than mortgage servicing rights (MSRs), and related net deferred tax assets. Other companies may calculate TCE in a manner different from that of Citigroup. Citi's TCE was $149.2 billion at March 31, 2012 and $145.4 billion at December 31, 2011. The TCE ratio (TCE divided by risk-weighted assets) was 15.3% at March 31, 2012 and 14.9% at December 31, 2011.
TCE and tangible book value per share, as well as related ratios, are capital adequacy metrics used and relied upon by investors and industry analysts; however, they are non-GAAP financial measures for SEC purposes. A reconciliation of Citigroup's total stockholders' equity to TCE, and book value per share to tangible book value per share, as of March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, follows:
Capital Resources of Citigroup's U.S. Depository Institutions
Citigroup's U.S. subsidiary depository institutions are also subject to risk-based capital guidelines issued by their respective primary federal bank regulatory agencies, which are similar to the guidelines of the Federal Reserve Board.
The following table sets forth the capital tiers and capital ratios of Citibank, N.A., Citi's primary U.S. subsidiary depository institution, as of March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011:
Citibank, N.A. Capital Tiers and Capital Ratios Under Regulatory Guidelines
Impact of Changes on Capital Ratios
The following table presents the estimated sensitivity of Citigroup's and Citibank, N.A.'s capital ratios to changes of $100 million in Tier 1 Common Capital, Tier 1 Capital or Total Capital (numerator), or changes of $1 billion in risk-weighted assets or adjusted average total assets (denominator), based on financial information as of March 31, 2012. This information is provided for the purpose of analyzing the impact that a change in Citigroup's or Citibank, N.A.'s financial position or results of operations could have on these ratios. These sensitivities only consider a single change to either a component of capital, risk-weighted assets or adjusted average total assets. Accordingly, an event that affects more than one factor may have a larger basis point impact than is reflected in this table.
At March 31, 2012, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., a broker-dealer registered with the SEC that is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Citigroup, had net capital, computed in accordance with the SEC's net capital rule, of $6.8 billion, which exceeded the minimum requirement by $6.0 billion.
In addition, certain of Citi's other broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to regulation in the countries in which they do business, including requirements to maintain specified levels of net capital or its equivalent. Citigroup's broker-dealer subsidiaries were in compliance with their capital requirements at March 31, 2012.
FUNDING AND LIQUIDITY
Citi's funding and liquidity objectives generally are to maintain liquidity to fund its existing asset base as well as grow its core businesses in Citicorp, while at the same time maintain sufficient excess liquidity, structured appropriately, so that it can operate under a wide variety of market conditions, including market disruptions for both short- and long-term periods. Citigroup's primary liquidity objectives are established by entity, and in aggregate, across three major categories:
At an aggregate level, Citigroup's goal is to ensure that there is sufficient funding in amount and tenor to ensure that aggregate liquidity resources are available for these entities. The liquidity framework requires that entities be self-sufficient or net providers of liquidity, including in conditions established under their designated stress tests, and have excess cash capital.
Citi's primary sources of funding include (i) deposits via Citi's bank subsidiaries, which continue to be Citi's lowest cost source of long-term funding, (ii) long-term debt (including long-term collateralized financings) issued at the non-bank level and certain bank subsidiaries, and (iii) stockholders' equity. These sources are supplemented by short-term borrowings, primarily in the form of secured financing transactions (securities loaned or sold under agreements to repurchase, or repos), and commercial paper at the non-bank level.
As referenced above, Citigroup works to ensure that the structural tenor of these funding sources is sufficiently long in relation to the tenor of its asset base. The key goal of Citi's asset-liability management is to ensure that there is excess tenor in the liability structure so as to provide excess liquidity to fund the assets. The excess liquidity resulting from a longer-term tenor profile can effectively offset potential decreases in liquidity that may occur under stress. This excess funding is held in the form of aggregate liquidity resources, as described below.
Aggregate Liquidity Resources
As set forth in the table above, Citigroup's aggregate liquidity resources totaled $420.5 billion at March 31, 2012, compared with $447.1 at March 31, 2011. These amounts are as of period-end and may increase or decrease intra-period in the ordinary course of business. During the quarter ended March 31, 2012, the intra-quarter amounts did not fluctuate materially from the quarter-end amounts noted above.
At March 31, 2012, Citigroup's non-bank aggregate liquidity resources totaled $92.5 billion, compared with $95.5 billion at March 31, 2011. This amount included unencumbered liquid securities and cash held in Citi's U.S. and non-U.S. broker-dealer entities.
Citigroup's significant Citibank entities had approximately $235.4 billion of aggregate liquidity resources as of March 31, 2012. This amount included $99.6 billion of cash on deposit with major central banks (including the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, European Central Bank, Bank of England, Swiss National Bank, Bank of Japan, the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Hong Kong Monetary Authority), compared with $81.5 billion at March 31, 2011. The significant Citibank entities' liquidity resources also included unencumbered highly liquid government and government-backed securities. These securities are available-for-sale or secured financing through private markets or by pledging to the major central banks. The liquidity value of these securities was $135.8 billion at March 31, 2012, compared with $167.6 billion at March 31, 2011. As shown in the table above, overall, liquidity at Citi's significant Citibank entities was down year-over-year as Citi deployed some of its excess bank liquidity into loan growth within Citicorp (see "Balance Sheet Review" above) and paid down long-term bank debt.
Citi estimates that its other Citibank and Banamex entities and subsidiaries held approximately $92.7 billion in aggregate liquidity resources as of March 31, 2012. This included $9.4 billion of cash on deposit with major central banks and $83.3 billion of unencumbered liquid securities.
Citi's table of aggregate liquidity resources above does not include additional potential liquidity in the form of Citigroup's borrowing capacity at the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank discount window, international central banks, and from the various Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLB), which is maintained by pledged collateral to all such banks. Citi also maintains additional liquidity available in the form of diversified high grade non-government securities.
Moreover, in general, Citigroup can freely fund legal entities within its bank vehicles. In addition, Citigroup's bank subsidiaries, including Citibank, N.A., can lend to the Citigroup parent and broker-dealer entities in accordance with Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act. As of March 31, 2012, the amount available for lending to these non-bank entities under
Section 23A was approximately $20 billion, provided the funds are collateralized appropriately.
As of March 31, 2012, approximately 80% of Citi's bank subsidiaries are funded by deposits. Citi continued to focus on maintaining a geographically diverse retail and corporate deposits base that stood at $906 billion at March 31, 2012, up 5%, or $40 billion, from the prior-year period, and included 7% year-over-year growth in Citicorp. The increase in deposits year-over-year was largely due to higher deposit volumes in each of Citicorp's deposit-taking businesses, including Transaction Services, Securities and Banking (primarily the Private Bank) and Global Consumer Banking. Year-over-year deposit growth occurred in North America, Europe and Asia, as customer demand continued a "flight to quality" given the uncertain macroeconomic environment. As of March 31, 2012, approximately 61% of Citi's deposits were located outside of the United States. These increases in deposits in Citicorp were partially offset by a continued decrease in deposits in Citi Holdings.
In addition to deposit growth, the composition of Citi's deposits, within Securities and Banking (primarily the Private Bank), Transaction Services and Global Consumer Banking, has shifted year-over-year. Specifically, time deposits, where rates are fixed for the term of the deposit and have generally lower margins, became a smaller proportion of the deposit base, whereas operating balances (which Citi defines as checking and savings accounts for individuals, as well as cash management accounts for corporations) became a larger proportion of deposits. Citi continues to believe that operating accounts provide wider margins and exhibit retentive behavior. At March 31, 2012, operating balances represented 76% and 73% of total deposits in each of Global Consumer Banking and Citi's institutional businesses, respectively. In addition, operating balances represented 74% of Citicorp's deposit base as of March 31, 2012, compared to 71% as of March 31, 2011 and 62% at March 31, 2010.
Deposits can be interest-bearing or non-interest-bearing. Of Citi's $906 billion of deposits as of March 31, 2012, $183 billion were non-interest-bearing, compared to $144 billion at March 31, 2011. The remainder, or $723 billion, was interest-bearing, compared to $722 billion at March 31, 2011.
While Citi's deposits have grown year-over-year, Citi's overall cost of funds on deposits decreased, reflecting the low rate environment as well as Citi's ability to lower price points that widens its margins given the high levels of customer liquidity while still remaining competitive. Citi's average rate on total deposits was 0.94% at March 31, 2012, compared with 0.96% at March 31, 2011. Excluding the impact of the higher FDIC assessment effective beginning in the second quarter of 2011 and deposit insurance, the average rate on Citi's total deposits was 0.76% at March 31, 2012, compared with 0.85% at March 31, 2011. Citi would, however, expect to see pressure on these rates due to competitive pricing in certain regions or as interest rates increase.
Long-term debt (generally defined as original maturities of one year or more) represents the most significant component of Citi's funding for its non-bank entities, or 35% of the funding in the non-bank entities as of March 31, 2012. The vast majority of this funding is comprised of senior term debt, along with subordinated instruments and trust preferred securities. Long-term debt is an important funding source for Citi's non-bank entities due in part to its multi-year maturity structure. The weighted average maturities of long-term debt (greater than one year remaining life) issued by Citigroup, CFI, CGMHI and Citibank, N.A., excluding trust preferred securities, was approximately 6.9 years at March 31, 2012, compared to 6.5 years at March 31, 2011.
The following table sets forth Citigroup's total long-term debt outstanding for the periods indicated:
As set forth in the table above, Citi's overall long-term debt has decreased by approximately $65 billion year-over-year. In the non-bank, the year-over-year decrease was primarily due to TLGP run-off that was not refinanced. In the bank entities, the decrease was also driven by TLGP run-off as well as FHLB reductions and the maturing of credit card securitization debt, particularly as Citi has grown its overall deposit base. Citi currently expects a continued decline in its overall long-term debt over 2012, particul