|• FORM 10-Q • EXHIBIT 31.1 • EXHIBIT 31.2 • EXHIBIT 32.1 • EXHIBIT 101.INS • EXHIBIT 101.SCH • EXHIBIT 101.CAL • EXHIBIT 101.DEF • EXHIBIT 101.LAB • EXHIBIT 101.PRE|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
[X] QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2012
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________________ to __________________________
Commission File Number: 001-34631
CHINA ARMCO METALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer [ ] Accelerated filer [ ]
Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) [ ] Smaller reporting company [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act) Yes [ ] No [X]
As of August 13, 2012, 18,223,727 shares of common stock, par value $0.001, are issued and outstanding.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results
This Report contains forward-looking statements. The Securities and Exchange Commission encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so that investors can better understand a company’s future prospects and make informed investment decisions. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other written and oral statements that we make from time to time contain such forward-looking statements that set out anticipated results based on management’s plans and assumptions regarding future events or performance. We have tried, wherever possible, to identify such statements by using words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “will” and similar expressions in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance. In particular, these include statements relating to future actions, future performance or results of current and anticipated sales efforts, expenses, the outcome of contingencies, such as legal proceedings, and financial results. A list of factors that could cause our actual results of operations and financial condition to differ materially is set forth below, and these factors are discussed in greater detail under Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011:
We caution that the factors described herein and other factors could cause our actual results of operations and financial condition to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements we make and that investors should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which such statement is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of such factors. Further, we cannot assess the impact of each such factor on our results of operations or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
INDEX OF CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS USED IN THIS REPORT
When used in this report the terms:
CHINA ARMCO METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CHINA ARMCO METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CHINA ARMCO METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
For the Year Ended December 31, 2011 and for the Interim Period Ended June 30, 2012
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CHINA ARMCO METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
China Armco Metals, Inc. and Subsidiaries
June 30, 2012 and 2011
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 1 – Organization and Operations
China Armco Metals, Inc. (formerly Cox Distributing, Inc.)
Cox Distributing was founded as an unincorporated business in January 1984 and was incorporated as Cox Distributing, Inc. (“Cox Distributing”), a C corporation under the laws of the State of Nevada on April 6, 2007 at which time 9,100,000 shares of common stock were issued to the founder in exchange for the existing unincorporated business. No value was given to the stock issued by the newly formed corporation. Therefore, the shares were recorded to reflect the $.001 par value and paid in capital was recorded as a negative amount ($9,100). Cox Distributing engaged in the distribution of organic fertilizer products used to improve soil and growing conditions for the potato farmers of eastern Idaho (“Legacy Business”).
On June 27, 2008, Cox Distributing amended its Articles of Incorporation, and changed its name to China Armco Metals, Inc. (“Armco Metals” or the “Company”) upon the acquisition of Armco Metals International Limited (formerly “Armco & Metawise (H.K) Limited” or “Armco HK”) and Subsidiaries to better identify the Company with the business conducted, through its wholly owned subsidiaries in China, import, export and distribution of ferrous and non-ferrous ores and metals, and processing and distribution of scrap steel.
Cox Distributing conducted nominal organic fertilizer distribution business post the acquisition of Armco HK. On December 30, 2008, the Company entered into an Agreement of Assumption and Release and Bill of Sale (“Spin-Out Agreement”) with its former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Stephen E. Cox, with respect to its Legacy Business of fertilizer distribution business. Pursuant to the terms of the Spin-Out Agreement, Mr. Cox assumed all of the assets and liabilities of the Legacy Business and surrendered 6,200 shares of the Company’s common stock he owned for cancellation. As a result of the consummation of the Spin-Out Agreement, the Company discontinued its Legacy Business of distribution of organic fertilizer products.
Armco Metals International Limited (formerly Armco & Metawise (H.K) Limited) and Subsidiaries
Armco Metals International Limited (formerly Armco & Metawise (H.K) Limited)
Armco & Metawise (H.K) Limited was incorporated on July 13, 2001 under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (“HK SAR”) of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”). Armco HK engages in the import, export and distribution of ferrous and non-ferrous ore and metals.
On March 22, 2011, Armco & Metawise (H.K) Limited amended its Memorandum and Articles of Association, and changed its name to Armco Metals International Limited (“Armco HK”).
Formation of Henan Armco and Metawise Trading Co., Ltd.
Henan Armco and Metawise Trading Co., Ltd. (“Henan”) was incorporated on June 6, 2002 in the City of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, PRC. Henan engages in the import, export and distribution of ferrous and non-ferrous ores and metals.
Formation of Armco (Lianyungang) Renewable Metals, Inc.
On January 9, 2007, Armco HK formed Armco (Lianyungang) Renewable Metals, Inc. (“Renewable Metals”), a wholly-owned foreign enterprise (“WOFE”) subsidiary in the City of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, PRC. Renewable Metals engages in the processing and distribution of scrap metal.
On December 1, 2008, Armco HK transferred its 100% equity interest in Renewable Metals to Armco Metals.
Merger of Henan with Renewable Metals, Companies under Common Control
On December 28, 2007, Armco HK entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with Renewable Metals, whereby Armco HK transferred to Renewable Metals all of its equity interest in Henan, a company under common control of Armco HK.
The acquisition of Henan has been recorded on the purchase method of accounting at historical amounts as Renewable Metals and Henan were under common control since June 2002. The consolidated financial statements have been presented as if the acquisition of Henan had occurred as of the first date of the first period presented.
Acquisition of Armco Metal International Limited and Subsidiaries (“Armco HK”) Recognized as a Reverse Acquisition
On June 27, 2008, the Company entered into and consummated a share purchase agreement (the “Share Purchase Agreement”) with Armco HK and Feng Gao, who owned 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Armco HK. In connection with the consummation of the Share Purchase Agreement, (i) Stephen Cox surrendered 7,694,000 common shares, representing his controlling interest in the Company for cancellation and resigned as an officer and director; (ii) the Company purchased from the Armco HK Shareholder 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Armco HK’s capital stock for $6,890,000 by delivery of the Company’s purchase money promissory note; (iii) issued to Ms. Gao (a) a stock option entitling Ms. Gao to purchase 5,300,000 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $.001 per share (the “Common Stock”) with an exercise price of $1.30 per share expiring on September 30, 2008 and (b) a stock option entitling Ms. Gao to purchase 2,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock with an exercise price of $5.00 per share expiring two (2) years from the date of issuance on June 27, 2010 (the “Gao Options”). On August 12, 2008, Ms. Gao exercised her option to purchase and the Company issued 5,300,000 shares of its common stock in exchange for the $6,890,000 note owed to Ms. Gao. The shares issued represented approximately 69.7% of the issued and outstanding common stock immediately after the consummation of the Share Purchase and exercise of the option to purchase 5,300,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at $1.30 per share.
As a result of the ownership interests of the former stockholder of Armco HK, for financial statement reporting purposes, the merger between the Company and Armco HK has been treated as a reverse acquisition with Armco HK deemed the accounting acquirer and the Company deemed the accounting acquiree under the purchase method of accounting in accordance with section 805-10-55 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The reverse merger is deemed a capital transaction and the net assets of Armco HK (the accounting acquirer) are carried forward to the Company (the legal acquirer and the reporting entity) at their carrying value before the combination. The acquisition process utilizes the capital structure of the Company and the assets and liabilities of Armco HK which are recorded at historical cost. The equity of the Company is the historical equity of Armco HK retroactively restated to reflect the number of shares issued by the Company in the transaction.
Formation of Armco (Lianyungang) Holdings, Inc.
On June 4, 2009, the Company formed Armco (Lianyungang) Holdings, Inc. (“Lianyungang Armco”), a WOFE subsidiary in the City of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, PRC. Lianyungang Armco intends to engage in marketing and distribution of the recycled scrap steel.
Formation of Armco Metals (Shanghai) Holdings, Ltd.
On July 16, 2010, the Company formed Armco Metals (Shanghai) Holdings. Ltd. (“Armco Shanghai”) as a WOFE subsidiary in Shanghai, China. Armco Shanghai serves as the headquarters for the Company’s China operations and oversees the activities of the Company in financing and international trading.
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation - Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, and with the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The unaudited interim financial statements furnished reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2011 and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2012.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include all accounts of the Company and the entities as of June 30, 2012 and 2011 and for the interim period then ended as follows:
All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Certain amounts in the prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on reported losses.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.
The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the fair value of financial instruments; allowance for doubtful accounts; normal production capacity, inventory valuation and obsolescence; the carrying value, recoverability and impairment, if any, of long-lived assets, including the values assigned to and the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment, and land use rights; interest rate; revenue recognized or recognizable, sales returns and allowances; valued added tax rate; expected term of share options and similar instruments, expected volatility of the entity’s shares and the method used to estimate it, expected annual rate of quarterly dividends, and risk free rate(s); income tax rate and related income tax provision; reporting currency, functional currency of the PRC subsidiaries and foreign currency exchange rate. Those significant accounting estimates or assumptions bear the risk of change due to the fact that there are uncertainties attached to those estimates or assumptions, and certain estimates or assumptions are difficult to measure or value.
Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken as a whole under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.
Management regularly evaluates the key factors and assumptions used to develop the estimates utilizing currently available information, changes in facts and circumstances, historical experience and reasonable assumptions. After such evaluations, if deemed appropriate, those estimates are adjusted accordingly.
Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company follows paragraph 825-10-50-10 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for disclosures about fair value of its financial instruments and has adopted paragraph 820-10-35-37 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Paragraph 820-10-35-37”) to measure the fair value of its financial instruments. Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. To increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements and related disclosures, Paragraph 820-10-35-37 establishes a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three (3) broad levels. The three (3) levels of fair value hierarchy defined by Paragraph 820-10-35-37 are described below:
Financial assets are considered Level 3 when their fair values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar techniques and at least one significant model assumption or input is unobservable.
The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. If the inputs used to measure the financial assets and liabilities fall within more than one level described above, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, pledged deposits, accounts receivable, advance on purchases, prepayments and other current assets, accounts payable, customer deposits, corporate income tax payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities approximate their fair values because of the short maturity of these instruments.
The Company’s loans payable, banker’s acceptance notes payable, capital lease obligation, and long-term debt approximate the fair value of such instruments based upon management’s best estimate of interest rates that would be available to the Company for similar financial arrangements at June 30, 201 2 and 2011.
The Company’s Level 3 financial liabilities consist of the derivative warrant issued in July 2008 for which there is no current market for these securities such that the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation. The Company valued the automatic conditional conversion, re-pricing/down-round, change of control; default and follow-on offering provisions using a lattice model, with the assistance of a valuation specialist, for which management understands the methodologies. These models incorporate transaction details such as Company stock price, contractual terms, maturity, risk free rates, as well as assumptions about future financings, volatility, and holder behavior as of the date of issuance and each balance sheet date.
Transactions involving related parties cannot be presumed to be carried out on an arm's-length basis, as the requisite conditions of competitive, free-market dealings may not exist. Representations about transactions with related parties, if made, shall not imply that the related party transactions were consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm's-length transactions unless such representations can be substantiated.
It is not, however, practical to determine the fair value of advances from significant stockholder and lease arrangement with the significant stockholder, if any, due to their related party nature.
Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis
Level 1 Financial Assets – Marketable Securities
The Company uses Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy to measure the fair value of the marketable securities and marks the available for sale marketable securities at fair value in the statement of financial position at each balance sheet date and reports the unrealized holding gains and losses for available-for-sale securities in other comprehensive income (loss) until realized provided the unrealized holding gains and losses is temporary. If the fair value of an investment is less than its cost basis at the balance sheet date of the reporting period for which impairment is assessed, and it is determined that the impairment is other than temporary, then an impairment loss is recognized in earnings equal to the entire difference between the investment’s cost and its fair value at the balance sheet date of the reporting period.
Level 3 Financial Liabilities – Derivative Warrant Liabilities
The Company uses Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy to measure the fair value of the derivative liabilities and revalues its derivative warrant liability at every reporting period and recognizes gains or losses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) that are attributable to the change in the fair value of the derivative warrant liability.
Fair Value of Non-Financial Assets or Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis
The Company’s non-financial assets include inventories. The Company identifies potentially excess and slow-moving inventories by evaluating turn rates, inventory levels and other factors. Excess quantities are identified through evaluation of inventory aging, review of inventory turns and historical sales experiences. The Company provides lower of cost or market reserves for such identified excess and slow-moving inventories. The Company establishes a reserve for inventory shrinkage, if any, based on the historical results of physical inventory cycle counts.
Carrying Value, Recoverability and Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company has adopted paragraph 360-10-35-17 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for its long-lived assets. The Company’s long-lived assets, which include property, plant and equipment and land use rights are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable.
The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related long-lived asset or group of long-lived assets over their remaining estimated useful lives against their respective carrying amounts. Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets. Fair value is generally determined using the asset’s expected future discounted cash flows or market value, if readily determinable. When long-lived assets are determined to be recoverable, but the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the net book values of the long-lived assets are depreciated over the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives.
The Company considers the following to be some examples of important indicators that may trigger an impairment review: (i) significant under-performance or losses of assets relative to expected historical or projected future operating results; (ii) significant changes in the manner or use of assets or in the Company’s overall strategy with respect to the manner or use of the acquired assets or changes in the Company’s overall business strategy; (iii) significant negative industry or economic trends; (iv) increased competitive pressures; (v) a significant decline in the Company’s stock price for a sustained period of time; and (vi) regulatory changes. The Company evaluates acquired assets for potential impairment indicators at least annually and more frequently upon the occurrence of such events.
The key assumptions used in management’s estimates of projected cash flow deal largely with forecasts of sales levels, gross margins, and operating costs of the manufacturing facilities. These forecasts are typically based on historical trends and take into account recent developments as well as management’s plans and intentions. Any difficulty in manufacturing or sourcing raw materials on a cost effective basis would significantly impact the projected future cash flows of the Company’s manufacturing facilities and potentially lead to an impairment charge for long-lived assets. Other factors, such as increased competition or a decrease in the desirability of the Company’s products, could lead to lower projected sales levels, which would adversely impact cash flows. A significant change in cash flows in the future could result in an impairment of long lived assets.
The impairment charges, if any, is included in operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents.
Pledged deposits consist of amounts held in financial institutions for (i) outstanding letters of credit and (ii) open banker’s acceptance notes payable maturing between three (3) and nine (9) months from the date of issuance.
The Company uses letters of credit in connection with its purchases of ferrous and non-ferrous ores and metals, and scrap metal for processing and distribution. The issuing financial institutions of those letters of credit require the Company to deposit and pledge certain percentage of the maximum amount stipulated under those letters of the credit as collateral. The pledged deposits are either released to the Company in the event of vendors' non-performance or to be released to the Company as part of the payment toward the letters of credit when vendors delivers the goods under those letters of credit on or before maturity date.
The Company satisfies certain accounts payable, through banker’s acceptance notes issued by financial institutions to certain of the Company’s vendors. The issuing financial institutions of those banker’s acceptance notes require the Company to deposit and pledge certain percentage of the amount stipulated under those banker’s acceptance notes as collateral. The pledged deposits are released to the Company as part of the payment toward banker’s acceptance notes upon maturity.
The Management of the Company believes it is appropriate to classify such amounts as current assets as those letters of credit are of a short term nature, three (3) to nine (9) months in length from the date of issuance.
Marketable Debt and Equity Securities, Available for Sale
The Company accounts for marketable debt and equity securities, available for sale, in accordance with sub-topic 320-10 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Sub-topic 320-10”).
Pursuant to Paragraph 320-10-35-1, investments in debt securities that are classified as available for sale and equity securities that have readily determinable fair values that are classified as available for sale shall be measured subsequently at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets at each balance sheet date. Unrealized holding gains and losses for available-for-sale securities (including those classified as current assets) shall be excluded from earnings and reported in other comprehensive income until realized except an available-for-sale security that is designated as being hedged in a fair value hedge, from which all or a portion of the unrealized holding gain and loss of shall be recognized in earnings during the period of the hedge, pursuant to paragraphs 815-25-35-1 through 815-25-35-4.
The Company follows Paragraphs 320-10-35-17 through 34E and assess whether an investment is impaired in each reporting period. An investment is impaired if the fair value of the investment is less than its cost. Impairment indicators include, but are not limited to the following: a. a significant deterioration in the earnings performance, credit rating, asset quality, or business prospects of the investee; b. a significant adverse change in the regulatory, economic, or technological environment of the investee; c. a significant adverse change in the general market condition of either the geographic area or the industry in which the investee operates; d. a bona fide offer to purchase (whether solicited or unsolicited), an offer by the investee to sell, or a completed auction process for the same or similar security for an amount less than the cost of the investment; e. factors that raise significant concerns about the investee's ability to continue as a going concern, such as negative cash flows from operations, working capital deficiencies, or noncompliance with statutory capital requirements or debt covenants. If the fair value of an investment is less than its cost basis at the balance sheet date of the reporting period for which impairment is assessed, the impairment is either temporary or other than temporary. Pursuant to Paragraph 320-10-35-34, if it is determined that the impairment is other than temporary, then an impairment loss shall be recognized in earnings equal to the entire difference between the investment’s cost and its fair value at the balance sheet date of the reporting period for which the assessment is made. The measurement of the impairment shall not include partial recoveries after the balance sheet date. The fair value of the investment would then become the new basis of the investment and shall not be adjusted for subsequent recoveries in fair value. For presentation purpose, the entity shall recognize and present the total other-than-temporary impairment in the statement of earnings with an offset for the amount of the total other-than-temporary impairment that is recognized in other comprehensive income, in accordance with paragraph 320-10-35-34D, if any, pursuant to Paragraph 320-10-45-8A; and separately present, in the financial statement in which the components of accumulated other comprehensive income are reported, amounts recognized therein related to held-to-maturity and available-for-sale debt securities for which a portion of an other-than-temporary impairment has been recognized in earnings pursuant to Paragraph 320-10-45-9A. Pursuant to Paragraphs 320-10-35-36 and 37 the entire change in the fair value of foreign-currency-denominated available-for-sale debt securities shall be reported in other comprehensive income and An entity holding a foreign-currency-denominated available-for-sale debt security is required to consider, among other things, changes in market interest rates and foreign exchange rates since acquisition in determining whether an other-than-temporary impairment has occurred.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company follows paragraph 310-10-50-9 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to estimate the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company performs on-going credit evaluations of its customers and adjusts credit limits based upon payment history and the customer’s current credit worthiness, as determined by the review of their current credit information; and determines the allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical write-off experience, customer specific facts and economic conditions.
Outstanding account balances are reviewed individually for collectability. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. Bad debt expense is included in general and administrative expenses, if any. Pursuant to paragraph 310-10-50-2 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification account balances are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The Company has adopted paragraph 310-10-50-6 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification and determine when receivables are past due or delinquent based on how recently payments have been received.
The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure to its customers.
Advance on Purchases
Advance on purchases primarily represent amounts paid to vendors for future delivery of products ranging from three (3) months to nine (9) months, all of which were fully or partially refundable depending upon the terms and conditions of the purchase agreements.
The Company values inventories, consisting of raw materials, packaging material and finished goods, at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined on the first-in and first-out (“FIFO”) method for raw materials and packaging materials and the weighted average cost method for finished goods. Cost of finished goods comprises direct labor, direct materials, direct production cost and an allocated portion of production overhead. The Company reduces inventories for the diminution of value, resulting from product obsolescence, damage or other issues affecting marketability, equal to the difference between the cost of the inventory and its estimated market value. Factors utilized in the determination of estimated market value include (i) current sales data and historical return rates, (ii) estimates of future demand, (iii) competitive pricing pressures, (iv) new product introductions, (v) product expiration dates, and (vi) component and packaging obsolescence.
Normal Capacity and Period Costs of Underutilized or Idle Capacity of the Production Facilities
The Company follows paragraph 330-10-30-3 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for the allocation of production costs and charges to inventories. The Company allocates fixed production overhead to inventories based on the normal capacity of the production facilities expected to be achieved over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. Judgment is required to determine when a production level is abnormally low (that is, outside the range of expected variation in production). Factors that might be anticipated to cause an abnormally low production level include significantly reduced demand, labor and materials shortages, and unplanned facility or equipment down time. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. The amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of abnormally low production or idle plant and unallocated overheads of underutilized or idle capacity of the production facilities are recognized as period costs in the period in which they are incurred rather than as a portion of the inventory cost.
Inventory Obsolescence and Markdowns
The Company evaluates its current level of inventories considering historical sales and other factors and, based on this evaluation, classify inventory markdowns in the income statement as a component of cost of goods sold pursuant to Paragraph 420-10-S99 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to adjust inventories to net realizable value. These markdowns are estimates, which could vary significantly from actual requirements if future economic conditions, customer demand or competition differ from expectations. Other significant estimates include the allocation of variable and fixed production overheads. While variable production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of actual use of production facilities, the allocation of fixed production overhead to the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the Company’s production facilities, and recognizes abnormal idle facility expenses as current period charges. Certain costs, including categories of indirect materials, indirect labor and other indirect manufacturing costs which are included in the overhead pools are estimated. The management of the Company determines its normal capacity based upon the amount of operating hours of the manufacturing machinery and equipment in a reporting period.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Expenditures for major additions and betterments are capitalized. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is computed by the straight-line method (after taking into account their respective estimated residual values) over the assets estimated useful lives ranging from five (5) years to twenty (20) years. Upon sale or retirement of property, plant and equipment, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income. Leasehold improvements, if any, are amortized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease or the estimated useful lives, whichever is shorter. Upon becoming fully amortized, the related cost and accumulated amortization are removed from the accounts.
Construction in progress represents direct costs of construction or the acquisition cost of long-lived assets. Under U.S. GAAP, all costs associated with construction of long-lived assets should be reflected as long-term as part of construction-in-progress. Capitalization of these costs ceases and the construction in progress is transferred to property, plant and equipment when substantially all of the activities necessary to prepare the long-lived assets for their intended use are completed. No depreciation is provided until the construction of the long-lived assets is complete and ready for their intended use.
Land Use Rights
Land use rights represent the cost to obtain the right to use certain parcels of land in the City of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, PRC. Land use rights are carried at cost and amortized on a straight-line basis over the lives of the rights of fifty (50) years. Upon becoming fully amortized, the related cost and accumulated amortization are removed from the accounts.
Banker’s Acceptance Notes Payable
The Company satisfies certain accounts payable, through the issuance of banker’s acceptance notes issued by financial institutions to certain of the Company’s vendors. These notes are usually of a short term nature, three (3) to nine (9) months in length. They are non-interest bearing, are due upon maturity, and are paid by the Company’s banks directly to the vendors upon presentation on the date of maturity and the Company is obliged to repay the note in full to the financial institutions. In the event of insufficient funds to repay these notes, the Company's bank will convert them to loans on demand with interest at a predetermined rate per annum payable monthly.
Customer deposits primarily represent amounts received from customers for future delivery of products, which are fully or partially refundable depending upon the terms and conditions of the sales agreements.
Lease agreements are evaluated to determine whether they are capital leases or operating leases in accordance with paragraph 840-10-25-1 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Paragraph 840-10-25-1”). When substantially all of the risks and benefits of property ownership have been transferred to the Company, as determined by the test criteria in Paragraph 840-10-25-1, the lease then qualifies as a capital lease. Capital lease assets are depreciated on a straight line method, over the capital lease assets estimated useful lives consistent with the Company’s normal depreciation policy for tangible fixed assets. Interest charges are expensed over the period of the lease in relation to the carrying value of the capital lease obligation.
Rent expense for operating leases, which may include free rent or fixed escalation amounts in addition to minimum lease payments, is recognized on a straight-line basis over the duration of each lease term.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
The Company accounts for derivative instruments and hedging activities in accordance with paragraph 810-10-05-4 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Paragraph 810-10-05-4”). Paragraph 810-10-05-4 requires companies to recognize all derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities in the balance sheet at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends upon: (i) whether the derivative has been designated and qualifies as part of a hedging relationship, and (ii) the type of hedging relationship. For those derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments, a company must designate the hedging instrument based upon the exposure being hedged as either a fair value hedge, cash flow hedge or hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation.
From time to time, the Company employs foreign currency forward contracts to convert unforeseeable foreign currency exchange rates to fixed foreign currency exchange rates. The Company does not use derivatives for speculation or trading purposes. Changes in the fair value of derivatives are recorded each period in current earnings or through other comprehensive income, depending on whether a derivative is designated as part of a hedge transaction and the type of hedge transaction. The ineffective portion of all hedges is recognized in current earnings. The Company has sales and purchase commitments denominated in foreign currencies. Foreign currency forward contracts are used to hedge against the risk of change in the fair value of these commitments attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates (“Fair Value Hedges”). Changes in the fair value of the derivative instrument are generally offset in the income statement by changes in the fair value of the item being hedged.
The Company did not employ foreign currency forward contracts to convert unforeseeable foreign currency exchange rates to fixed foreign currency exchange rates for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 or 2011.
Derivative Warrant Liability
The Company evaluates its convertible debt, options, warrants or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 810-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. In the event that the fair value is recorded as a liability, the change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then that the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
On January 1, 2009, the Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions. The adoption of Section 815-40-15 has affected the accounting for (i) certain freestanding warrants that contain exercise price adjustment features and (ii) convertible bonds issued by foreign subsidiaries with a strike price denominated in a foreign currency.
The Company initially classified the warrants to purchase 2,728,913 shares of its common stock issued in connection with its July 2008 offering of common stock as additional paid-in capital upon issuance of the warrants. Upon the adoption of Section 815-40-15 on January 1, 2009, these warrants are no longer deemed to be indexed to the Company’s own stock and were reclassified from equity to a derivative liability with a fair value of $3,251,949 effective as of January 1, 2009. The reclassification entry included a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings of $1,845,455 and a reduction of additional paid-in capital of $5,097,404, the amount originally classified as additional paid-in capital upon issuance of the warrants on July 31, 2008.
The Company marks to market the fair value of the remaining embedded derivative warrants at each balance sheet date and records the change in the fair value of the remaining embedded derivative warrants as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company follows subtopic 850-10 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for the identification of related parties and disclosure of related party transactions.
Pursuant to Section 850-10-20 the related parties include a. affiliates of the Company; b. entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825–10–15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity; c. trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management; d. principal owners of the Company; e. management of the Company; f. other parties with which the Company may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests; and g. other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
The financial statements shall include disclosures of material related party transactions, other than compensation arrangements, expense allowances, and other similar items in the ordinary course of business. However, disclosure of transactions that are eliminated in the preparation of consolidated or combined financial statements is not required in those statements. The disclosures shall include: a. the nature of the relationship(s) involved; b. a description of the transactions, including transactions to which no amounts or nominal amounts were ascribed, for each of the periods for which income statements are presented, and such other information deemed necessary to an understanding of the effects of the transactions on the financial statements; c. the dollar amounts of transactions for each of the periods for which income statements are presented and the effects of any change in the method of establishing the terms from that used in the preceding period; and d. amounts due from or to related parties as of the date of each balance sheet presented and, if not otherwise apparent, the terms and manner of settlement.
Commitment and Contingencies
The Company follows subtopic 450-20 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to report accounting for contingencies. Certain conditions may exist as of the date the consolidated financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against the Company or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, the Company evaluates the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought therein.
If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, and an estimate of the range of possible losses, if determinable and material, would be disclosed.
Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed. Management does not believe, based upon information available at this time, that these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, there is no assurance that such matters will not materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial position, and results of operations or cash flows.
The Company applies paragraph 605-10-S99-1 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for revenue recognition. The Company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. The Company considers revenue realized or realizable and earned when all of the following criteria are met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) the product has been shipped or the services have been rendered to the customer, (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.
The Company derives its revenues from sales contracts with customers with revenues being generated upon the shipment of merchandise. Persuasive evidence of an arrangement is demonstrated via sales invoice or contract; product delivery is evidenced by warehouse shipping log as well as a signed bill of lading from the vessel or rail company and title transfers upon shipment, based on free on board (“FOB”) warehouse terms; the sales price to the customer is fixed upon acceptance of the signed purchase order or contract and there is no separate sales rebate, discount, or volume incentive. When the Company recognizes revenue, no provisions are made for returns because, historically, there have been very few sales returns and adjustments that have impacted the ultimate collection of revenues.
Net sales of products represent the invoiced value of goods, net of value added taxes (“VAT”). The Company is subject to VAT which is levied on the majority of the Company’s products at the rate of 13% on the invoiced value of sales prior to December 31, 2008 and 17% on the invoiced value of sales as of January 1, 2009 and forward. Sales or Output VAT is borne by customers in addition to the invoiced value of sales and Purchase or Input VAT is borne by the Company in addition to the invoiced value of purchases to the extent not refunded for export sales.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company accounts for shipping and handling fees in accordance with paragraph 605-45-45-19 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. While amounts charged to customers for shipping products are included in revenues, the related costs are classified in cost of goods sold as incurred.
Foreign Currency Transactions
The Company applies the guidelines as set out in Section 830-20-35 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 830-20-35”) for foreign currency transactions. Pursuant to Section 830-20-35 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, foreign currency transactions are transactions denominated in currencies other than U.S. Dollar, the Company’s reporting currency or Chinese Yuan or Renminbi, the Company’s Chinese operating subsidiaries' functional currency. Foreign currency transactions may produce receivables or payables that are fixed in terms of the amount of foreign currency that will be received or paid. A change in exchange rates between the functional currency and the currency in which a transaction is denominated increases or decreases the expected amount of functional currency cash flows upon settlement of the transaction. That increase or decrease in expected functional currency cash flows is a foreign currency transaction gain or loss that generally shall be included in determining net income for the period in which the exchange rate changes. Likewise, a transaction gain or loss (measured from the transaction date or the most recent intervening balance sheet date, whichever is later) realized upon settlement of a foreign currency transaction generally shall be included in determining net income for the period in which the transaction is settled. The exceptions to this requirement for inclusion in net income of transaction gains and losses pertain to certain intercompany transactions and to transactions that are designated as, and effective as, economic hedges of net investments and foreign currency commitments. Pursuant to Section 830-20-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, the following shall apply to all foreign currency transactions of an enterprise and its investees: (a) at the date the transaction is recognized, each asset, liability, revenue, expense, gain, or loss arising from the transaction shall be measured and recorded in the functional currency of the recording entity by use of the exchange rate in effect at that date as defined in section 830-10-20 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification; and (b) at each balance sheet date, recorded balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency or reporting currency of the recording entity shall be adjusted to reflect the current exchange rate.
Stock-Based Compensation for Obtaining Employee Services
The Company accounts for its stock based compensation in which the Company obtains employee services in share-based payment transactions under the recognition and measurement principles of the fair value recognition provisions of section 718-10-30 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. Pursuant to paragraph 718-10-30-6 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, all transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date used to determine the fair value of the equity instrument issued is the earlier of the date on which the performance is complete or the date on which it is probable that performance will occur. If the Company is a newly formed corporation or shares of the Company are thinly traded the use of share prices established in the Company’s most recent private placement memorandum (PPM”), or weekly or monthly price observations would generally be more appropriate than the use of daily price observations as such shares could be artificially inflated due to a larger spread between the bid and asked quotes and lack of consistent trading in the market.
The fair value of share options and similar instruments is estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing valuation model. The ranges of assumptions for inputs are as follows:
The Company’s policy is to recognize compensation cost for awards with only service conditions and a graded vesting schedule on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
Equity Instruments Issued to Parties Other Than Employees for Acquiring Goods or Services
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to parties other than employees for acquiring goods or services under guidance of Sub-topic 505-50 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Sub-topic 505-50”).
Pursuant to ASC Section 505-50-30, all transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date used to determine the fair value of the equity instrument issued is the earlier of the date on which the performance is complete or the date on which it is probable that performance will occur. If the Company is a newly formed corporation or shares of the Company are thinly traded the use of share prices established in the Company’s most recent private placement memorandum (PPM”), or weekly or monthly price observations would generally be more appropriate than the use of daily price observations as such shares could be artificially inflated due to a larger spread between the bid and asked quotes and lack of consistent trading in the market.
The fair value of share options and similar instruments is estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing valuation model. The ranges of assumptions for inputs are as follows:
Pursuant to ASC paragraph 505-50-25-7, if fully vested, non-forfeitable equity instruments are issued at the date the grantor and grantee enter into an agreement for goods or services (no specific performance is required by the grantee to retain those equity instruments), then, because of the elimination of any obligation on the part of the counterparty to earn the equity instruments, a measurement date has been reached. A grantor shall recognize the equity instruments when they are issued (in most cases, when the agreement is entered into). Whether the corresponding cost is an immediate expense or a prepaid asset (or whether the debit should be characterized as contra-equity under the requirements of paragraph 505-50-45-1) depends on the specific facts and circumstances. Pursuant to ASC paragraph 505-50-45-1, a grantor may conclude that an asset (other than a note or a receivable) has been received in return for fully vested, non-forfeitable equity instruments that are issued at the date the grantor and grantee enter into an agreement for goods or services (and no specific performance is required by the grantee in order to retain those equity instruments). Such an asset shall not be displayed as contra-equity by the grantor of the equity instruments. The transferability (or lack thereof) of the equity instruments shall not affect the balance sheet display of the asset. This guidance is limited to transactions in which equity instruments are transferred to other than employees in exchange for goods or services. Section 505-50-30 provides guidance on the determination of the measurement date for transactions that are within the scope of this Subtopic.
Pursuant to Paragraphs 505-50-25-8 and 505-50-25-9, an entity may grant fully vested, non-forfeitable equity instruments that are exercisable by the grantee only after a specified period of time if the terms of the agreement provide for earlier exercisability if the grantee achieves specified performance conditions. Any measured cost of the transaction shall be recognized in the same period(s) and in the same manner as if the entity had paid cash for the goods or services or used cash rebates as a sales discount instead of paying with, or using, the equity instruments. A recognized asset, expense, or sales discount shall not be reversed if a share option and similar instrument that the counterparty has the right to exercise expires unexercised.
Pursuant to ASC paragraph 505-50-30-S99-1, if the Company receives a right to receive future services in exchange for unvested, forfeitable equity instruments, those equity instruments are treated as unissued for accounting purposes until the future services are received (that is, the instruments are not considered issued until they vest). Consequently, there would be no recognition at the measurement date and no entry should be recorded.
Investment Credit - Government
Certain Chinese local governments provide non-refundable investment credits to encourage enterprises to invest in local communities. Investment credits from local governments are credited to other income - investment credit - government, upon receipt.
Renewable Metals was granted RMB10,000,000 in investment credits from Lianyungang Economic and Technology Development Zone on November 25, 2011, which was received on November 30, 2011.
Income Tax Provision
The Company accounts for income taxes under Section 740-10-30 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent management concludes it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company adopted section 740-10-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 740-10-25”). Section 740-10-25 addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under Section 740-10-25, the Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty (50) percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Section 740-10-25 also provides guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures.
The estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities are reported in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, as well as tax credit carry-backs and carry-forwards. The Company periodically reviews the recoverability of deferred tax assets recorded on its consolidated balance sheets and provides valuation allowances as management deems necessary.
Management makes judgments as to the interpretation of the tax laws that might be challenged upon an audit and cause changes to previous estimates of tax liability. In addition, the Company operates within multiple taxing jurisdictions and is subject to audit in these jurisdictions. In management’s opinion, adequate provisions for income taxes have been made for all years. If actual taxable income by tax jurisdiction varies from estimates, additional allowances or reversals of reserves may be necessary.
Uncertain Tax Positions
The Company did not take any uncertain tax positions and had no adjustments to its income tax liabilities or benefits pursuant to the provisions of Section 740-10-25 for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 or 2011.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company follows Section 830-10-45 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 830-10-45”) for foreign currency translation to translate the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary from the functional currency, generally the local currency, into U.S. Dollars. Section 830-10-45 sets out the guidance relating to how a reporting entity determines the functional currency of a foreign entity (including of a foreign entity in a highly inflationary economy), re-measures the books of record (if necessary), and characterizes transaction gains and losses. Pursuant to Section 830-10-45, the assets, liabilities, and operations of a foreign entity shall be measured using the functional currency of that entity. An entity’s functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates; normally, that is the currency of the environment, or local currency, in which an entity primarily generates and expends cash.
The functional currency of each foreign subsidiary is determined based on management’s judgment and involves consideration of all relevant economic facts and circumstances affecting the subsidiary. Generally, the currency in which the subsidiary transacts a majority of its transactions, including billings, financing, payroll and other expenditures, would be considered the functional currency, but any dependency upon the parent and the nature of the subsidiary’s operations must also be considered. If a subsidiary’s functional currency is deemed to be the local currency, then any gain or loss associated with the translation of that subsidiary’s financial statements is included in accumulated other comprehensive income. However, if the functional currency is deemed to be the U.S. Dollar, then any gain or loss associated with the re-measurement of these financial statements from the local currency to the functional currency would be included in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income (loss). If the Company disposes of foreign subsidiaries, then any cumulative translation gains or losses would be recorded into the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income (loss). If the Company determines that there has been a change in the functional currency of a subsidiary to the U.S. Dollar, any translation gains or losses arising after the date of change would be included within the statement of income and comprehensive income (loss).
Based on an assessment of the factors discussed above, the management of the Company determined the relevant subsidiaries’ local currencies to be their respective functional currencies.
The financial records of the Company's Chinese operating subsidiaries are maintained in their local currency, the Renminbi (“RMB”), which is the functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated from the local currency into the reporting currency, U.S. dollars, at the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at weighted average exchange rates for the period to approximate translation at the exchange rates prevailing at the dates those elements are recognized in the consolidated financial statements. Foreign currency translation gain (loss) resulting from the process of translating the local currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are included in determining accumulated other comprehensive income in the consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity.
RMB is not a fully convertible currency. All foreign exchange transactions involving RMB must take place either through the People’s Bank of China (the “PBOC”) or other institutions authorized to buy and sell foreign exchange. The exchange rate adopted for the foreign exchange transactions are the rates of exchange quoted by the PBOC. Commencing July 21, 2005, China adopted a managed floating exchange rate regime based on market demand and supply with reference to a basket of currencies. The exchange rate of the US dollar against the RMB was adjusted from approximately RMB 8.28 per U.S. dollar to approximately RMB 8.11 per U.S. dollar on July 21, 2005. Since then, the PBOC administers and regulates the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the RMB taking into account demand and supply of RMB, as well as domestic and foreign economic and financial conditions.
Unless otherwise noted, the rate presented below per U.S. $1.00 was the midpoint of the interbank rate as quoted by OANDA Corporation (www.oanda.com) contained in its consolidated financial statements. Management believes that the difference between RMB vs. U.S. dollar exchange rate quoted by the PBOC and RMB vs. U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by OANDA Corporation were immaterial. Translations do not imply that the RMB amounts actually represent, or have been or could be converted into, equivalent amounts in U.S. dollars. Translation of amounts from RMB into U.S. dollars has been made at the following exchange rates for the respective periods:
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The Company has applied section 220-10-45 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This statement establishes rules for the reporting of comprehensive income and its components. Comprehensive income (loss), for the Company, consists of net income (loss), change in unrealized loss of marketable securities and foreign currency translation adjustments and is presented in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) and Stockholders’ Equity.
Net Income (Loss) per Common Share
Net income (loss) per common share is computed pursuant to section 260-10-45 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. Basic net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock and potentially outstanding shares of common stock during the period to reflect the potential dilution that could occur from common shares issuable through contingent share arrangements, stock options and warrants.
The following table shows the potentially outstanding dilutive common shares excluded from the diluted net income (loss) per common share calculation for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 as they were anti-dilutive:
Cash Flows Reporting
The Company adopted paragraph 230-10-45-24 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for cash flows reporting, classifies cash receipts and payments according to whether they stem from operating, investing, or financing activities and provides definitions of each category, and uses the indirect or reconciliation method (“Indirect method”) as defined by paragraph 230-10-45-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to report net cash flow from operating activities by adjusting net income to reconcile it to net cash flow from operating activities by removing the effects of (a) all deferrals of past operating cash receipts and payments and all accruals of expected future operating cash receipts and payments and (b) all items that are included in net income that do not affect operating cash receipts and payments. The Company reports the reporting currency equivalent of foreign currency cash flows, using the current exchange rate at the time of the cash flows and the effect of exchange rate changes on cash held in foreign currencies is reported as a separate item in the reconciliation of beginning and ending balances of cash and cash equivalents and separately provides information about investing and financing activities not resulting in cash receipts or payments in the period pursuant to paragraph 830-230-45-1 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification.
The Company follows the guidance in Section 855-10-50 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification for the disclosure of subsequent events. The Company will evaluate subsequent events through the date when the financial statements are issued. Pursuant to ASU 2010-09 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, the Company as an SEC filer considers its financial statements issued when they are widely distributed to users, such as through filing them on EDGAR.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05
In June 2011, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05 “Comprehensive Income” (“ASU 2011-05”), which was the result of a joint project with the IASB and amends the guidance in ASC 220, Comprehensive Income, by eliminating the option to present components of other comprehensive income (OCI) in the statement of stockholders’ equity. Instead, the new guidance now gives entities the option to present all non-owner changes in stockholders’ equity either as a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or as two separate but consecutive statements. Regardless of whether an entity chooses to present comprehensive income in a single continuous statement or in two separate but consecutive statements, the amendments require entities to present all reclassification adjustments from OCI to net income on the face of the statement of comprehensive income.
The amendments in this Update should be applied retrospectively and are effective for public entity for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-08
In September 2011, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-08 “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other: Testing Goodwill for Impairment” (“ASU 2011-08”). This Update is to simplify how public and nonpublic entities test goodwill for impairment. The amendments permit an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test described in Topic 350. Under the amendments in this Update, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount.
The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-10
In December 2011, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-10 “Property, Plant and Equipment: Derecognition of in Substance Real Estate-a Scope Clarification” (“ASU 2011-09”). This Update is to resolve the diversity in practice as to how financial statements have been reflecting circumstances when parent company reporting entities cease to have controlling financial interests in subsidiaries that are in substance real estate, where the situation arises as a result of default on nonrecourse debt of the subsidiaries.
The amended guidance is effective for annual reporting periods ending after June 15, 2012 for public entities. Early adoption is permitted.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-11
In December 2011, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-11 “Balance Sheet: Disclosures about Offsetting Assets and Liabilities” (“ASU 2011-11”). This Update requires an entity to disclose information about offsetting and related arrangements to enable users of its financial statements to understand the effect of those arrangements on its financial position. The objective of this disclosure is to facilitate comparison between those entities that prepare their financial statements on the basis of U.S. GAAP and those entities that prepare their financial statements on the basis of IFRS.
The amended guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013, and interim periods within those annual periods.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-12
In December 2011, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-12 “Comprehensive Income: Deferral of the Effective Date for Amendments to the Presentation of Reclassifications of Items Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05” (“ASU 2011-12”). This Update is a deferral of the effective date pertaining to reclassification adjustments out of accumulated other comprehensive income in ASU 2011-05. FASB is to going to reassess the costs and benefits of those provisions in ASU 2011-05 related to reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income. Due to the time required to properly make such a reassessment and to evaluate alternative presentation formats, the FASB decided that it is necessary to reinstate the requirements for the presentation of reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income that were in place before the issuance of Update 2011-05.
All other requirements in Update 2011-05 are not affected by this Update, including the requirement to report comprehensive income either in a single continuous financial statement or in two separate but consecutive financial statements. Public entities should apply these requirements for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011.
Other Recently Issued, but Not Yet Effective Accounting Pronouncements
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Note 3 – Pledged Deposits
Pledged deposits consist of amounts held in financial institutions for (i) outstanding letters of credit and (ii) open banker’s acceptance notes payable maturing between three (3) to nine (9) months from the date of issuance. Pledged deposits at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
Note 4 – Marketable Equity Securities, Available for Sale
On June 8, 2010, China Armco Metals, Inc. (the “Company”) entered into a Subscription Agreement (the “Subscription Agreement”) with Apollo Minerals Limited (“Apollo Minerals”), an Australian iron ore exploration company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX: AON). Under the terms of the Subscription Agreement, the Company agreed to acquire up to a 19.9% stake in Apollo for US $3,396,658 in cash. On July 19, 2010 Apollo Minerals issued 29,250,000 shares of its common stock to the Company. Pursuant to the Subscription Agreement, the Company received a seat on Apollo Minerals’ Board of Directors in July 2010. The board representation continues as long as the Company maintains a minimum 12% stake in Apollo Minerals.
The Company has the right to name one member to Apollo Mineral’s board of directors for as long as it maintains at least a 12% stake in Apollo Minerals. Apollo Minerals intends to use the cash infusion to advance its exploration activities, to carry out processing, option studies and to evaluate opportunities to access local infrastructure and other project opportunities.,
Apollo Minerals also issued to the Company, five (5) year options to purchase an additional 5 million shares of common stock at AUD0.25 (approximately $0.20) per share, half of which will vest on the first anniversary of the initial issuance with the balance vesting on the second anniversary of the initial issuance. The options may only be exercised in order for the Company to maintain its 19.9% stake should Apollo Minerals issue additional common shares in the future.
The Company values marketable securities at the lower of its original cost, Private Place of Memorandum ("PPM") or market using Australia quoted market prices on Apollo Minerals stock, whichever is more reliably measurable.
At December 31, 2011, the estimated fair value of the investment in Apollo Minerals was approximately ($1.76) million less than its original costs inclusive of ($1.98) million in impairment and $0.22 million of foreign currency transaction gain based on the most recent PPM price of AUD0.055 per common share whereby Apollo Minerals sold 23,545,454 common shares for AUD1,295,000 on November 15, 2011. Even though the Company intends to hold these shares the management of the Company concluded that the decline in the fair value was other than temporary and recorded the unrealized loss of marketable securities to (i) impairment – other than temporary of ($1.98) million in other income (loss) and (ii) foreign currency transaction gain in other income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2011.
At June 30, 2012, the estimated fair value of the investment in Apollo Minerals was approximately ($1.19) million less than its original costs based on most recent PPM price of AUD0.04 per common share; whereby Apollo Minerals sold 89,550,000 common shares for AUD3,600,000 on May 8, 2012. Even though the Company intends to hold these shares, the management of the Company concluded that the decline in the fair value was other than temporary and recorded the unrealized loss of marketable securities to (i) impairment – other than temporary of ($0.38) million in other income (loss) and (ii) foreign currency transaction gain in other income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for the quarter ended June 30, 2012.
The table below provides a summary of the changes in the fair value of marketable securities, available for sale measured at fair value on a recurring basis using Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy to measure the fair value during the interim period ended June 30, 2012:
Note 5 – Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
* The Company collected $104,020 before August 13, 2012, and the remaining balance of the accounts receivable of $688,609 is within the normal credit terms granted to the customers and expected to be collected when due.
Note 6 – Inventories
Inventories at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
* Renewable Metals raw materials and finished goods are collateralized for loans from the Bank of Communications Limited Lianyungang Branch. Raw materials consisted of scrap metals to be processed and finished goods were comprised of all of the processed scrap metal at Renewable Metals. Due to the short duration time for the processing of its scrap metal, there was no material work-in-process inventory at June 30, 2012 or December 31, 2011.
Slow-Moving or Obsolescence Markdowns
The Company recorded no inventory obsolescence adjustments for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 or 2011.
Lower of Cost or Market Adjustments
There was no lower of cost or market adjustments for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 or 2011.
Note 7 – Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment, stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
(i) Capitalized Interest
The Company did not capitalize any of interest to fixed assets for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 or 2011.
(ii) Depreciation and Amortization Expense
Depreciation and amortization expense for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 was $1,417,754 and $1,322,537, respectively.
(iii) Collateralization of Property, Plant and Equipment
Both Renewable Metals and Lianyungang Armco’s property, plant and equipment representing substantially all of the Company’s property, plant and equipment are collateralized for loans from the Bank of China Lianyungang Branch.
Note 8 – Land Use Rights
On September 28, 2007, Renewable Metals entered into an agreement with the Chinese government, whereby the Company paid RMB 14,384,002 to acquire the right to use 129,585.60 square meter of land for approximate 50 years. In November 2007, the Company expended additional RMB 1,076,300 in aggregate in land survey, transfer agent fees and land use right transfer tax in connection with the acquisition of the land use right and obtained the land use right certificate (Certificate No. 017158277) expiring December 30, 2058 on November 20, 2007. The purchase price and related acquisition costs are being amortized over the term of the right of approximately fifty (50) years.
On September 2, 2010, the Company entered into an agreement with the Chinese government, whereby the Company made a deposit of RMB 8,160,000 in aggregate towards the acquisition of the right to use 199,999 square meter of land for RMB 40,800,000. On April 13, 2011, the Company paid an additional RMB16,320,000 to acquire the land use right to use 100,045 square meter of land and obtained the related certificate of the land use right (Certificate No. (L) LUR (2011) Y003218) expiring September 9, 2060 on October 25, 2011. The Company expended an additional RMB 900,067 in aggregate in land survey, transfer agent fees and land use right transfer tax in connection with the acquisition of the land use right. In addition, Lianyungang Armco expended an additional RMB 20, 674,830 to level the land as of December 31, 2011, which was recorded as construction in progress included in consolidated balance sheets. The purchase price and related acquisition costs shall be amortized over the term of the right of approximately fifty (50) years when the land is ready to use in the intended purpose.
The Company needs to pay an additional RMB16, 320,000 (equivalent to $2,566,643 using U.S. Dollar to RMB at 6.3585 exchange rate) to acquire the land use right to use the remaining 100,045 square meter of land.
The short term plan for this parcel of land is for warehouse of raw materials and products when Renewable Metals’ space becomes scarce for future expansion and the long term plan for the land is to construct automobile dismantling production line or build a scrap metal trading market center, depending on the Company’s progress on obtaining necessary license and permits and market conditions.
Land use rights, stated at cost, less accumulated amortization at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, consisted of the following:
(i) Amortization Expense
Amortization expense for the interim period ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 was $24,861 and $24,287, respectively.
(ii) Collateralization of Land Use Rights
Both Renewable Metals and Lianyungang Armco’s land use rights representing all of the Company’s land use rights are collateralized for loans from the Bank of China Lianyungang Branch.
Note 9 – Loans Payable
Loans payable at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
Note 10 – Banker’s Acceptance Notes Payable and Letters of Credit
Banker’s acceptance notes payable at June 30 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, consisted of the following:
Note 11 – Related Party Transactions
Advances from Stockholder
From time to time, the Chairman, CEO and significant stockholder of the Company advances funds to the Company for working capital purpose. Those advances are unsecured, non-interest bearing and due on demand.
Advances from stockholder at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
Operating Lease from Chairman, CEO and Stockholder
On January 1, 2006, Henan entered into a non-cancellable operating lease for its 176.37 square meter commercial office space in the City of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, PRC from the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and significant stockholder of the Company for RMB10,000 per month, which expired on December 31, 2008 and has been extended through December 31, 2012. Total lease payments for the interim periods ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 amounted to RMB60,000 (equivalent to $9,503 and $9,174). Future minimum lease payments required under the non-cancelable operating lease are RMB60,000 per year (equivalent to $9,503) for the remainder of 2012.
Note 12 – Capital Lease Obligation
Capital lease obligation at June 30, 201 2 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
The future minimum payments under this capital lease obligation at June 30, 2012 were as follows:
Note 13 – Long-Term Debt
Long-term debt at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 consisted of the following:
Note 14 – Derivative Instruments and the Fair Value of Financial Instruments
(i) Warrants Issued in 2008
Description of Warrants and Fair Value on Date of Grant
In connection with the four (4) rounds of private placements from July 25, 2008 through August 8, 2008 (the “2008 Unit Offering”), the Company issued (i) warrants to purchase 2,486,649 common shares of the Company to the investors and (ii) warrants t purchase 242,264 common shares of the Company to the brokers, or 2,728,913 common shares in aggregate (“2008 Warrants”) with an exercise price of $5.00 per share expiring on August 31, 2013, all of which have been earned upon issuance.
The Company estimated the fair value of 2008 warrants on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
Expected volatility is based on historical volatility of the Company’s common stock. The Company currently has no reason to believe future volatility over the expected life of these warrants is likely to differ materially from its historical volatility. The risk-free interest rate is based on a yield curve of U.S. treasury interest rates on the date of grant based on the expected term of the warrant. Expected annual rate of quarterly dividends is based on the Company’s dividend history and anticipated dividend policy.
The relative fair value of 2008 warrants, estimated on the date of grant, was $5,097,404, which was originally recorded as additional paid-in capital and the remaining balance of the net proceeds of $1,523,277 has been assigned to common stock.
The exercise price of 2008 warrants and the number of shares issuable upon exercise is subject to reset adjustment in the event of stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalization, most favored nation clause and similar corporate events. Pursuant to the most favored nation provision of the 2008 Unit Offering, if the Company issues any common stock or securities other than the excepted issuances, to any person or entity at a purchase or exercise price per share less than the share purchase price of the 2008 Unit Offering without the consent of the subscriber holding purchased shares, warrants or warrant shares of the 2008 Unit Offering, then the subscriber shall have the right to apply the lowest such purchase price or exercise price of the offering or sale of such new securities to the purchase price of the purchased shares then held by the subscriber (and, if necessary, the Company will issue additional shares), the reset adjustments are also referred to as full reset adjustments.
Because these warrants have full reset adjustments tied to future issuances of equity securities by the Company, they are subject to derivative liability treatment under Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standard Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) (formerly FASB Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) Issue No. 07-5: Determining Whether an Instrument (or Embedded Feature) Is Indexed to an Entity's Own Stock (“EITF 07-5”))). Section 815-40-15 became effective for the Company on January 1, 2009 and as of that date the Warrants issued in the 2008 Unit Offering have been measured at fair value using a lattice model at each reporting period with gains and losses from the change in fair value of derivative liabilities recognized on the consolidated statement of income and comprehensive income.
Valuation of Derivative Liability
The Company’s 2008 warrants do not trade in an active securities market, as such, the Company developed a lattice model that values the derivative liability of the warrants based on a probability weighted discounted cash flow model. This model is based on future projections of the various potential outcomes. The features that were analyzed and incorporated into the model included the exercise feature and the full ratchet reset.
Based on these features, there are two primary events that can occur; the Holder exercises the Warrants or the Warrants are held to expiration. The model analyzed the underlying economic factors that influenced which of these events would occur, when they were likely to occur, and the specific terms that would be in effect at the time (i.e. stock price, exercise price, volatility, etc.). Projections were then made on these underlying factors which led to a set of potential scenarios. As the result of the large Warrant overhang we accounted for the dilution affects, volatility and market cap to adjust the projections.
Probabilities were assigned to each of these scenarios based on management projections. This led to a cash flow projection and a probability associated with that cash flow. A discounted weighted average cash flow over the various scenarios was completed to determine the value of the derivative warrant liability.
The Company’s 2008 derivative warrants were valued at each period ending date with the following assumptions:
The fair value of the 2008 derivative warrants were computed using the lattice model with the following assumptions at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011: