|• FORM 10-Q • EX-31.1 • EX-31.2 • EX-32.1 • EX-32.2|
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2012
For the transition period from to
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-34955
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code
(Former name, former address, and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuers classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Class: Common stock $.10 Par Value
Number of shares outstanding as of July 31, 2012: 21,247,725
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC.
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Cont.)
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Contd)
See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
ANCHOR BANCORP WISCONSIN INC.
Note 1 Basis of Presentation
The unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts and results of operations of Anchor BanCorp Wisconsin Inc. (the Corporation) and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, AnchorBank fsb (the Bank) and Investment Directions, Inc. (IDI). The Bank has one subsidiary at June 30, 2012: ADPC Corporation. Significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated.
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) necessary for a fair presentation of the unaudited consolidated financial statements have been included.
In preparing the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change in the near term relate to the determination of the allowance for loan losses, the valuation of foreclosed real estate, the net carrying value of mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets, and the fair value of investment securities, interest rate lock commitments, forward contracts to sell mortgage loans, and loans held for sale. The results of operations and other data for the three-month period ended June 30, 2012 is not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2013. We have evaluated all subsequent events through the date of this filing. The interim unaudited consolidated financial statements presented herein should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included in the Corporations Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentations with no impact on net income (loss) or total equity.
Note 2 Significant Risks and Uncertainties
On June 26, 2009, the Corporation and the Bank each consented to the issuance of an Order to Cease and Desist (the Corporation Order and the Bank Order, respectively, and together, the Orders) by the Office of Thrift Supervision (the OTS). As of July 21, 2011, regulation of the Bank was assumed by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), and the Federal Reserve became the primary regulator for the Corporation.
The Corporation Order requires the Corporation to notify, and in certain cases to obtain the permission of, the Federal Reserve prior to: (i) declaring, making or paying any dividends or other capital distributions on its capital stock, including the repurchase or redemption of its capital stock; (ii) incurring, issuing, renewing or rolling over any debt, increasing any current lines of credit or guaranteeing the debt of any entity; (iii) making certain changes to its directors or senior executive officers; (iv) entering into, renewing, extending or revising any contractual arrangement related to compensation or benefits with any of its directors or senior executive officers; and (v) making any golden parachute payments or prohibited indemnification payments. The Corporation developed and submitted to the OTS a three-year cash flow plan, which must be reviewed at least quarterly by the Corporations management and board for material deviations between the cash flow plans projections and actual results (the Variance Analysis Report). Within 45 days following the end of each quarter, the Corporation is required to provide the Federal Reserve its Variance Analysis Report for that quarter.
The Bank Order requires the Bank to notify, or in certain cases obtain the permission of, the OCC prior to (i) increasing its total assets in any quarter in excess of an amount equal to net interest credited on deposit liabilities during the quarter; (ii) accepting, rolling over or renewing any brokered deposits; (iii) making certain changes to its directors or senior executive officers; (iv) entering into, renewing, extending or revising any contractual arrangement related to compensation or benefits with any of its directors or senior executive officers; (v) making any golden parachute or prohibited indemnification payments; (vi) paying dividends or making other capital distributions on its capital stock; (vii) entering into certain transactions with affiliates; and (viii) entering into third-party contracts outside the normal course of business. The Bank also developed and submitted within the prescribed time periods, a written capital restoration plan, a problem asset plan, a revised business plan, and an implementation plan resulting from a review of commercial lending practices. The Orders also require the Bank to regularly review its current liquidity management policy and the adequacy of its allowance for loan and lease losses.
On August 31, 2010, the OTS approved the capital restoration plan submitted by the Bank, although the approval included a Prompt Corrective Action Directive (PCA). The only additional requirement included in the PCA was that the Bank must obtain prior written approval from the Regional Director before entering into any contract or lease for the purchase or sale of real estate or of any interest therein, except for contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business for the purchase or sale of other real estate owned due to foreclosure (OREO) where the contract does not exceed $3.5 million and the sales price of the OREO does not fall below 85% of the net carrying value of the OREO.
The Orders also required that, as of September 30, 2009, the Bank had to meet and maintain both a core capital ratio equal to or greater than 7 percent and a total risk-based capital ratio equal to or greater than 11 percent. Further, as of December 31, 2009, the Bank had to meet and maintain both a core capital ratio equal to or greater than 8 percent and a total risk-based capital ratio equal to or greater than 12 percent.
At June 30, 2012, the Bank had a tier 1 leverage (core) ratio of 4.56% and a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.98%, each below the required capital ratios set forth above. Without a waiver, amendment or modification of the Orders, the Bank could be subject to further regulatory action, although neither the Bank nor the Corporation has received notice of any regulatory action to be taken by the OCC or the Federal Reserve with regards to the Orders. That said, at June 30, 2012, the Banks risk-based capital is considered adequately capitalized for regulatory purposes. Under OCC requirements, a bank must have a total risk-based capital ratio of 8 percent or greater to be considered adequately capitalized. The Bank continues to work toward the requirements of the Bank Order which requires a total risk-based capital ratio of 12 percent, which exceeds traditional capital levels for a bank. All customer deposits remain fully insured to the limits set by the FDIC.
As referenced above, on July 21, 2011, the OTS, which was the Banks primary regulator, ceased operations as a result of changes implemented pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act. As of July 21, 2011, regulation of the Bank was assumed by the OCC, and the Federal Reserve became the primary regulator for the Corporation. The Federal Reserve and the OCC are now responsible for the administration of the Orders.
The Corporation and the Bank continue to diligently work with their financial and professional advisors in seeking qualified sources of outside capital, and in achieving compliance with the requirements of the Orders. The Corporation and the Bank consult with the Federal Reserve, the OCC and FDIC on a regular basis concerning the Corporations and Banks proposals to obtain outside capital and to develop action plans that will be acceptable to federal regulatory authorities, but there can be no assurance that these actions will be successful, or that even if one or more of the Corporations and Banks proposals are accepted by the Federal regulators, that these proposals will be successfully implemented. While the Corporations management continues to exert maximum effort to attract new capital, significant operating losses in the past four fiscal years, significant levels of criticized assets at the Bank and negative equity raise substantial doubt as to the Corporations ability to continue as a going concern. If the Corporation and Bank are unable to achieve compliance with the requirements of the Orders, or implement an acceptable capital restoration plan, and if the Corporation and Bank cannot otherwise comply with such commitments and regulations, the OCC or FDIC could force a sale, liquidation or federal conservatorship or receivership of the Bank.
As discussed in greater detail in the previous section, Regulatory Agreements, the Corporation and the Bank have submitted a capital restoration plan describing how the Corporation intends to restore the capital position of the Bank. On August 31, 2010, the OTS accepted this plan. The OCC and Federal Reserve now have oversight authority of this plan.
Further, the Corporation entered into an amendment dated November 29, 2011 (Amendment No. 8) to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (Credit Agreement) among the Corporation, the lenders from time to time a party thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as administrative agent for such lenders, or the Agent as described in Note 9, in which the existing interest rate remained the same and the financial covenants related to capital ratios and non-performing loans were moderately relaxed. Under the terms of the Credit Agreement, the Agent and the lenders have certain rights if all covenants are not complied with, including the right to accelerate the maturity of the borrowings. As of June 30, 2012, the Corporation was in compliance with the financial and non-financial covenants contained in the Credit Agreement, as amended, although there is no guarantee that the Corporation will remain in compliance with the covenants. As of the date of this filing, the Corporation does not have sufficient cash on hand to reduce outstanding borrowings to zero. There can be no assurance that the Corporation will be able to raise sufficient capital or have enough cash on hand to reduce outstanding borrowings to zero by November 30, 2012, which may, if unable to secure an extension at that time, limit the Corporations ability to fund ongoing operations.
While the Corporation has devoted and will continue to devote substantial management resources toward the resolution of all delinquent and impaired loans, no assurance can be made that managements efforts will be successful. These conditions create an uncertainty about material adverse consequences that may occur in the near term. The continuing recession and the decrease in valuations of real estate have had a significant adverse impact on the Corporations consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
Non-performing assets totaled $272.9 million at June 30, 2012, or 9.8% of total assets, which decreased the Corporations interest income. The Corporations results of operations will continue to be impacted by the level of non-performing assets and the Corporation expects continued downward pressure on interest income in the future. As reported in the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, the Corporation has net income of $55,000 for the three months ended June 30, 2012. Stockholders equity improved from a deficit of $29.6 million or (1.06)% of total assets at March 31, 2012 to a deficit of $28.5 million or (1.02)% of total assets at June 30, 2012.
Note 3 Recent Accounting Pronouncements
ASU No. 2011-02, Receivables (Topic 310) A Creditors Determination of Whether a Restructuring Is a Troubled Debt Restructuring. ASU 2011-02 states that in evaluating whether a restructuring constitutes a troubled debt restructuring (TDR), a creditor must separately conclude that both of the following exist: (i) the restructuring constitutes a concession and (ii) the debtor is experiencing financial difficulties. In addition, the amendments to Topic 310 clarify that a creditor is precluded from using the effective interest rate test in the debtors guidance on restructuring of payables when evaluating whether a restructuring constitutes a troubled debt restructuring. The amendments to Topic 310 also required new disclosures regarding currently outstanding TDRs and TDR activity during the period. The Corporation adopted ASU 2011-02 in its second quarter of fiscal 2012.
As a result of adopting the amendments in ASU 2011-02, the Corporation reassessed all restructurings that occurred on or after April 1, 2011, the beginning of the prior fiscal year, for identification as TDRs. Certain receivables were identified as TDRs for which the allowance for credit losses had previously been measured under a general allowance for credit losses methodology. Upon identifying those receivables as TDRs, they were also deemed impaired under the guidance in ASC 310-10-35. The amendments in ASU 2011-02 require prospective application of impairment measured in accordance with the guidance of ASC 310-10-35 for the receivables that are newly identified as impaired. The adoption of the ASU resulted in an increase in the number of loans within its commercial real estate portfolios that are considered TDRs but did not have a material impact on the Companys financial statements for the periods ended September 30, 2011. At September 30, 2011, the period of adoption, the recorded
investment in receivables for which the allowance for credit losses was previously measured under a general allowance for credit losses methodology and are now impaired under ASC 310-10-35 was $258,000, and the resulting allowance for credit losses associated with those receivables, on the basis of a current evaluation of loss, was zero.
Note 4 Investment Securities
The amortized cost and fair value of investment securities are as follows:
Independent pricing services are used to value all investment securities. One pricing service is used to value all securities except the non-agency CMOs. A specialized pricing service is used for valuation of the non-agency CMO portfolio.
To estimate the fair value of non-agency CMOs, the pricing service valuation model discounted estimated expected cash flows after credit losses at rates ranging from 4% to 12%. The rates utilized are based on the risk free rate equivalent to the remaining average life of the security, plus a spread for normal liquidity and a spread to reflect the uncertainty of the cash flow estimates. The pricing service benchmarks its fair value results to other pricing services and monitors the market for actual trades. The cash flow model includes these inputs in its derivation of the discount rates used to estimate fair value. There are no payments in kind allowed on these non-agency CMOs.
The tables below present the fair value and gross unrealized losses of all securities in an unrealized loss position, aggregated by investment category and length of time that individual investments have been in a continuous unrealized loss position at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012.
The number of individual securities in the tables above total 15 at June 30, 2012 and 20 at March 31, 2012, respectively. Although these securities have declined in value these unrealized losses are considered temporary. Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic or market concerns warrant such evaluation. In estimating other-than-temporary impairment losses on investment securities, management considers many factors which include: (1) the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, (2) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and (3) the intent and ability of the Corporation to retain its investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value.
To determine if an other-than-temporary impairment exists on a debt security with an unrealized loss, the Corporation first determines if (a) it intends to sell the security or (b) it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before its anticipated recovery. If either of the conditions is met, the Corporation will recognize an other-than-temporary impairment loss in earnings equal to the difference between the securitys fair value and its amortized cost basis. If neither condition is met, the Corporation determines (a) the amount of the impairment related to credit loss and (b) the amount of the impairment due to all other factors. The difference between the present values of the cash flows expected to be collected, discounted at the purchase yield or current accounting yield of the security, and the amortized cost basis is the credit loss. The credit loss is the portion of the impairment that is deemed other-than-temporary and recognized in earnings and is a reduction in the cost basis of the security. The portion of impairment related to all other factors is deemed temporary and included in other comprehensive income (loss).
The Corporation utilizes an independent pricing service to run a discounted cash flow model in the calculation of other-than-temporary impairment losses on non-agency CMOs. This model is used to determine the portion of the impairment that is other-than-temporary due to credit losses, and the portion that is temporary due to all other factors.
The significant inputs used for calculating the credit loss portion of securities with other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) include prepayment assumptions, loss severities, original FICO scores, historical rates of delinquency, percentage of loans with limited underwriting, historical rates of default, original loan-to-value ratio, aggregate property location by metropolitan statistical area, original credit support, current credit support, and weighted-average maturity.
The discount rates used to establish the net present value of expected cash flows for purposes of determining OTTI ranged from 4% to 12%. These rates equate to the effective yield implicit in the security at the date of acquisition for the bonds for which the Corporation has not in the past incurred OTTI. For the bonds for which the Corporation has previously recorded OTTI, the discount rate used equates to the accounting yield on the security as of the valuation date.
Default rates were calculated separately for each category of underlying borrower based on delinquency status (i.e. current, 30 to 59 days delinquent, 60 to 89 days delinquent, 90+ days delinquent, and foreclosure balances) of the loans as of June 1, 2012. This data is entered into a loss migration model to calculate projected default rates, which are benchmarked against results that have recently been experienced by other major servicers of non-agency CMOs with similar attributes. The month 1 to month 24 constant default rate in the model ranged from 3.25% to 11.49%.
At June 30, 2012, 11 non-agency CMOs with a fair value of $16.8 million and an adjusted cost basis of $20.2 million were other-than-temporarily impaired. At March 31, 2012, 14 non-agency CMOs with a fair value of $19.6 million and an adjusted cost basis of $23.1 million were other-than-temporarily impaired. Unrealized other-than-temporary impairment due to credit losses of $64,000 was included in earnings for the three months ended June 30, 2012. For the three months ended June 30, 2012, realized losses of $138,000 related to credit issues (i.e. principal reduced without a receipt of cash) were incurred that were previously recognized in earnings as unrealized other-than-temporary impairment.
Unrealized losses on U.S. government sponsored and federal agency obligations, corporate stocks and bonds and Ginnie Mae (GNMA) mortgage-backed securities as of June 30, 2012 due to changes in interest rates and other non-credit related factors totaled $26,000. The Corporation has analyzed these securities for evidence of other-than-temporary impairment and concluded that no OTTI exists and that the unrealized losses are properly classified in accumulated other comprehensive income.
The following table is a roll forward of the amount of other-than-temporary impairment related to credit losses that have been recognized in earnings for which a portion of impairment was deemed temporary and recognized in other comprehensive income for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011:
All of the Corporations other-than-temporarily impaired debt securities are non-agency CMOs. On a cumulative basis, other-than-temporary impairment losses recognized in earnings by year of vintage were as follows:
The cost of investment securities sold is determined using the specific identification method. Sales of investment securities available for sale are summarized below:
At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, investment securities available-for-sale with a fair value of approximately $208.2 million and $216.3 million, respectively, were pledged to secure deposits, borrowings and for other purposes as permitted or required by law.
The fair values of investment securities by contractual maturity at June 30, 2012 are shown below. Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because issuers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties.
Note 5 Loans Receivable
Loans receivable held for investment consist of the following:
At June 30, 2012, $551.5 million, or 26.5%, of the total loans unpaid principal balance receivable consisted of residential loans, substantially all of which were 1 to 4 family dwellings. Residential loans consist of both adjustable and fixed-rate loans. The adjustable-rate loans currently in the portfolio have up to 30-year maturities and terms which permit the Corporation to annually increase or decrease the rate on the loans, based on a designated index. These rate changes are generally subject to a limit of 2% per adjustment and an aggregate 6% adjustment over the life of the loan. These loans are documented according to standard industry practices. The Corporation makes a limited number of interest-only loans which tend to have a shorter term to maturity and does not originate negative amortization and option payment adjustable rate mortgages.
Adjustable-rate loans decrease the risks associated with changes in interest rates but involve other risks, primarily because as interest rates rise, the payment by the borrower rises to the extent permitted by the terms of the loan, thereby increasing the potential for default. At the same time, the marketability of the underlying property may be adversely affected by higher interest rates. The Corporation believes that these risks, which have not had a material adverse effect to date, generally are less than the risks associated with holding fixed-rate loans in an increasing interest rate environment. Also, as interest rates decline, borrowers may refinance their mortgages into fixed-rate loans thereby prepaying the balance of the loan prior to maturity. At June 30, 2012, approximately $380.8 million, or 69.0%, of the held for investment residential loans unpaid principal balance consisted of loans with adjustable interest rates.
The Corporation continues to originate long-term, fixed-rate conventional mortgage loans. Current production of these loans with terms of 15 years or more are generally sold to Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and other institutional investors, while a small percentage of loan production is retained in the held for investment portfolio. In order to provide a full range of products to its customers, the Corporation also participates in the loan origination programs of Wisconsin Housing and Economic Development Authority (WHEDA), Wisconsin Department of Veterans Affairs (WDVA) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The Corporation retains the right to service substantially all loans that it sells.
At June 30, 2012, approximately $170.7 million, or 31.0%, of the held for investment residential loans unpaid principal balance consisted of loans with fixed rates of interest. Although these loans generally provide for repayments of principal over a fixed period of 10 to 30 years, it is the Corporations experience that, because of prepayments and due-on-sale clauses, such loans generally remain outstanding for a substantially shorter period of time.
Commercial and Industrial Loans
The Corporation originates loans for commercial, corporate and business purposes, including issuing letters of credit. At June 30, 2012, the unpaid principal balance receivable of commercial and industrial loans amounted to $30.5 million, or 1.5%, of the total loans unpaid principal balance receivable. The commercial and industrial loan portfolio is comprised of loans for a variety of business purposes and generally are secured by equipment, machinery and other corporate assets. These loans generally have terms of five years or less and interest rates that float in accordance with a designated published index. Substantially all of such loans are secured and backed by the personal guarantees of the owners of the business.
Commercial Real Estate Loans
The Corporation originates commercial real estate loans that it typically holds in its loan portfolio which includes land and construction, multi-family, retail/office and other commercial real estate. Such loans generally have adjustable rates and shorter terms than single-family residential loans, thus increasing the earnings sensitivity of the loan portfolio to changes in interest rates, as well as providing higher fees and rates than residential loans. At June 30, 2012, $998.3 million of loans unpaid principal balance receivable were secured by commercial real estate, which represented 48.0% of the total loans unpaid principal balance receivable. The Corporation generally limits the origination of such loans to its primary market area.
The Corporations commercial real estate loans are primarily secured by apartment buildings, office and industrial buildings, land, warehouses, small retail shopping centers and various special purpose properties, including hotels, and nursing homes. Although terms vary, commercial real estate loans generally have amortization periods of 15 to 25 years, as well as balloon payments of two to five years, and terms which provide that the interest rates thereon may be adjusted annually based on a designated index.
The Corporation offers consumer loans in order to provide a wider range of financial services to its customers. At June 30, 2012, $499.1 million, or 24.0%, of the total loans unpaid principal balance receivable consisted of consumer loans. Consumer loans typically have higher interest rates than mortgage loans but generally involve more risk than mortgage loans because of the type and nature of the collateral and, in certain cases, the absence of collateral.
Approximately $227.1 million, or 10.9%, of the total loans unpaid principal balance receivable at June 30, 2012 consisted of education loans. These loans are generally made for a maximum of $3,500 per year for undergraduate studies and $8,500 per year for graduate studies and are placed in repayment status on an installment basis within six months following graduation. Education loans generally have interest rates that adjust annually in accordance with a designated index. Both the principal amount of an education loan and interest thereon are generally guaranteed by the Great Lakes Higher Education Corporation up to 97% of the balance of the loan, which typically obtains reinsurance of its obligations from the U.S. Department of Education. During the quarter ended September 30, 2010, the Corporation discontinued the origination of student loans. Education loans may be sold to the U.S. Department of Education or to other investors. No education loans were sold during the three months ended June 30, 2012.
The largest component of the other consumer loan portfolio is second mortgage and home equity loans. The primary home equity loan product has an adjustable rate that is linked to the prime interest rate and is secured by a mortgage, either a primary or a junior lien, on the borrowers residence. New home equity lines do not exceed 85% of appraised value of the property at the loan origination date. A fixed-rate home equity second mortgage term product is also offered.
The remainder of the other consumer loan portfolio consists of vehicle loans and other secured and unsecured loans made for a variety of consumer purposes. These include credit extended through credit cards issued by a third party, ELAN Financial Services (ELAN), pursuant to an agency arrangement under which the Corporation participates in outstanding balances, currently at 25% to 28%. The Corporation also shares 33% to 37% of annual fees, and 30% of late payment, over limit and cash advance fees, as well as 25% to 30% of interchange income from the underlying portfolio.
Allowances for Loan Losses
The allowance for loan losses consists of general, substandard and specific components even though the entire allowance is available to cover losses on any loan. The specific allowance component relates to impaired loans (i.e. non-accrual) and all loans reported as troubled debt restructurings. For such loans, an allowance is established when the discounted cash flows (or collateral value if repayment relies solely on the operation or sale of the collateral) of the impaired loan are lower than the carrying value of that loan. The substandard loan component is primarily associated with loans rated in this category but not in non-accrual status. The general allowance component covers pass, watch and special mention rated loans and is based on historical loss experience adjusted for various qualitative and quantitative factors. Loans graded substandard and below are individually examined to determine the appropriate loan loss reserve. A reserve for unfunded commitments and letters of credit is also maintained which is classified in other liabilities.
The following table presents the allowance for loan losses by component:
The following table presents the unpaid principal balance of loans by risk category:
The following table presents activity in the allowance for loan losses by portfolio segment for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011:
The following table presents the balance in the allowance for loan losses and the unpaid principal balance of loans by portfolio segment and based on impairment method as of June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012:
The provision for credit losses reflected in the consolidated statements of operations includes the provision for loan losses and the provision for unfunded commitment losses as follows:
The provision for unfunded commitment losses in the three months ending June 30, 2012 totaled $1.1 million, up from $(0.1) million during the same period in 2011. This increase reflects the implementation in June 2012 of a more refined process of estimating probable losses inherent in the unfunded loan commitment and letter of credit portfolios. The reserve for unfunded commitments and letters of credit at June 30, 2012 totaled $1.7 million, classified in other liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet.
At June 30, 2012, $260.7 million of unpaid principal balance of loans were identified as impaired which includes performing troubled debt restructurings. At March 31, 2012, impaired loans were $297.6 million. A loan is identified as impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Corporation will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement and thus are placed on non-accrual status. Interest income on certain impaired loans is recognized on a cash basis.
A substantial portion of the Corporations loans are collateralized by real estate in Wisconsin and adjacent states. Accordingly, the ultimate collectability of the loan portfolio is susceptible to changes in real estate market conditions in that area.
The following table presents impaired loans segregated by loans with no specific allowance and loans with an allowance, by class of loans, as of June 30, 2012:
The carrying amounts above and below include the unpaid principal balance less the associated allowance. The average carrying amount is a trailing twelve month average calculated based on the ending quarterly balances. The interest income recognized is the fiscal year to date interest income recognized on a cash basis.
The following table presents impaired loans segregated by loans with no specific allowance and loans with an allowance, by class of loans, as of March 31, 2012:
The following is additional information regarding impaired loans:
All TDRs are classified as impaired loans, subject to performance conditions noted below. TDRs may be on either accrual or non-accrual status based upon the repayment performance of the borrower and managements assessment of collectability. Loans deemed non-accrual may return to accrual status after six consecutive months of performance in accordance with the terms of the restructuring. Additionally, they may be considered not a TDR after twelve consecutive months of performance in accordance with the terms of the restructuring agreement, if the interest rate was a market rate for a borrower with similar credit risk at the date of restructuring.
The Corporation is currently committed to lend approximately $6.0 million in additional funds on impaired loans in accordance with the original terms of these loans; however, is not legally obligated to, and will not, disburse additional funds on any loans while in nonaccrual status or if the borrower is in default.
The Corporation experienced declines in the valuations for real estate collateral supporting portions of its loan portfolio throughout fiscal years 2010, 2011 and 2012, as reflected in recently received appraisals. Currently, $348.2 million or approximately 92% of the unpaid principal balance of classified loans (i.e. loans risk rated as substandard or loss) have recent appraisals (i.e. within one year) or have been determined to not need an appraisal. Loans that do not require an appraisal under Corporation policy include situations in which the loan (i) is fully reserved; (ii) has a
small balance (less than $250,000) and rather than being individually evaluated for impairment, is included in a homogenous pool of loans; (iii) uses a net present value of future cash flows to measure impairment; or (iv) is not secured by real estate. Appraised values greater than one year old are discounted by an additional 10% for improved land or commercial real estate and 20% for unimproved land, in determination of the allowance for loan losses.
While Corporation policy may not require updated appraisals for these loans, new appraisals may still be obtained. For example, 56% of the loans which do not require an updated appraisal do have either an appraisal within the last year or an appraisal on order. If real estate values decline, the Corporation may have to increase its allowance for loan losses as updated appraisals or other indications of a decrease in the value of collateral are received.
The following table presents the aging of the recorded investment in past due loans as of June 30, 2012 by class of loans:
The following table presents the aging of the recorded investment in past due loans as of March 31, 2012 by class of loans:
Total delinquencies (loans past due 30 days or more) at June 30, 2012 were $180.9 million. The Corporation has experienced a reduction in delinquencies in each quarter-end since December 31, 2010 due to improving credit conditions and loans moving to OREO. The Corporation has $23.3 million of education loans past due 90 days or more that are still accruing interest due to the approximate 97% guarantee provided by governmental agencies. Loans less than 90 days delinquent may be placed on non-accrual status when the probability of collection of principal and interest is deemed to be insufficient to warrant further accrual.
Credit Quality Indicators:
The Corporation groups commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loans into risk categories based on relevant information about the ability of borrowers to service their debt such as: current financial information, historical payment experience, credit documentation, public information and current economic trends, among other factors. This analysis is updated on a monthly basis. The Corporation uses the following definitions for risk ratings:
Pass. Loans classified as pass represent assets that are evaluated and are performing under the stated terms. Pass rated assets are analyzed by the pay capacity of the obligor, current net worth of the obligor and/or by the value of the loan collateral.
Watch. Loans classified as watch possess potential weaknesses that require management attention, but do not yet warrant adverse classification. While the status of an asset put on this list does not technically trigger their classification as substandard or non-accrual, it is considered a proactive way to identify potential issues and address them before the situation deteriorates further and results in a loss for the Corporation.
Special Mention. Loans classified as special mention exhibit material negative financial trends due to company specific or industry conditions which, if not corrected or mitigated, threaten their capacity to meet current or continuing debt obligations. These borrowers still demonstrate the financial flexibility to address and cure the root cause of these adverse financial trends without significant deviations from their current business plan. Their potential weakness deserves close attention and warrant enhanced monitoring on the part of management. The expectation is these borrowers will return to a pass rating given reasonable time; or will be further downgraded.
Substandard. Loans classified as substandard are inadequately protected by the current net worth, paying capacity of the obligor, or by the collateral pledged. Substandard assets must have a well-defined weakness or weaknesses that jeopardize the liquidation of the debt. They are characterized by the distinct possibility that the Corporation will sustain a loss if the deficiencies are not corrected.
Non-Accrual. Loans classified as non-accrual have the weaknesses of those classified as Substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values, highly questionable and improbable. Loans that fall into this category are deemed collateral dependent and an individual impairment evaluation is performed on all relationships greater than $500,000. Loans in this category are allocated a specific reserve if the collateral does not support the outstanding loan balance or charged off if deemed uncollectible.
As of June 30, 2012, and based on the most recent analysis performed, the risk category of loans by class of loans is as follows:
As of March 31, 2012, and based on the most recent analysis performed, the risk category of loans by class of loans is as follows:
Residential and consumer loans are managed on a pool basis due to their homogeneous nature. Loans that are delinquent 90 days or more are considered non-accrual. The following table presents the unpaid principal balance of residential and consumer loans based on accrual status as of June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012:
Troubled Debt Restructurings
Modification of loan terms in a troubled debt restructuring are generally in the form of an extension of payment terms or lowering of the interest rate, although occasionally the Corporation has reduced the outstanding principal balance.
Loans modified in a troubled debt restructuring that are currently on non-accrual status will remain on non-accrual status for a period of at least six months. If after six months, or a longer period sufficient to demonstrate the willingness and ability of the borrower to perform under the modified terms, the borrower has made payments in accordance with the modified terms, the loan is returned to accrual status but retains its designation as a troubled debt restructuring. The designation as a troubled debt restructuring is removed in years after the restructuring if both of the following conditions exist: (a) the restructuring agreement specifies an interest rate equal to or greater than the rate that the creditor was willing to accept at the time of restructuring for a new loan with comparable risk and (b) the loan is not impaired based on the terms specified by the restructuring agreement.
The following table presents information related to loans modified in a troubled debt restructuring, by class, during the three months ended June 30, 2012:
The following table presents loans modified in a troubled debt restructuring from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012, by class, that subsequently defaulted (i.e., 90 days or more past due following a modification) during the three months ended June 30, 2012:
The following table presents the unpaid principal balance of loans modified in a TDR during the three months ended June 30, 2012, by class and by type of modification:
As time passes and borrowers continue to perform in accordance with the restructured loan terms, a portion of the troubled debt restructurings non-accrual balance may be returned to accrual status.
At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, residential, multi-family, education and other consumer loans receivable with unpaid principal of approximately $822.5 million and $792.7 million were pledged to secure borrowings and for other purposes as permitted or required by law. Certain of the real-estate related loans are pledged as collateral for FHLB borrowings. See Note 9.
In the ordinary course of business, the Bank has granted loans to principal officers and directors and their affiliates amounting to $454,000 and $515,000 at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, respectively. During the three months ended June 30, 2012, there were no principal additions and principal payments totaled $61,000.
Note 6 Other Real Estate Owned
Real estate acquired by foreclosure, real estate acquired by deed in lieu of foreclosure and other repossessed assets (OREO) are held for sale and are initially recorded at fair value less a discount for estimated selling expenses at the date of foreclosure. At the date of foreclosure, any write down to fair value less estimated selling costs is charged to the allowance for loan losses. If the discounted fair value exceeds the net carrying value of the loans, recoveries to the allowance for loan losses are recorded to the extent of previous charge-offs, with any excess, which is infrequent, recognized as a gain in non-interest income. Subsequent to foreclosure, valuations are periodically performed and a valuation allowance is established if fair value less estimated selling costs exceeds the carrying value. Costs relating to the development and improvement of the property may be capitalized; holding period costs and subsequent changes to the valuation allowance are charged to expense.
A summary of the activity in other real estate owned is as follows:
The balances at end of period above are net of a valuation allowance of $24.5 million and $20.9 million at June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively, recognized during the holding period for declines in fair value subsequent to foreclosure or acceptance of deed in lieu of foreclosure. A summary of activity in the OREO valuation allowance is as follows:
During the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, OREO expense, net was $7.0 million and $8.9 million, consisting of $4.6 million and $4.9 million of valuation adjustments, $411,000 and $1.1 million of foreclosure cost expense and $2.0 million and $2.9 million of net expenses from operations, respectively.
Note 7 Mortgage Servicing Rights
The Corporation records mortgage servicing rights (MSRs) when loans are sold to third parties with servicing of those loans retained. In addition, MSRs are recorded when acquiring or assuming an obligation to service a financial (loan) asset that does not relate to an asset that is owned. Servicing assets are initially measured at fair value determined using a discounted cash flow model based on market assumptions at the time of origination. Subsequently, the MSR asset is carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value. The Corporation assesses MSRs for impairment using a discounted cash flow model provided by a third party that is based on current market assumptions at each reporting period. For purposes of measuring fair value, the servicing rights are stratified into relatively homogeneous pools based on characteristics such as product type and interest rate bands. Impairment is recognized, if necessary, at the pool level rather than for each individual servicing right asset.
The fair value of the Corporations MSRs is highly sensitive to changes in market interest rates, and will generally decrease in value in a falling rate environment, while generally increasing in value as rates rise. The Corporations MSRs are fairly highly correlated to changes in the U.S. Treasury 10-year note rate which fell considerably from 1.67% at June 30, 2012 to 1.51% at July 31, 2012. Impairment losses are expected in future periods if market interest rates remain at these historically low levels or continue to decline.
The Corporation has chosen to use the amortization method to measure servicing assets. Under the amortization method, servicing assets are amortized in proportion to and over the period of net servicing income. Income generated as the result of the capitalization of new servicing assets is reported as net gain on sale of loans and the amortization of servicing assets is reported as a reduction to loan servicing income in the consolidated statements of operations. Ancillary income is recorded in other non-interest income.
Information regarding mortgage servicing rights for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 is as follows:
The projections of amortization expense for mortgage servicing rights set forth below are based on asset balances as of June 30, 2012 and an assumed amortization rate of 20% per year. Future amortization expense may be significantly different depending upon changes in the mortgage servicing portfolio, mortgage interest rates and market conditions.
Mortgage loans serviced for others are not included on the consolidated balance sheets. The unpaid principal balance of mortgage loans serviced for others was approximately $3.1 billion at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012.
Note 8 Deposits
Deposits are summarized as follows:
Maturities of certificates of deposit outstanding at June 30, 2012 are summarized as follows:
At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, certificates of deposit with balances greater than or equal to $100,000 totaled $190.3 million and $195.2 million, respectively.
The Bank has entered into agreements with certain brokers that provided deposits obtained from their customers at specified interest rates for an identified fee, or so called brokered deposits. At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the Bank had $274,000 and $2.1 million in brokered deposits. Due to existing capital levels, the Bank is currently prohibited from obtaining or renewing any brokered deposits. The Bank has $24.9 million in out-of-network certificates of deposit at June 30, 2012. These deposits, which are not considered brokered deposits, are opened via internet listing services and are kept within FDIC insured balance limits.
Note 9 Other Borrowed Funds
Other borrowed funds consist of the following:
The Bank selects loans that meet underwriting criteria established by the FHLB as collateral for outstanding advances. FHLB advances are limited to 65% of single-family loans, 60% of multi-family loans and 20% of eligible home equity and home equity line of credit loans meeting such criteria. FHLB borrowings of $191.0 million have call features that may be exercised quarterly by the FHLB. The FHLB borrowings are also collateralized by mortgage-related securities with a fair value of $179.3 million and $184.6 million at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, respectively.
As of June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the Corporation had drawn a total of $116.3 million at a weighted average interest rate of 15.00%, on a short term line of credit to various lenders led by U.S. Bank. The total line of credit available is $116.3 million. At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the base rate was 0.00% and the deferred rate was 15.00% for a weighted average interest rate of 15.00%.
On November 29, 2011, the Corporation entered into Amendment No. 8 (the Amendment) to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of June 9, 2008, (the Credit Agreement), among the Corporation, the lenders from time to time a party thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as administrative agent for such lenders, or the Agent. The Corporation is currently in default on the Credit Agreement as a result of failure to make a principal payment on March 2, 2009. Under the Amendment, the Agent and the Lenders agreed to forbear from exercising their rights and remedies against the Corporation until the earliest to occur of the following: (i) the occurrence of any Event of Default (other than a failure to make principal payments on the outstanding balance under the Credit Agreement or other Existing Defaults); or (ii) November 30, 2012. Notwithstanding the agreement to forbear, the Agent may at any time, in its sole discretion, take any action reasonably necessary to preserve or protect its interest in the stock of the Bank, IDI, or any other collateral securing any of the obligations against the actions of the Corporation or any third party without notice to or the consent of any party.
The Amendment also provides that the outstanding balance under the Credit Agreement shall bear interest at 15% per annum. Interest accruing under the Credit Agreement is due on the earlier of (i) the date the Credit Agreement is paid in full or (ii) November 30, 2012. At June 30, 2012, the Corporation had accrued interest and amendment fees payable related to the Credit Agreement of $40.2 million and $5.7 million, respectively.
Within two business days after the Corporation has knowledge of an event, the CFO is required to submit a statement of the event to the Agent, together with a statement of the actions which the Corporation proposes to take in response to the event. An event may include: (i) any event which, either of itself or with the lapse of time or the giving of notice or both, would constitute a Default under the Credit Agreement; (ii) a default or an event of default under any other material agreement to which the Corporation or Bank is a party; or (iii) any pending or threatened litigation or certain administrative proceedings.
The Amendment requires the Bank to maintain the following financial covenants:
The Credit Agreement and the Amendment also contain customary representations, warranties, conditions and events of default for agreements of such type. At June 30, 2012, the Corporation was in compliance with all covenants contained in the Credit Agreement and the Amendment. Under the terms of the Credit Agreement and Amendment, the Agent and the lenders have certain rights, including the right to accelerate the maturity of the borrowings if the Corporation is not in compliance with all covenants. Currently, no such action has been taken by the Agent or the Lenders. However, the default creates significant uncertainty related to the Corporations operations.
Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program
In October 2008, the Secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury invoked the systemic risk exception of the FDIC Improvement Act of 1991 and the FDIC announced the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (the TLGP). The TLGP provides a guarantee, through the earlier of maturity or June 30, 2012, of certain senior unsecured debt issued by participating Eligible Entities (including the Corporation) between October 14, 2008 and June 30, 2009. The Bank signed a master agreement with the FDIC on December 5, 2008 for issuance of bonds under the program and subsequently issued $60.0 million of bonds in February 2009 bearing interest at a fixed rate of 2.74%. The bonds matured on February 11, 2012 and were paid in full.
Note 10 Capital Purchase Program
Pursuant to the Capital Purchase Program (CPP) in January 2009, Treasury, on behalf of the U.S. government, purchased the Corporations preferred stock, along with warrants to purchase approximately 7.4 million shares of the Corporations common stock at an exercise price of $2.23 per share. The preferred stock has a dividend rate of 5% per year, until the fifth anniversary of Treasurys investment and a dividend of 9% thereafter. During the time Treasury holds securities issued pursuant to this program, the Corporation is required to comply with certain provisions regarding executive compensation and corporate governance. Participation in the CPP also imposes certain restrictions upon the payment of dividends to common shareholders and stock repurchase activities. The Corporation elected to participate in the CPP and received $110 million. The Corporation has deferred 13 dividend payments on the Series B Preferred Stock held by the U.S. Treasury. On September 30, 2011, the Treasury exercised its right to appoint two directors to the Board of Directors of the Corporation as a result of the nonpayment of dividends. At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the cumulative amount of dividends in arrears not declared, including interest on unpaid dividends at 5% per annum, was $20.4 million and $18.8 million, respectively.
Note 11 Regulatory Capital
The Bank is subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal banking agencies. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on the Banks financial statements. Under capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, the Bank must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of the Banks assets, liabilities and certain off-balance-sheet items as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. The Banks capital amounts and classification are also subject to qualitative judgments by the regulators about components, risk weightings, and other factors.
Qualitative measures established by regulation to ensure capital adequacy require the Bank to maintain minimum amounts and ratios of core, tangible, and risk-based capital. Management believes, as of June 30, 2012, that the Bank was adequately capitalized under PCA guidelines. Under these OCC requirements, a bank must have a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0 percent or greater to be considered adequately capitalized. The Bank continues to work toward the requirements of the previously issued Cease and Desist Order which requires a total risk-based capital ratio of 12.0 percent, which exceeds traditional capital levels for a bank. The Bank does not currently meet these elevated capital levels. See Note 2.
The following table summarizes the Banks capital ratios and the ratios required by its federal regulators to be considered adequately or well-capitalized under standard PCA guidelines at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012:
The following table reconciles the Banks stockholders equity to federal regulatory capital at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012:
Note 12 Income Taxes
The Corporation accounts for income taxes based on the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded based on the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes, computed using enacted tax rates. Significant net deferred tax assets have been created for deductible temporary differences, the largest of which relates to our allowance for loan losses. For
income tax return purposes, only net charge-offs on uncollectible loan balances are deductible, not the provision for credit losses. Under generally accepted accounting principles, a valuation allowance is required to be recognized if it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized. The determination of the realizability of the deferred tax assets is highly subjective and dependent upon managements evaluation and judgment of both positive and negative evidence, the forecasts of future income, applicable tax planning strategies, and assessments of the current and future economic and business conditions. The Corporation considers both positive and negative evidence regarding the ultimate realizability of deferred tax assets. Positive evidence includes the existence of taxes paid in available carry back years as well as the probability that taxable income will be generated in future periods while negative evidence includes significant losses in the current year or cumulative losses in the current and prior two years as well as general business and economic trends.
At June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the Corporation determined that a valuation allowance relating to the deferred tax asset was necessary. This determination was based largely on the negative evidence represented by the losses in the current and prior fiscal years caused by the significant loan loss provisions associated with the loan portfolio. In addition, general uncertainty surrounding future economic and business conditions have increased the potential volatility and uncertainty of projected earnings. Therefore, a valuation allowance of $150.4 million and $149.8 million at June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, respectively, was recorded to offset net deferred tax assets that exceed the Corporations carry back potential.
The significant components of the Corporations deferred tax assets (liabilities) are as follows:
The Corporation is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of state jurisdictions. The tax years 2009-2011 remain open to examination by the Internal Revenue Service and certain state jurisdictions while the years 2008-2011 remain open to examination by certain other state jurisdictions.
The Corporation recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense. As of June 30, 2012 and March 31, 2012, the Corporation has not recognized any accrued interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
Note 13 Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
The Corporation is a party to financial instruments with off-balance-sheet risk in the normal course of business to meet the financing needs of its customers. These financial instruments include commitments to extend credit and financial guarantees which involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit and interest rate risk in excess of the amount recognized in the consolidated balance sheets. The contract amounts of those instruments reflect the extent of involvement and exposure to credit loss the Corporation has in particular classes of financial instruments. The same credit policies are used in making commitments and conditional obligations as for on-balance-sheet instruments. Since many of the commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total committed amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements.
Financial instruments whose contract amounts represent credit risk are as follows:
Commitments to extend credit are in the form of a loan in the near future. Unused lines of credit are agreements to lend to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established in the contract and may be drawn upon at the borrowers discretion. Letters of credit commit the Corporation to make payments on behalf of customers when certain specified future events occur. Commitments and letters of credit primarily have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of a fee. As some such commitments expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. The Corporation evaluates each customers creditworthiness on a case-by-case basis. With the exception of credit card lines of credit, the Corporation primarily extends credit on a secured basis. Collateral obtained consists primarily of single-family residences and income-producing commercial properties.
At June 30, 2012, the Corporation has $1.7 million of reserves on unfunded commitments, unused lines of credit and letters of credit classified in other liabilities. The Corporation intends to fund commitments through current liquidity.
Pursuant to a credit enhancement feature of the MPF program, the Corporation has retained secondary credit loss exposure in the amount of $20.4 million at June 30, 2012 related to approximately $351.4 million of residential mortgage loans that the Bank has originated as agent for the FHLB. Under the credit enhancement, the FHLB is liable for losses on loans up to one percent of the original delivered loan balances in each pool. The Bank is then liable for losses over and above the first position up to a contractually agreed-upon maximum amount in each pool that was delivered to the Program. The Corporation receives a monthly fee for this credit enhancement obligation based on the outstanding loan balances. The Corporation has recorded net credit enhancement fee income from this program totaling $4,000 and $46,000 for the three months ending June 30, 2012 and June 30, 2011, respectively. Based on historical experience, the Corporation does not anticipate that any credit losses will be incurred under the credit enhancement obligation.
In the ordinary course of business, there are legal proceedings against the Corporation and its subsidiaries. Management considers that the aggregate liabilities, if any, resulting from such actions would not have a material, adverse effect on the consolidated financial position of the Corporation.
One pending lawsuit against the Corporation currently in the discovery stage involves a Bank-issued letter of credit in support of a residential real estate development. Although no specific reserve for loss has been established at June 30, 2012, possible losses due to an unfavorable outcome have been estimated in the range of zero to $2.4 million due to a shortfall in collateral value.
Note 14 Derivative Financial Instruments
The Corporation enters into contracts that meet the definition of derivative financial instruments in accordance with ASC 815Derivative and Hedging. Derivatives are used as part of a risk management strategy to address exposure to changes in interest rates inherent in the Corporations origination and sale of certain residential mortgages into the secondary market. These derivative contracts used for risk management purposes include: (1) interest rate lock commitments provided to customers to fund mortgage loans intended to be sold; and (2) forward sale contracts for the future delivery of funded residential mortgages.
Forward sale contracts are entered into when interest rate lock commitments are granted to customers in an effort to economically hedge the effect of future changes in interest rates on the commitments to fund mortgage loans intended to be sold, as well as on the portfolio of funded mortgages not yet sold. For accounting purposes, these derivatives are not designated as being in a hedging relationship. The contracts are carried at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets, with changes in fair value recorded in the consolidated statements of operations.
Derivative financial instruments are summarized as follows: