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Securities and Exchange Commission
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended: September 30, 2012
For the transition period from to
Commission file number: 001-13221
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(Registrants telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x
As of October 18, 2012, there were 61,463,049 shares of the registrants Common Stock, $.01 par value, outstanding.
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q
September 30, 2012
Table of Contents
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Dollars in thousands)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Dollars in thousands)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
(Table amounts in thousands, except for share and per share amounts)
Note 1 - Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations. Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc. (Cullen/Frost) is a financial holding company and a bank holding company headquartered in San Antonio, Texas that provides, through its subsidiaries, a broad array of products and services throughout numerous Texas markets. In addition to general commercial and consumer banking, other products and services offered include trust and investment management, investment banking, insurance, brokerage, leasing, asset-based lending, treasury management and item processing.
Basis of Presentation. The consolidated financial statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include the accounts of Cullen/Frost and all other entities in which Cullen/Frost has a controlling financial interest (collectively referred to as the Corporation). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The accounting and financial reporting policies the Corporation follows conform, in all material respects, to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and to general practices within the financial services industry.
The consolidated financial statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q have not been audited by an independent registered public accounting firm, but in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the Corporations financial position and results of operations. All such adjustments were of a normal and recurring nature. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Accordingly, the financial statements do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for complete financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the Corporations consolidated financial statements, and notes thereto, for the year ended December 31, 2011, included in the Corporations Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 3, 2012 (the 2011 Form 10-K). Operating results for the interim periods disclosed herein are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for a full year or any future period.
Use of Estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The allowance for loan losses, the fair value of stock-based compensation awards, the fair values of financial instruments and the status of contingencies are particularly subject to change.
Cash Flow Reporting. Additional cash flow information was as follows:
Reclassifications. Certain items in prior financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Mutual fund investment management fees previously reported as a component of other charges, commissions and fees are now included with trust fees and reported as trust and investment management fees in the consolidated statements of income. Additionally, interchange and debit card transaction fees (including automated teller machine fees) previously reported as components of service charges on deposit accounts; other charges, commissions and fees; or other non-interest income are now reported as interchange and debit card transaction fees in the consolidated statements of income.
Note 2 - Securities
A summary of the amortized cost and estimated fair value of securities, excluding trading securities, is presented below.
All mortgage-backed securities included in the above table were issued by U.S. government agencies and corporations. At September 30, 2012, approximately 99% of the securities in the Corporations municipal bond portfolio were issued by political subdivisions or agencies within the State of Texas, of which approximately 84% are either guaranteed by the Texas Permanent School Fund, which has a triple-A insurer financial strength, or secured by U.S. Treasury securities via defeasance of the debt by the issuers. Securities with limited marketability, such as stock in the Federal Reserve Bank and the Federal Home Loan Bank, are carried at cost and are reported as other available for sale securities in the above table. The carrying value of securities pledged to secure public funds, trust deposits, repurchase agreements and for other purposes, as required or permitted by law was $2.2 billion at September 30, 2012 and $2.4 billion at December 31, 2011.
As of September 30, 2012, securities, with unrealized losses segregated by length of impairment, were as follows:
Declines in the fair value of held-to-maturity and available-for-sale securities below their cost that are deemed to be other than temporary are reflected in earnings as realized losses to the extent the impairment is related to credit losses. The amount of the impairment related to other factors is recognized in other comprehensive income. In estimating other-than-temporary impairment losses, management considers, among other things, (i) the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, (ii) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and (iii) the intent and ability of the Corporation to retain its investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in cost.
Management has the ability and intent to hold the securities classified as held to maturity in the table above until they mature, at which time the Corporation expects to receive full value for the securities. Furthermore, as of September 30, 2012, management does not have the intent to sell any of the securities classified as available for sale in the table above and believes that it is more likely than not that the Corporation will not have to sell any such securities before a recovery of cost. Any unrealized losses are largely due to increases in market interest rates over the yields available at the time the underlying securities were purchased. The fair value is expected to recover as the bonds approach their maturity date or repricing date or if market yields for such investments decline. Management does not believe any of the securities are impaired due to reasons of credit quality. Accordingly, as of September 30, 2012, management believes the impairments detailed in the table above are temporary and no impairment loss has been realized in the Corporations consolidated income statement.
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of securities, excluding trading securities, at September 30, 2012 are presented below by contractual maturity. Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because issuers may have the right to call or prepay obligations. Residential mortgage-backed securities and equity securities are shown separately since they are not due at a single maturity date.
Sales of securities available for sale were as follows:
Trading account securities, at estimated fair value, were as follows:
Net gains and losses on trading account securities were as follows:
Note 3 Loans
Loans were as follows:
Loan Origination/Risk Management. The Corporation has certain lending policies and procedures in place that are designed to maximize loan income within an acceptable level of risk. Management reviews and approves these policies and procedures on a regular basis. A reporting system supplements the review process by providing management with frequent reports related to loan production, loan quality, concentrations of credit, loan delinquencies and non-performing and potential problem loans. Diversification in the loan portfolio is a means of managing risk associated with fluctuations in economic conditions.
Commercial and industrial loans are underwritten after evaluating and understanding the borrowers ability to operate profitably and prudently expand its business. Underwriting standards are designed to promote relationship banking rather than transactional banking. Once it is determined that the borrowers management possesses sound ethics and solid business acumen, the Corporations management examines current and projected cash flows to determine the ability of the borrower to repay their obligations as agreed. Commercial and industrial loans are primarily made based on the identified cash flows of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. The cash flows of borrowers, however, may not be as expected and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. Most commercial and industrial loans are secured by the assets being financed or other business assets such as accounts receivable or inventory and may incorporate a personal guarantee; however, some short-term loans may be made on an unsecured basis. In the case of loans secured by accounts receivable, the availability of funds for the repayment of these loans may be substantially dependent on the ability of the borrower to collect amounts due from its customers.
Commercial real estate loans are subject to underwriting standards and processes similar to commercial and industrial loans, in addition to those of real estate loans. These loans are viewed primarily as cash flow loans and secondarily as loans secured by real estate. Commercial real estate lending typically involves higher loan principal amounts and the repayment of these loans is generally largely dependent on the successful operation of the property securing the loan or the business conducted on the property securing the loan. Commercial real estate loans may be more adversely affected by conditions in the real estate markets or in the general economy. The properties securing the Corporations commercial real estate portfolio are diverse in terms of type and geographic location. This diversity helps reduce the Corporations exposure to adverse economic events that affect any single market or industry. Management monitors and evaluates commercial real estate loans based on collateral, geography and risk grade criteria. As a general rule, the Corporation avoids financing single-purpose
projects unless other underwriting factors are present to help mitigate risk. The Corporation also utilizes third-party experts to provide insight and guidance about economic conditions and trends affecting market areas it serves. In addition, management tracks the level of owner-occupied commercial real estate loans versus non-owner occupied loans. At September 30, 2012, approximately 56.2% of the outstanding principal balance of the Corporations commercial real estate loans were secured by owner-occupied properties.
With respect to loans to developers and builders that are secured by non-owner occupied properties that the Corporation may originate from time to time, the Corporation generally requires the borrower to have had an existing relationship with the Corporation and have a proven record of success. Construction loans are underwritten utilizing feasibility studies, independent appraisal reviews, sensitivity analysis of absorption and lease rates and financial analysis of the developers and property owners. Construction loans are generally based upon estimates of costs and value associated with the completed project. These estimates may be inaccurate. Construction loans often involve the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment substantially dependent on the success of the ultimate project. Sources of repayment for these types of loans may be pre-committed permanent loans from approved long-term lenders, sales of developed property or an interim loan commitment from the Corporation until permanent financing is obtained. These loans are closely monitored by on-site inspections and are considered to have higher risks than other real estate loans due to their ultimate repayment being sensitive to interest rate changes, governmental regulation of real property, general economic conditions and the availability of long-term financing.
The Corporation originates consumer loans utilizing a computer-based credit scoring analysis to supplement the underwriting process. To monitor and manage consumer loan risk, policies and procedures are developed and modified, as needed, jointly by line and staff personnel. This activity, coupled with relatively small loan amounts that are spread across many individual borrowers, minimizes risk. Additionally, trend and outlook reports are reviewed by management on a regular basis. Underwriting standards for home equity loans are heavily influenced by statutory requirements, which include, but are not limited to, a maximum loan-to-value percentage of 80%, collection remedies, the number of such loans a borrower can have at one time and documentation requirements.
The Corporation maintains an independent loan review department that reviews and validates the credit risk program on a periodic basis. Results of these reviews are presented to management. The loan review process complements and reinforces the risk identification and assessment decisions made by lenders and credit personnel, as well as the Corporations policies and procedures.
Concentrations of Credit. Most of the Corporations lending activity occurs within the State of Texas, including the four largest metropolitan areas of Austin, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Houston and San Antonio, as well as other markets. The majority of the Corporations loan portfolio consists of commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loans. Other than energy loans, as of September 30, 2012 there were no concentrations of loans related to any single industry in excess of 10% of total loans.
Foreign Loans. The Corporation has U.S. dollar denominated loans and commitments to borrowers in Mexico. The outstanding balance of these loans and the unfunded amounts available under these commitments were not significant at September 30, 2012 or December 31, 2011.
Non-Accrual and Past Due Loans. Loans are considered past due if the required principal and interest payments have not been received as of the date such payments were due. Loans are placed on non-accrual status when, in managements opinion, the borrower may be unable to meet payment obligations as they become due, as well as when required by regulatory provisions. In determining whether or not a borrower may be unable to meet payment obligations for each class of loans, the Corporation considers the borrowers debt service capacity through the analysis of current financial information, if available, and/or current information with regards to the Corporations collateral position. Regulatory provisions would typically require the placement of a loan on non-accrual status if (i) principal or interest has been in default for a period of 90 days or more unless the loan is both well secured and in the process of collection or (ii) full payment of principal and interest is not expected. Loans may be placed on non-accrual status regardless of whether or not such loans are considered past due. When interest accrual is discontinued, all unpaid accrued interest is reversed. Interest income on non-accrual loans is recognized only to the extent that cash payments are received in excess of principal due. A loan may be returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future principal and interest amounts contractually due are reasonably assured, which is typically evidenced by a sustained period (at least six months) of repayment performance by the borrower.
Non-accrual loans, segregated by class of loans, were as follows:
Had non-accrual loans performed in accordance with their original contract terms, the Corporation would have recognized additional interest income, net of tax, of approximately $646 thousand and $1.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012, compared to $823 thousand and $2.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2011.
An age analysis of past due loans (including both accruing and non-accruing loans), segregated by class of loans, as of September 30, 2012 was as follows:
Impaired Loans. Loans are considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable the Corporation will be unable to collect all amounts due in accordance with the original contractual terms of the loan agreement, including scheduled principal and interest payments. Impairment is evaluated in total for smaller-balance loans of a similar nature and on an individual loan basis for other loans. If a loan is impaired, a specific valuation allowance is allocated, if necessary, so that the loan is reported net, at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loans existing rate or at the fair value of collateral if repayment is expected solely from the collateral. Interest payments on impaired loans are typically applied to principal unless collectibility of the principal amount is reasonably assured, in which case interest is recognized on a cash basis. Impaired loans, or portions thereof, are charged off when deemed uncollectible.
Regulatory guidelines require the Corporation to reevaluate the fair value of collateral supporting impaired collateral dependent loans on at least an annual basis. While the Corporations policy is to comply with the regulatory guidelines, the Corporations general practice is to reevaluate the fair value of collateral supporting impaired collateral dependent loans on a quarterly basis. Thus, appraisals are never considered to be outdated, and the Corporation does not need to make any adjustments to the appraised values. The fair value of collateral supporting impaired collateral dependent loans is evaluated by the Corporations internal appraisal services using a methodology that is consistent with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. The fair value of collateral supporting impaired collateral dependent construction loans is based on an as is valuation.
Impaired loans are set forth in the following table. No interest income was recognized on impaired loans subsequent to their classification as impaired.
Troubled Debt Restructurings. The restructuring of a loan is considered a troubled debt restructuring if both (i) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and (ii) the creditor has granted a concession. Concessions may include interest rate reductions or below market interest rates, principal forgiveness, restructuring amortization schedules and other actions intended to minimize potential losses.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2012, the Corporation had one troubled debt restructuring. The troubled debt restructuring related to an other commercial and industrial loan which had a restructuring date balance of $445 thousand. During the nine months ended September 30, 2011, the Corporation had troubled debt restructurings with an aggregate restructuring date balance of $9.1 million (including $7.5 million related to commercial real estate buildings, land and other; $969 thousand related to consumer real estate; $469 thousand related to consumer and $191 thousand related to commercial and industrial other). All of the loans identified as troubled debt restructurings by the Corporation during the reported periods were previously on non-accrual status and reported as impaired loans prior to restructuring. The modifications primarily related to extending the amortization periods of the loans. The Corporation did not grant interest-rate concessions on any restructured loan. All loans restructured during the reported periods were on non-accrual status as of the end of those periods. Because the loans were classified and on non-accrual status both before and after restructuring, the modifications did not impact the Corporations determination of the allowance for loan losses. During the nine months ended September 30, 2012, defaults on loans restructured during 2011 were not significant and such defaults did not significantly impact the Corporations determination of the allowance for loan losses.
Credit Quality Indicators. As part of the on-going monitoring of the credit quality of the Corporations loan portfolio, management tracks certain credit quality indicators including trends related to (i) the weighted-average risk grade of commercial loans, (ii) the level of classified commercial loans, (iii) the delinquency status of consumer loans (see details above) (iv) net charge-offs, (v) non-performing loans (see details above) and (vi) the general economic conditions in the State of Texas.
The Corporation utilizes a risk grading matrix to assign a risk grade to each of its commercial loans. Loans are graded on a scale of 1 to 14. A description of the general characteristics of the 14 risk grades is as follows:
In monitoring credit quality trends in the context of assessing the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses, the Corporation monitors portfolio credit quality by the weighted-average risk grade of each class of commercial loan. Individual relationship managers review updated financial information for all pass grade loans to recalculate the risk grade on at least an annual basis. When a loan has a calculated risk grade of 9, it is still considered a pass grade loan; however, it is considered to be on managements watch list, where a significant risk-modifying action is anticipated in the near term. When a loan has a calculated risk grade of 10 or higher, a special assets officer monitors the loan on an on-going basis. The following table presents weighted average risk grades for all commercial loans by class.
The Corporation has established maximum loan to value standards to be applied during the origination process of commercial and consumer real estate loans. The Corporation does not subsequently monitor loan-to-value ratios (either individually or on a weighted-average basis) for loans that are subsequently considered to be of a pass grade (grades 9 or better) and/or current with respect to principal and interest payments. As stated above, when an individual commercial real estate loan has a calculated risk grade of 10 or higher, a special assets officer analyzes the loan to determine whether the loan is impaired. At that time, the Corporation reassesses the loan to value position in the loan. If the loan is determined to be collateral dependent, specific allocations of the allowance for loan losses are made for the amount of any collateral deficiency. If a collateral deficiency is ultimately deemed to be uncollectible, the amount is charged-off. These loans and related assessments of collateral position are monitored on an individual, case-by-case basis. The Corporation does not monitor loan-to-value ratios on a weighted-average basis for commercial real estate loans having a calculated risk grade of 10 or higher. Nonetheless, there were three commercial real estate loans having a calculated risk grade of 10 or higher in excess of $5 million as of September 30, 2012, which totaled $31.8 million and had a weighted-average loan-to-value ratio of
68.0%. When an individual consumer real estate loan becomes past due by more than 10 days, the assigned relationship manager will begin collection efforts. The Corporation only reassesses the loan to value position in a consumer real estate loan if, during the course of the collection process, it is determined that the loan has become collateral dependent, and any collateral deficiency is recognized as a charge-off to the allowance for loan losses. Accordingly, the Corporation does not monitor loan-to-value ratios on a weighted-average basis for collateral dependent consumer real estate loans.
Generally, a commercial loan, or a portion thereof, is charged-off immediately when it is determined, through the analysis of any available current financial information with regards to the borrower, that the borrower is incapable of servicing unsecured debt, there is little or no prospect for near term improvement and no realistic strengthening action of significance is pending or, in the case of secured debt, when it is determined, through analysis of current information with regards to the Corporations collateral position, that amounts due from the borrower are in excess of the calculated current fair value of the collateral. Notwithstanding the foregoing, generally, commercial loans that become past due 180 cumulative days are classified as a loss and charged-off. Generally, a consumer loan, or a portion thereof, is charged-off in accordance with regulatory guidelines which provide that such loans be charged-off when the Corporation becomes aware of the loss, such as from a triggering event that may include new information about a borrowers intent/ability to repay the loan, bankruptcy, fraud or death, among other things, but in no case should the charge-off exceed specified delinquency timeframes. Such delinquency timeframes state that closed-end retail loans (loans with pre-defined maturity dates, such as real estate mortgages, home equity loans and consumer installment loans) that become past due 120 cumulative days and open-end retail loans (loans that roll-over at the end of each term, such as home equity lines of credit) that become past due 180 cumulative days should be classified as a loss and charged-off.
Net (charge-offs)/recoveries, segregated by class of loans, were as follows:
In assessing the general economic conditions in the State of Texas, management monitors and tracks the Texas Leading Index (TLI), which is produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. The TLI is a single summary statistic that is designed to signal the likelihood of the Texas economys transition from expansion to recession and vice versa. Management believes this index provides a reliable indication of the direction of overall credit quality. The TLI is a composite of the following eight leading indicators: (i) Texas Value of the Dollar, (ii) U.S. Leading Index, (iii) real oil prices (iv) well permits, (v) initial claims for unemployment insurance, (vi) Texas Stock Index, (vii) Help-Wanted Index and (viii) average weekly hours worked in manufacturing. The TLI totaled 122.2 at July 31, 2012 (most recent date available), 120.3 at December 31, 2011 and 118.3 at September 30, 2011. A higher TLI value implies more favorable economic conditions.
Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense, which represents managements best estimate of probable losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans. The allowance, in the judgment of management, is necessary to reserve for estimated loan losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio. The Corporations allowance for loan loss methodology follows the accounting guidance set forth in U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and the Interagency Policy Statement on the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses, which was jointly issued by the U.S. bank regulatory agencies. In that regard, the Corporations allowance for loan losses includes allowance allocations calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 310, Receivables and allowance allocations calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 450, Contingencies. Accordingly, the methodology is based on historical loss experience by type of credit and internal risk grade, specific homogeneous risk pools and specific loss allocations, with adjustments for current events and conditions. The Corporations process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is designed to account for credit deterioration as it occurs. The provision for loan losses reflects loan quality trends, including the levels of and trends related to non-accrual loans, past due loans, potential problem loans, criticized loans and net charge-offs or recoveries, among other factors. The provision for loan losses also reflects the totality of actions taken on all loans for a particular period. In other words, the amount of the provision reflects not only the necessary increases in the allowance for loan losses related to newly identified criticized loans, but it also reflects actions taken related to other loans including, among other things, any necessary increases or decreases in required allowances for specific loans or loan pools.
The level of the allowance reflects managements continuing evaluation of industry concentrations, specific credit risks, loan loss and recovery experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. Portions of the allowance may be allocated for specific credits; however, the entire allowance is available for any credit that, in managements judgment, should be charged off. While management utilizes its best judgment and information available, the ultimate determination of the appropriate level of the allowance is dependent upon a variety of factors beyond the Corporations control, including, among other things, the performance of the Corporations loan portfolio, the economy, changes in interest rates and the view of the regulatory authorities toward loan classifications. The Corporation monitors whether or not the allowance for loan loss allocation model, as a whole, calculates an appropriate level of allowance for loan losses that moves in direct correlation to the general macroeconomic and loan portfolio conditions the Corporation experiences over time.
The Corporations allowance for loan losses consists of three elements: (i) specific valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 310 based on probable losses on specific loans; (ii) historical valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 450 based on historical loan loss experience for similar loans with similar characteristics and trends, adjusted, as necessary, to reflect the impact of current conditions; and (iii) general valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 450 based on general economic conditions and other risk factors both internal and external to the Corporation.
The allowances established for probable losses on specific loans are based on a regular analysis and evaluation of problem loans. Loans are classified based on an internal credit risk grading process that evaluates, among other things: (i) the obligors ability to repay; (ii) the underlying collateral, if any; and (iii) the economic environment and industry in which the borrower operates. This analysis is performed at the relationship manager level for all commercial loans. When a loan has a calculated grade of 10 or higher, a special assets officer analyzes the loan to determine whether the loan is impaired and, if impaired, the need to specifically allocate a portion of the allowance for loan losses to the loan. Specific valuation allowances are determined by analyzing the borrowers ability to repay amounts owed, collateral deficiencies, the relative risk grade of the loan and economic conditions affecting the borrowers industry, among other things.
Historical valuation allowances are calculated based on the historical gross loss experience of specific types of loans and the internal risk grade of such loans at the time they were charged-off. The Corporation calculates historical gross loss ratios for pools of similar loans with similar characteristics based on the proportion of actual charge-offs experienced to the total population of loans in the pool. The historical gross loss ratios are periodically updated based on actual charge-off experience. A historical valuation allowance is established for each pool of similar loans based upon the product of the historical gross loss ratio and the total dollar amount of the loans in the pool. The Corporations pools of similar loans include similarly risk-graded groups of commercial and industrial loans, commercial real estate loans, consumer real estate loans and consumer and other loans.
The components of the general valuation allowance include (i) the additional reserves allocated as a result of applying an environmental risk adjustment factor to the base historical loss allocation, (ii) the additional reserves allocated for loans to borrowers in distressed industries and (iii) the additional reserves allocated for groups of similar loans with risk characteristics that exceed certain concentration limits established by management.
The environmental adjustment factor is based upon a more qualitative analysis of risk and is calculated through a survey of senior officers who are involved in credit making decisions at a corporate-wide and/or regional level. On a quarterly basis, survey participants rate the degree of various risks utilizing a numeric scale that translates to varying grades of high, moderate or low levels of risk. The results are then input into a risk-weighting matrix to determine an appropriate environmental risk adjustment factor. The various risks that may be considered in the determination of the environmental adjustment factor include, among other things, (i) the experience, ability and effectiveness of the banks lending management and staff; (ii) the effectiveness of the Corporations loan policies, procedures and internal controls; (iii) changes in asset quality; (iv) the impact of legislative and governmental influences affecting industry sectors; (v) the effectiveness of the internal loan review function; (vi) the impact of competition on loan structuring and pricing; and (vii) the impact of rising interest rates on portfolio risk. In periods where the surveyed risks are perceived to be higher, the risk-weighting matrix will generally result in a higher environmental adjustment factor, which, in turn will result in higher levels of general valuation allowance allocations. The opposite holds true in periods where the surveyed risks are perceived to be lower.
During the fourth quarter of 2011, the Corporation refined its methodology for the determination of the allowance for loan losses to provide reserves for loans to borrowers in distressed industries. To determine the amount of the allocation, management calculates the weighted-average risk grade for all loans to borrowers in distressed industries by loan portfolio segment. A multiple is then applied to the amount by which the weighted-average risk grade for loans to borrowers in distressed industries exceeds the weighted-average risk grade for all pass-grade loans within the loan portfolio segment to derive an allocation factor for loans to borrowers in distressed industries. The amount of the allocation for each loan portfolio
segment is the product of this allocation factor and the outstanding balance of pass-grade loans within the identified distressed industries that have a risk grade of 6 or higher. This change in the Corporations methodology for the determination of the allowance for loan losses did not significantly impact the provision for loan losses recorded during 2011. Management identifies potential distressed industries by analyzing industry trends related to delinquencies, classifications and charge-offs. At September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, contractors were considered to be a distressed industry based on elevated levels of delinquencies, classifications and charge-offs relative to other industries within the Corporations loan portfolio. Furthermore, the Corporation determined, through a review of borrower financial information that, as a whole, contractors have experienced, among other things, decreased revenues, reduced backlog of work, compressed margins and little, if any, net income.
General valuation allowances include allocations for groups of loans with similar risk characteristics that exceed certain concentration limits established by management and/or the Corporations board of directors. Concentration risk limits have been established, among other things, for certain industry concentrations, large balance and highly leveraged credit relationships that exceed specified risk grades, and loans originated with policy, credit and/or collateral exceptions that exceed specified risk grades. Additionally, general valuation allowances are provided for loans that did not undergo a separate, independent concurrence review during the underwriting process (generally those loans under $1.0 million at origination). The Corporations allowance methodology for general valuation allowances also includes a reduction factor for recoveries of prior charge-offs to compensate for the fact that historical loss allocations are based upon gross charge-offs rather than net. The adjustment for recoveries is based on the lower of annualized, year-to-date gross recoveries or the total gross recoveries for the preceding four quarters, adjusted, when necessary, for expected future trends in recoveries.
The following table presents details of the allowance for loan losses, segregated by loan portfolio segment. Prior to September 30, 2012, certain general valuation allowances were not allocated to specific loan portfolio segments.
The Corporation monitors whether or not the allowance for loan loss allocation model, as a whole, calculates an appropriate level of allowance for loan losses that moves in direct correlation to the general macroeconomic and loan portfolio conditions the Corporation experiences over time. In assessing the general macroeconomic trends/conditions, the Corporation analyzes trends in the components of the TLI, as well as any available information related to regional, national and international economic conditions and events and the impact such conditions and events may have on the Corporation and its customers. With regard to assessing loan portfolio conditions, the Corporation analyzes trends in weighted-average portfolio risk-grades, classified and non-performing loans and charge-off activity. In periods where general macroeconomic and loan portfolio conditions are in a deteriorating trend or remain at deteriorated levels, based on historical trends, the Corporation would expect to see the allowance for loan loss allocation model, as a whole, calculate higher levels of required allowances than in periods where general macroeconomic and loan portfolio conditions are in an improving trend or remain at an elevated level, based on historical trends.
The following table details activity in the allowance for loan losses by portfolio segment for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011. Allocation of a portion of the allowance to one category of loans does not preclude its availability to absorb losses in other categories.
The following table details the amount of the allowance for loan losses allocated to each portfolio segment as of September 30, 2012, December 31, 2011 and September 30, 2011, detailed on the basis of the impairment methodology used by the Corporation.
The Corporations recorded investment in loans as of September 30, 2012, December 31, 2011 and September 30, 2011 related to each balance in the allowance for loan losses by portfolio segment and detailed on the basis of the impairment methodology used by the Corporation was as follows:
Note 4 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other intangible assets are presented in the table below. The increases in goodwill and certain other intangible assets were primarily related to the acquisition of Stone Partners Inc. (Stone), a human resource consulting firm that specializes in compensation, benefits and outsourcing services, on January 1, 2012. Stone was based in Houston with additional offices in Dallas and Austin. Stone was fully integrated into Frost Insurance Agency subsequent to acquisition. The acquisition of Stone did not significantly impact the Corporations financial statements.
The estimated aggregate future amortization expense for intangible assets remaining as of September 30, 2012 is as follows:
Note 5 - Deposits
Deposits were as follows:
The following table presents additional information about the Corporations deposits:
Note 6 - Commitments and Contingencies
Financial Instruments with Off-Balance-Sheet Risk. In the normal course of business, the Corporation enters into various transactions, which, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles are not included in its consolidated balance sheets. The Corporation enters into these transactions to meet the financing needs of its customers. These transactions include commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit, which involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk and interest rate risk in excess of the amounts recognized in the consolidated balance sheets. The Corporation minimizes its exposure to loss under these commitments by subjecting them to credit approval and monitoring procedures.
The Corporation enters into contractual commitments to extend credit, normally with fixed expiration dates or termination clauses, at specified rates and for specific purposes. Substantially all of the Corporations commitments to extend credit are contingent upon customers maintaining specific credit standards at the time of loan funding. Standby letters of credit are written conditional commitments issued by the Corporation to guarantee the performance of a customer to a third party. In the event the customer does not perform in accordance with the terms of the agreement with the third party, the Corporation would be required to fund the commitment. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Corporation could be required to make is represented by the contractual amount of the commitment. If the commitment were funded, the Corporation would be entitled to seek recovery from the customer. The Corporations policies generally require that standby letter of credit arrangements contain security and debt covenants similar to those contained in loan agreements.
The Corporation considers the fees collected in connection with the issuance of standby letters of credit to be representative of the fair value of its obligation undertaken in issuing the guarantee. In accordance with applicable accounting standards related to guarantees, the Corporation defers fees collected in connection with the issuance of standby letters of credit. The fees are then recognized in income proportionately over the life of the standby letter of credit agreement. The deferred standby letter of credit fees represent the fair value of the Corporations potential obligations under the standby letter of credit guarantees.
Financial instruments with off-balance-sheet risk were as follows:
Lease Commitments. The Corporation leases certain office facilities and office equipment under operating leases. Rent expense for all operating leases totaled $5.9 million and $16.9 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 and $5.3 million and $16.1 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2011. There has been no significant change in the future minimum lease payments payable by the Corporation since December 31, 2011. See the 2011 Form 10-K for information regarding these commitments.
Litigation. The Corporation is subject to various claims and legal actions that have arisen in the course of conducting business. Management does not expect the ultimate disposition of these matters to have a material adverse impact on the Corporations financial statements.
Note 7 - Regulatory Matters
Regulatory Capital Requirements. Banks and bank holding companies are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by state and federal banking agencies. Capital adequacy guidelines and, additionally for banks, prompt corrective action regulations, involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance-sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weighting and other factors.
Quantitative measures established by regulations to ensure capital adequacy require the maintenance of minimum amounts and ratios (set forth in the table below) of total and Tier 1 capital (as defined in the regulations) to risk-weighted assets (as defined), and of Tier 1 capital to adjusted quarterly average assets (as defined).
Cullen/Frosts and Frost Banks Tier 1 capital consists of shareholders equity excluding unrealized gains and losses on securities available for sale, the accumulated gain or loss on effective cash flow hedging derivatives, the net actuarial gain/loss on the Corporations defined benefit post-retirement benefit plans, goodwill and other intangible assets. Tier 1 capital for Cullen/Frost also includes $120 million of trust preferred securities issued by its unconsolidated subsidiary trust. Cullen/Frosts and Frost Banks total capital is comprised of Tier 1 capital for each entity plus a permissible portion of the allowance for loan losses. The Corporations aggregate $100 million of floating rate subordinated notes are not included in Tier 1 capital but the permissible portion (which decreases 20% per year during the final five years of the term of the notes) totaling $80 million at September 30, 2012, is included in total capital of Cullen/Frost.
The Tier 1 and total capital ratios are calculated by dividing the respective capital amounts by risk-weighted assets. Risk-weighted assets are calculated based on regulatory requirements and include total assets, excluding goodwill and other intangible assets, allocated by risk weight category, and certain off-balance-sheet items (primarily loan commitments). The leverage ratio is calculated by dividing Tier 1 capital by adjusted quarterly average total assets, which exclude goodwill and other intangible assets.
Actual and required capital ratios for Cullen/Frost and Frost Bank were as follows: