|• 20-F • EX-4.3 • EX-4.22 • EX-12.1 • EX-12.2 • EX-13.1 • EX-13.2 • EX-15.1|
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
For the fiscal year ended: 30 June 2012
Commission file number 1-10691
England and Wales
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organisation)
Lakeside Drive, Park Royal, London NW10 7HQ, England
(Address of principal executive offices)
Paul Tunnacliffe, Company secretary
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
*Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares representing such ordinary shares, pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the Annual Report: 2,754,115,985 ordinary shares of 28101/108 pence each.
Indicate by check mark if each registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if each registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of
"accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 o Item 18 o
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
This document comprises the annual report on Form 20-F and the annual report to shareholders for the year ended 30 June 2012 of Diageo plc (the 2012 Form 20-F).
This is the Annual Report on Form 20-F of Diageo plc for the year ended 30 June 2012. The information set out in this Form 20-F does not constitute Diageo plc's statutory accounts under the UK Companies Acts for the years ended 30 June 2012, 2011 or 2010. KPMG Audit Plc has reported on those accounts; their audit reports were (i) unqualified, (ii) did not include a reference to any matters to which the auditors drew attention by way of emphasis without qualifying their report and (iii) did not contain a statement under section 498 (2) or (3) of the Companies Act 2006 in respect of the accounts for the years ended 30 June 2012, 2011 or 2010. The accounts for 2011 and 2010 have been delivered to the registrar of companies and those for 2012 will be delivered in due course.
This document contains forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainty. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including factors beyond Diageo's control. For more details, please refer to the cautionary statement concerning forward-looking statements on pages 30 to 32.
The content of the company's website (www.diageo.com and www.diageoreports.com) should not be considered to form a part of or be incorporated into this report. This report includes names of Diageo's products, which constitute trademarks or trade names which Diageo owns or which others own and license to Diageo for use. In this report, the term 'company' refers to Diageo plc and terms 'group' and 'Diageo' refer to the company and its consolidated subsidiaries, except as the context otherwise requires. A glossary of terms used in this report is included at the end of the report.
Diageo's consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as endorsed and adopted for use in the European Union (EU) and IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). References to IFRS hereafter should be construed as references to both IFRS as adopted by the EU and IFRS as issued by the IASB. Unless otherwise indicated, all financial information contained in this document has been prepared in accordance with IFRS. The brand ranking information presented in this report, when comparing volume information with competitors, has been sourced from data published during 2011 by Impact Databank. Market data information and competitive set classifications are taken from independent industry sources in the markets in which Diageo operates.
Information presented Unless otherwise stated in this document, percentage movements are organic movements. These movements and operating margins are before exceptional items. Commentary, unless otherwise stated, refers to organic movements. Share, unless otherwise stated, refers to value share. See the 'Business review' for an explanation of organic movement calculations. The market data and competitive set classifications contained in this document are taken from independent industry sources in the markets in which Diageo operates.
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data for Diageo prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as endorsed and adopted for use in the European Union (EU) and IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) for the five years ended 30 June 2012 and as at the respective year ends. References to IFRS hereafter should be construed as references to both IFRS as adopted by the EU and IFRS as issued by the IASB, unless otherwise indicated. The data presented below has been derived from Diageo's audited consolidated financial statements.
1 Accounting policies The consolidated financial statements for the five years ended 30 June 2012 were prepared in accordance with IFRS. The IFRS accounting policies applied by the group to the financial information in this document are presented in 'Accounting policies of the group' in the consolidated financial statements.
2 Exceptional items Exceptional items are charges or credits which, in management's judgement, need to be disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence in order for the user to obtain a proper understanding of the financial information. Such items are included within the income statement caption to which they relate. An analysis of exceptional items is as follows:
3 Discontinued operations In the year ended 30 June 2012 discontinued operations represent a charge after taxation of £11 million (2011 £nil; 2010 £19 million) in respect of the discounted value of anticipated future payments to additional thalidomide claimants. In the years ended 30 June 2009 and 30 June 2008 discontinued operations are in respect of the packaged food business (Pillsbury sold 31 October 2001).
4 Dividends The board expects that Diageo will pay an interim dividend in April and a final dividend in October of each year. Approximately 40% of the total dividend in respect of any financial year is expected to be paid as an interim dividend and approximately 60% as a final dividend. The payment of any future dividends, subject to shareholder approval, will depend upon Diageo's earnings, financial condition and such other factors as the board deems relevant. Proposed dividends are not considered to be a liability until they are approved by the board for the interim dividend and by the shareholders at the annual general meeting for the final dividend.
The table below sets out the amounts of interim, final and total cash dividends paid by the company on each ordinary share. The dividends are translated into US dollars per ADS (each ADS representing four ordinary shares) at the noon buying rate on each of the respective dividend payment dates.
Note: Subject to shareholders' approval the final dividend for the year ended 30 June 2012 will be paid on 22 October 2012, and payment to US ADR holders will be made on 26 October 2012. In the table above, an exchange rate of £1 = $1.57 has been assumed for this dividend, but the exact amount of the payment to US ADR holders will be determined by the rate of exchange on 22 October 2012.
5 Net borrowings definition Net borrowings are defined as gross borrowings (short term borrowings and long term borrowings plus finance lease liabilities plus interest rate hedging instruments, cross currency interest rate swaps and funding foreign currency forwards and swaps used to manage borrowings) less cash and cash equivalents and other liquid resources.
6 Share capital During the year ended 30 June 2009 the company purchased 38 million (2008 97 million) ordinary shares for cancellation or to be held as treasury shares at a cost of £354 million (2008 £1,008 million) as part of a share buyback programme.
7 Exchange rates A substantial portion of the group's assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses are denominated in currencies other than pounds sterling. For a discussion of the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the group's financial position and results of operations, see note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.
The following table shows period end and average US dollar/pound sterling noon buying exchange rates, for the periods indicated, expressed in US dollars per £1.
The following table shows period end, high, low and average US dollar/pound sterling noon buying exchange rates by month, for the six month period to 24 August 2012, expressed in US dollars per £1. The information in respect of the month of August is for the period up to and including 24 August 2012. The US dollar/pound sterling noon buying exchange rate on 24 August 2012 was 1.58.
These rates have been provided for information only. They are not necessarily the rates that have been used in this document for currency translations or in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. See note 2(e) to the consolidated financial statements for the actual rates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
Diageo is the world's leading premium drinks business. Its geographic breadth and range of leading brands across categories is unparalleled. The business is balanced having a strong presence in the world's largest and most profitable beverage alcohol market, the United States; an integrated Western European business; and a large and increasing presence in the faster growing markets of Asia, Africa, Latin America, Russia and Eastern Europe. Diageo's strong financial position has been built through the growth of its brands, the development of its routes to market and the value creating acquisitions it has made. Diageo maintains the strength of its brands through excellence in marketing and innovation. Diageo has scale but acts with agility to deliver top line growth, margin improvement and improving shareholder returns. Diageo is proud of the role its brands play in the social life and celebrations of consumers around the globe.
Diageo plc is incorporated as a public limited company in England and Wales. Diageo was incorporated as Arthur Guinness Son & Company Limited on 21 October 1886. The group was formed by the merger of Grand Metropolitan Public Limited Company (GrandMet) and Guinness PLC (the Guinness Group) in December 1997. Diageo plc's principal executive office is located at Lakeside Drive, Park Royal, London NW10 7HQ and its telephone number is +44 (0) 20 8978 6000.
Diageo's strategy is to drive top line growth and margin improvement in a sustainable and responsible way, to deliver consistent value creation for shareholders over the long term. It will do this through its geographic breadth, its outstanding brands across beverage alcohol categories and the expertise of its people.
Diageo's broad range of leading brands covers all major categories. It owns seven of the world's top 20 brands, including Smirnoff, the number one brand by volume and Johnnie Walker, the number one brand by value and manages Jose Cuervo, making Diageo the leading premium spirits business in the world by volume, net sales and operating profit. In beer, Diageo owns one of the truly global beer brands, Guinness. Diageo's wine brands are sold predominantly in North America and Great Britain. Diageo's global brands are complemented by strong local brands to create category breadth. Diageo's brands cover a range of price points, from Diageo's reserve brands, including Johnnie Walker Blue Label, Cîroc and Ketel One vodka to more affordable brands, tailored for the growing number of emerging middle class consumers, such as VAT69 in India, White Horse in Russia and 20cl bottles of Johnnie Walker Red Label across Africa.
Diageo is a global company selling products in more than 180 markets around the world. In the developed markets, primarily, in North America and Europe, Diageo has built scale and strong routes to market. In the emerging markets, Diageo is the number one international spirits company in Asia, Latin America and Africa. These rapidly growing markets now contribute nearly 40% of Diageo's net sales, up from a fifth in 2005. These markets are expected to contribute 50% of Diageo's net sales by 2015 through double digit organic growth and targeted acquisitions.
Diageo, consistent with its current strategy, will continue to focus on growing its brands on a worldwide basis and expects to make selective acquisitions in both its developed and emerging markets. Diageo explores the potential to make acquisitions on an ongoing basis and is currently evaluating a number of such opportunities of which some could be significant although no agreements or commitments for any significant acquisitions currently exist. Funds for any such acquisitions would be drawn from internally generated cash, bank borrowings or the issuance of equity or debt securities (in an amount that cannot now be determined) and the proceeds of any potential disposals. No material disposals are currently contemplated.
In evaluating financing of any such acquisitions, Diageo's management remains committed to enhancing shareholder value in the long term, both by investing in the businesses and brands so as to improve the return on investment and by managing the group's capital structure. The acquisitions of Mey Içki in Turkey, Ypióca in Brazil, the Serengeti and Meta breweries in Africa and the investments in Shuijingfang and Halico in Asia were partially driven by this strategy.
Diageo leads the industry in marketing and innovation combining expertise and creative alliances to engage consumers via digital and traditional media channels. This expertise and collaboration, combined with the benefits of global scale and consumer insights, delivers world class marketing campaigns. For example, the global Johnnie Walker 'Keep Walking' campaign has been in place for over 10 years. While the campaign is based on the universal appeal of personal progress, each market has local creative executions which reflect local insights.
Diageo's innovation programme is also based on consumer insights. Recent launches have focused on the consumers' wish for luxury, the tastes and increasing affluence of the emerging middle class consumer and have increased the accessibility of spirits through flavour extensions and packaging and drink formats.
Diageo has strong routes to market which leverage local expertise. In the United States Diageo is required by law to operate via a three-tier distribution system which separates suppliers, distributors and retailers. Diageo works with distributors who provide a substantial dedicated sales team of over 2,900 people. Outside of the United States Diageo owns and controls the route to market in many markets, and where Diageo has not established its own subsidiary, the route to market is through joint ventures, associates and third party distributors. Diageo works in collaboration with its customers to drive profitable category growth, by building partnerships with retailers and on-premise customers. The 'Diageo Way of Selling' programme equips both Diageo and its customers with the tools to be the best sales force in the industry and to create commercial and strategic value for all parties. The European Customer Collaboration Centre provides a state of the art facility to bring consumer, shopper, retailer and distributor insights together to facilitate integrated planning with customers. These tools enable Diageo to realise its ambition to become an indispensable business partner to its customers.
Diageo has a history of being a sustainable and responsible company dating from Arthur Guinness who was responsible for philanthropic community programmes and through the 1930s when its predecessor companies marketed their brands in a responsible manner. Diageo understands the social, environmental and economic impact of its activities and has adopted a structured approach to manage these impacts, to build engagement across stakeholders, to create value, especially in emerging markets; and to protect Diageo's license to operate.
Diageo and its employees are proud of the responsible manner in which its brands are marketed and the role that moderate consumption of its brands can play as part of the balanced lifestyle for millions of people. Diageo seeks to be at the forefront of industry efforts to promote responsible drinking and works with key stakeholders to combat alcohol misuse.
Diageo's supply organisation is responsible for producing, distilling, brewing, bottling, packaging and distributing its brands. It is committed to efficient, sustainable production. Diageo has created a competitive advantage in both its cost base and in the first class customer service it delivers. Investment in production facilities is focused on building capacity for the production of scotch, beer and rum, with both high speed and high volume, cost efficient production lines and with flexible production facilities to create an industry leading supply chain for innovation, especially in luxury products. The business recognises that it operates in a world where natural resources are limited. Diageo has set itself
challenging environmental targets covering water efficiency; increasing use of sustainable packaging and reduction in pollution, carbon emissions and waste-to-landfill. Diageo's production teams have created award winning technologies to meet these targets with the aim of reducing Diageo's environmental footprint, delivering business efficiencies and securing supply into the future.
Diageo is committed to generating prosperity in the communities in which it operates, especially in the emerging markets by integrating its supply chain into the local community and via direct community initiatives such as 'Learning for Life' and 'Water of Life'.
Diageo believes that industry leading performance will be delivered through a talented and diverse workforce and great leadership. The company has active programmes that ensure the development of its management and leaders. Great leadership combined with a culture of good governance and ethics, protect Diageo's reputation and supports the sustainable efficient growth of the business.
Market participation Diageo manages its business through five regions: North America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean and Asia Pacific. North America is the biggest region by net sales and operating profit. Here the business is focused on using scale to drive cost advantage, to drive continued growth in the on trade, to deliver industry leading innovation and broaden its reach to the multicultural consumer. Europe comprises Western Europe, Russia and Eastern Europe and Turkey. The country teams within Western Europe focus on sales execution, whilst marketing and back office functions are integrated at a Western Europe level to drive flexibility and efficiency. The remaining emerging markets of Europe are resourced to capture the opportunity presented by the growing number of middle class consumers. The strategy in Africa is to grow Diageo's leadership across beverage alcohol, increasing its presence in beer and growing the international spirits business. In Latin America and Caribbean the primary focus is continued leadership in scotch, whilst broadening category breadth to include vodka and liqueurs. The strategy in Asia Pacific is to drive net sales growth through the continued development of super and ultra premium scotch and leverage the emerging middle class consumer opportunity in the faster growing markets via a combination of organic and inorganic growth.
Market leading brands In calendar year 2011, the Diageo brand range included eight of the top 20 premium spirits brands worldwide by volume estimated by Impact Databank. Diageo classifies its brands as spirits, beer, wine and ready to drink.
An analysis of the group's volume is as follows:
Strategic brands Diageo classifies 14 brands as strategic brands worldwide. These brands are considered to have the greatest current and future earnings potential. Figures for strategic brands
exclude related ready to drink products. In the year ended 30 June 2012, strategic brands accounted for 61% of volume and 60% of net sales. 72% of the group's marketing spend supports these brands.
Production Diageo owns manufacturing production facilities across the globe, including maltings, distilleries, breweries, packaging plants, maturation warehouses, cooperages, vineyards, wineries and distribution warehouses. Diageo's brands are also produced at plants owned and operated by third parties and joint ventures at a number of locations internationally.
Approximately 84% of total manufacturing is undertaken by Global Supply organised into four production centres: Europe Supply, America Supply, Global Beer Supply and Asia Pacific Supply. The remaining production activities of the group are integrated into the distribution organisation, principally in Africa. The locations, principal activities, products, packaging production capacity and packaging production volume of Diageo's principal production centres in the year ended 30 June 2012 are set out in the table below:
Spirits are produced in distilleries located worldwide. The group owns 29 Scotch whisky distilleries in Scotland, an Irish whiskey distillery in Northern Ireland, two whisky distilleries in Canada and a whiskey distillery in the United States. Diageo produces Smirnoff internationally with the production of some brands such as Gordon's vodka (United States) or Cîroc (France) being managed in one location. Ketel One vodka is purchased as finished product from The Nolet Group. Gin distilleries are located in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Baileys is produced in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Rum is blended and bottled in the United States, Canada, Italy and the United Kingdom, and is distilled, blended and bottled in the US Virgin Islands, Australia, Venezuela and also as a result of an acquisition of a controlling interest in Zacapa in July 2011, in Guatemala. Diageo's
maturing Scotch whisky is located in warehouses in Scotland (primarily at Blackgrange), its maturing Canadian whisky in La Salle and Gimli in Canada and its maturing American whiskey in Kentucky and Tennessee in the United States.
In June 2012, Diageo acquired a controlling equity stake in Sichuan Shuijingfang Co., Ltd (Shuijingfang). Shuijingfang owns a distillery which produces a Chinese white sprit, in Chengdu, Sichuan province in China.
In August 2011 Diageo acquired Mey Içki which owns ten plants in Turkey. Six of these plants are intermediate and finishing plants for raki. Two plants are for vodka, gin and liqueur production and two for wine production.
In May 2011 Diageo announced the closure of the Menlo Park bottling plant in California and the specialty product building at the Relay plant in Maryland, in the United States. New investment is being made in the North American spirits supply chain principally in the packaging plants at Plainfield in Illinois and Relay in Maryland.
A restructuring of the group's supply operations in Scotland was announced in July 2009. This resulted in the consolidation of production activities into fewer sites. The Kilmarnock packaging plant ceased operations in March 2012 after production was moved to the newly expanded packaging facility at Leven in Fife.
The group plans to lay down maturing scotch inventory in order to be able to meet future demand and to invest at a cost of over £500 million in maturing spirit over the next five years. This requires the construction of a new malt distillery and additional distillation and warehousing capacity in Scotland for over £500 million in the same period.
A distillery was opened in November 2010 in St. Croix as a result of a public/private initiative formed by Diageo and the government of the US Virgin Islands. This new facility has the capacity to distil up to 13 million equivalent units annually and will supply all bulk rum used to produce Captain Morgan branded products for the United States.
Diageo produces a range of ready to drink products mainly in the United Kingdom, Italy, South Africa, Australia, the United States and Canada.
Diageo's principal brewing facilities are at the St James's Gate brewery in Dublin, Ireland and also in Nigeria, Kenya, Ghana, Cameroon, Tanzania, Malaysia and Jamaica. In addition, Diageo owns a 25% equity interest in Sedibeng brewery in South Africa and in January 2012 completed the acquisition of Meta Abo Brewery in Ethiopia. Additionally, Guinness is brewed by more than 35 third parties around the world under licence arrangements. Guinness flavour extract is shipped from Ireland to all overseas Guinness brewing operations. In January 2012 Diageo announced that its Irish breweries will be centralised in Dublin's St James's Gate site as part of an investment project at a cost of €153 million (£123 million). The brewing activities at Dundalk and Kilkenny are expected to cease by the end of 2013.
All Guinness Draught production in the Republic of Ireland is at the St James's Gate brewery in Dublin. Guinness Draught in cans and bottles is packaged at Runcorn and Belfast in the United Kingdom. The Runcorn facility performs the kegging of Guinness Draught, transported to the United Kingdom in bulk for the Great Britain market.
Diageo's principal wineries are in the United States and Argentina. For European markets, wines are mainly bottled in Diageo's facilities in Italy. Wines are sold both in their local markets and overseas.
Property, plant and equipment Diageo owns approximately 90% of the manufacturing, distilling, brewing, bottling and administration facilities it uses across the group's worldwide operations. It holds approximately 5% of properties on leases in excess of 50 years. The principal production facilities are described above. As at 30 June 2012, Diageo's land and buildings are included in the group's consolidated balance sheet at a net book value of £877 million. Diageo's two largest individual facilities, in terms of book value, are the Leven bottling and blending facility in Scotland and St James's Gate brewery in Dublin. Of the book value of Diageo's lands and buildings approximately 37% are properties located in Great Britain, 18% in Ireland and 16% in the United States.
During the years ended 30 June 2011 and 30 June 2010 a number of vineyards and facilities located in Napa Valley, California were sold and leased back to Diageo under a 20-year lease, with Diageo holding options to extend the lease at fair value for up to 80 years in total. Diageo remains the operator of the properties under the lease agreement and retains ownership of the brands, vines and grapes, which remain a strategic part of Diageo's wine business.
Raw materials and supply agreements The group has a number of long term contracts in place for the purchase of significant raw materials including glass, other packaging, tequila, bulk whisky, neutral spirits, cream, rum and grapes. In addition, forward contracts are in place for the purchase of other raw materials including sugar and cereals to minimise the effects of short term price fluctuations.
Cream is the principal raw material used in the production of Irish cream liqueur and is sourced from Ireland. Grapes are used in the production of wine and are sourced from suppliers in the United States and Argentina. Other raw materials purchased in significant quantities for the production of spirits and beer are molasses, cereals, sugar and a number of flavours (such as juniper berries, agave, aniseed, chocolate and herbs). These are sourced from suppliers around the world.
The majority of products are supplied to customers in glass bottles. Glass is purchased from suppliers located around the world, the principal supplier being the Owens Illinois group.
Diageo has a supply agreement with Casa Cuervo SA de CV, a Mexican company, for the supply of bulk tequila used to make the Jose Cuervo line of tequilas and tequila drinks in the United States. The supply agreement extends to June 2013. Diageo is currently in negotiations with Casa Cuervo SA regarding the relationship between the two companies.
Diageo sources rum for its Captain Morgan products from the Diageo distillery in the US Virgin Islands.
Marketing and distribution Diageo is committed to investing in its brands. In the year ended 30 June 2012, £1,691 million was spent worldwide on marketing brands with a focus on its 14 strategic brands that accounted for 72% of total marketing spend.
Diageo makes extensive use of a diverse range of new and traditional media, from magazine, newspaper, point of sale and billboard advertising, and uses radio, cinema, television and online advertising where appropriate and permitted by law to engage with consumers and customers. Diageo runs consumer promotional programmes in the on trade (for example, licensed bars and restaurants) and supports customers in both the on and off trades with shopper/consumer promotions.
Sponsorship also plays an important role in Diageo's brand marketing and commercial profile. Diageo has formed innovative global partnerships in music with Madonna and Live Nation, the Guinness 'Arthur's Day' concerts and the Buchanan's 'Share Yourself' platform. Diageo also has important partnerships in sport, such as the Vodafone McLaren Mercedes Formula One Team, Manchester United, in rugby, with the English, Irish, Scottish and Welsh rugby teams as well as the Six Nations Championship, and in golf as title sponsor of the Johnnie Walker Championship and sponsor and host of the 2014 Ryder Cup at Gleneagles.
Business analysis In the year ended 30 June 2012, North America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean and Asia Pacific contributed 40%, 27%, 11%, 11% and 10%, respectively, of the group's operating profit before exceptional items and corporate costs.
An analysis of net sales and operating profit by operating segment for the year ended 30 June 2012 is set out in the table below.
North America North America is the largest market for Diageo in terms of operating profit, and the largest market for premium drinks in the world. Diageo sells and markets its products through four operating units: US Spirits & Wines, Diageo-Guinness USA, Diageo Chateau & Estate Wines and Diageo Canada. From the year ended 30 June 2012, North America includes the North American operations of Global Travel.
The United States Spirits & Wines business, while managed as a single business unit, executes sales and marketing activities through seven divisions. Within the United States, there are generally two types of regulatory environments for spirits and wine: open states and control states. In open states, companies are permitted to sell spirits directly to independent distributors. In these open states, Diageo generally trades through a three-tier distribution system, where the product is initially sold to distributors, who then sell it to on and off trade retailers. In most control states, Diageo sells its spirits products to state liquor control boards through the bailment warehousing system, and from there to state or agency liquor stores. There are variations for example, certain states control distribution but not retail sales. Generally, wines are treated in the same way as spirits, although most states that are
control states for spirits are open states for wines. Five of the US Spirits & Wine divisions execute against open states and two execute against control states.
National brand strategy and strategic accounts marketing are managed at the North America level. The Spirits & Wines divisions market Diageo's collection of spirits and wine brands across the United States.
Diageo-Guinness USA markets Diageo's US beer brands nationally as well as the group's progressive adult beverages. Beer distribution generally follows the three-tier open state regulations across the US.
Diageo Chateau & Estate Wines (DC&E) owns, leases and operates wineries in California. In the US, the majority of the wine is sold through the Spirits & Wines divisions with the remainder sold through the winery visitors centres and club sales. In the year ended 30 June 2012, DC&E completed its portfolio rationalisation strategy disposing of certain brands and terminating other agency brands.
The Canada business unit distributes the group's collection of spirits, beer and wine brands across all Canadian territories. In Canada, beer and spirits distribution laws are generally consistent and similar to those of control states in the United States. Diageo, however, has some licences to deliver keg beer directly to licensed accounts, which account for approximately 20% of Diageo's beer business in Canada.
Across the United States, Diageo's distributors and brokers have over 2,900 dedicated sales people focused on selling its spirits and wine brands. Diageo has pursued a distribution strategy centred on consolidating the distribution of Diageo's US spirits and wine brands into a single distributor or broker in each state where possible. The strategy is designed to provide a consolidated distribution network, which will limit the duplication of activities between Diageo and the distributor, improve selling capabilities and enable a number of alternative approaches to optimise product distribution. To date, Diageo has consolidated its business in 41 markets (40 states plus Washington DC), representing over 80% of Diageo's US spirits and wine volume. The remaining states will be consolidated as opportunities arise. Diageo continues to focus on building the capabilities and selling tools of the distributors' dedicated sales forces and creating a more efficient and effective value chain.
Europe In the year ended 30 June 2012 Europe comprises Western Europe, Russia and Eastern Europe, Turkey and the European operations of Global Travel.
Western Europe comprises Great Britain, Ireland, Iberia, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Benelux, Nordics, France, Greece, the Western European reserve brands, Diageo Guinness Continental Europe and European wines.
In Great Britain, Diageo sells and markets its products via three business units: Diageo GB (spirits, beer and ready to drink), Percy Fox & Co (wines) and Justerini & Brooks Retail (private client wines). Products are distributed both through independent wholesalers and directly to the major grocers, convenience and specialist stores. In the on trade (for example, licensed bars and restaurants), products are sold through the major brewers, multiple retail groups and smaller regional independent brewers and wholesalers. The customer base in Great Britain has seen consolidation in recent years in both the on trade and home consumption channels.
Ireland comprises the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. In both territories, Diageo sells and distributes directly to both the on trade and the off trade (for example, retail shops and wholesalers) through a telesales operation, extensive sales calls to outlets and third party logistics providers.
Across the remainder of Western Europe, Diageo distributes its spirits brands primarily through its own distribution companies with the following exceptions. In France Diageo sells its spirits and wine products through a joint arrangement with Moët Hennessy, and its beer products through Brasseries Kronenbourg (part of the Carlsberg group). In the Nordic countries Diageo has sales offices in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and representation through third party distributors in Finland and Iceland. In all Nordic markets except Denmark, off trade sales are controlled by state monopolies, with alcohol tax rates among the highest in the world, and border trade and duty free are important sources of sales. Smirnoff Ice is sold in Nordic countries through Carlsberg.
A specialist unit, Diageo Guinness Continental Europe, has been established for the distribution of Diageo's beer brands in mainland Europe in order to achieve synergies in the marketing and distribution of the Guinness and Kilkenny brands. The distribution of these brands is managed by this specialist unit with particular focus on Germany, Russia and France, which are the largest mainland European beer markets by size for Diageo.
Russia and Eastern Europe comprises Russia, Poland and 32 distributor serviced countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In Russia and Poland Diageo operates through wholly owned subsidiaries. Throughout the whole of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Block (excluding Russia and Poland) plus Iceland, Finland, Malta, Cyprus and Israel, Diageo sells and markets its brands via local distributors. In Hungary, Diageo sells its brands through its associate company Zwack.
In Turkey, Diageo sells its products via the distribution network of its wholly owned subsidiary, Mey Içki. Mey Içki distributes both local brands which are produced in its distilleries (raki, other spirits and wine) and Diageo's global spirits brands. Sales to traditional on and off trade outlets are made through Mey Içki's exclusive distributors and sales to some large store chains are made directly by Mey Içki.
Africa In the year ended 30 June 2012, Africa comprises Nigeria, East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and South Sudan), South Africa, Africa Regional Markets (including Ghana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Angola and Mozambique) and the African operations of Global Travel. Diageo has 14 breweries in Africa including Sedibeng in South Africa which is 25% owned by Diageo. In addition, Diageo's beer and spirits brands are produced by third parties in 20 other African countries. Diageo also owns six other manufacturing facilities including glass manufacturing, blending, malting and cider plants.
In Nigeria, Guinness, Harp and Malta are principal brands that are brewed and distributed by Guinness Nigeria plc. Diageo owns 53.8% of the company, which has been brewing Guinness locally since 1962. Diageo's spirits brands are distributed by a wholly owned subsidiary.
East African Breweries Limited (EABL) is the leading premium drinks business in East Africa and produces and distributes beer and spirits brands to a range of consumers. Diageo owns 50.03% of EABL which in turn owns 100% of Kenya Breweries Limited, 98% of Uganda Breweries Limited and 51% of Serengeti Breweries Limited in Tanzania. South Sudan, Rwanda and Burundi are serviced through third party arrangements. EABL also owns a glass manufacturer and a malting business.
In South Africa Diageo's business consists of its spirits business through its wholly owned subsidiary Diageo South Africa Limited (DSA); a 42.25% share in DHN Drinks (Pty) Ltd (DHN), a joint venture with Heineken International (Heineken) and Namibia Breweries Ltd in respect of beer, cider and ready to drink brands; and a 25% interest in Sedibeng Brewery (Pty) Ltd, the remainder being owned by Heineken. The route to market for DSA and DHN's brands in South Africa is managed by brandhouse Beverages (Pty) Ltd (brandhouse). Brandhouse is a cost sharing joint venture
owned equally between DSA and DHN. Diageo also owns 15.01% of Namibia Breweries Ltd. Namibia Breweries is the producer of Windhoek lager which is sold mainly in Namibia and through DHN in South Africa.
Within Africa Regional Markets, Diageo has wholly owned subsidiaries in Cameroon, Ethiopia and Reunion and majority owned subsidiaries in Ghana and the Seychelles. Angola and Mozambique are currently supplied by third party arrangements. In 2012 Diageo acquired 100% of the equity of Meta Abo Brewery from the Ethiopian government, of which Meta beer is the principal brand.
Diageo has brewing arrangements with the Castel Group to license brew and distribute Guinness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali and Guinea. Diageo sells spirits through distributors in most other sub-Saharan countries.
Latin America and Caribbean In the year ended 30 June 2012, Latin America and Caribbean comprises PUB (Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil), West LAC, Andean (Venezuela, Colombia), Mexico and the LAC operations of Global Travel.
In Latin America and Caribbean, distribution is achieved through a mixture of Diageo companies and third party distributors. In addition, Diageo owns a controlling interest in Desnoes & Geddes Limited, the Jamaican brewer of Red Stripe lager.
In PUB, Diageo sells directly to international retailers in Brazil, while selling through distributors and wholesalers for the remainder of the business. In Paraguay the majority of customers are served by Diageo with a portion of sales completed through wholesalers. In Uruguay, Diageo?s distribution company manages approximately half of the sales in the market with the other half managed through wholesalers. In August 2012 Diageo completed the acquisition of 100% of Ypióca, the leading producer and distributor of a cachaça brand from Ypióca Agroindustrial Limitada.
West LAC comprises Central America and Caribbean, Jamaica, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. In select markets such as the Free Trade Zone, Bolivia and Ecuador, sales are managed directly by Diageo. Key markets such as Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic sell via exclusive distributors, while in Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Guatemala and Panama, third party distributors purchase directly from Diageo and sell on to the local trade. In Chile, Diageo sells directly to international retailers, partnering with an exclusive distributor in the remainder of the country for other channels. In Argentina, Diageo?s business is managed through a combination of wholesalers and distributors outside of major grocers, to whom Diageo sells directly. Diageo Argentina also owns and operates the Navarro Correas winery in Mendoza, Argentina. The winery sells directly to consumers. Jamaica sells to wholesalers and directly to retail trade accounts on the island.
In Andean, all products in Venezuela are sold through dedicated third party distributors. In Colombia, Diageo sells directly to major grocers, serving all other accounts and channels through distributors.
In Mexico, distribution of Smirnoff is managed by Casa Cuervo SA. All other brands are sold directly by Diageo, either through direct sales to international accounts or through wholesalers and distributors.
Asia Pacific In the year ended 30 June 2012, Asia Pacific comprises South East Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore), Australia, North Asia (Korea and Japan), Greater China (China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), India and Global Travel Asia and Middle East. Diageo operates via a combination of Diageo companies, joint ventures and third party distributors in the region.
In South East Asia, Diageo distributes its spirits brands through joint venture arrangements with Moët Hennessy in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. In Indonesia, Guinness is brewed by PT Multi Bintang Indonesia, and is distributed through a distribution agreement with PT Dima Indonesia while spirit brands are distributed by government licensed distributors. In Malaysia, Diageo's own and third party beers are brewed and distributed by a listed business (Guinness Anchor Berhad) in which Diageo and its partner, Asia Pacific Breweries, have a majority share through a jointly controlled entity. In Singapore, Diageo's beer brands are brewed and distributed by Asia Pacific Breweries. In Vietnam, Diageo's brands are distributed through its own distribution company. Diageo entered into a strategic partnership agreement with Hanoi Liquor Joint Stock Company (Halico) in January 2011. During the year Diageo acquired additional shares that increased its equity stake to 45.5% in Halico. Diageo also increased its ownership in Diageo Philippines Inc, a company that distributes Diageo's spirits brands in the Philippines, by 49% to 100%.
In Australia, Diageo has its own production and distribution company. The previous distribution agreement with VOK Beverages that included a number of smaller brands like JeB and Dimple was terminated on 31 January 2012. Diageo also has a licensed brewing arrangement with Foster's which will transfer to Lion Nathan from November 2012. In New Zealand, Diageo operates through third party distributors and has a licensed brewing arrangement with Lion Nathan.
In North Asia, Diageo has its own distribution company in Korea. In Japan, the joint venture with Moët Hennessy distributes super premium brands such as the super deluxe variants of Johnnie Walker, while the joint venture with Kirin distributes Diageo's other premium spirits such as Johnnie Walker Black Label and Smirnoff, as well as Guinness and Smirnoff Ice. Other spirit brands, which are not distributed by either Moët Hennessy or the Kirin joint venture, are distributed by third parties.
In Greater China, Diageo distributes the majority of its spirits brands through a joint venture arrangement with Moët Hennessy in China, Hong Kong and Macau. Diageo also owns a wholly owned subsidiary in China that distributes brands not included in the joint venture such as Smirnoff, Windsor and Baileys. Diageo's beer brands are sold through a distribution agreement with Carlsberg in China and Hong Kong. In July 2011, Diageo acquired an additional 4% equity stake in Sichuan Chengdu Quanxing Company Ltd. (Quanxing) bringing its equity stake to 53%. Quanxing is a holding company controlling a 39.7% equity stake in Shuijingfang a super premium Chinese white spirits company which itself became a subsidiary of Diageo following the appointment of additional directors in June 2012. Diageo is the sole distributor of Shuijingfang's Chinese white spirits outside of China. In Taiwan, Diageo has its own distribution company for spirits.
In India, Diageo has its own spirits distribution company.
Airport shops and airline customers in Asia Pacific are serviced through a dedicated Diageo sales and marketing organisation. In the Middle East, distribution is achieved through third party distributors. Lebanon is an exception, where a Diageo subsidiary distributes the majority of the Diageo brands sold there.
Global Supply Global Supply is responsible for the production of approximately 81% of Diageo's products sold globally, for sourcing materials and services through global procurement, for providing consistent technical support through the global technical function and providing logistic and customer services through the global supply chain organisation.
Global procurement has responsibility for sourcing goods and services on behalf of the Diageo group. A global network of suppliers provides for a wide range of raw materials and packaging items that are necessary to ensure consistency of quality to support the brands. With the high level of
dependency on agricultural commodities such as cereals, hops and sugar, forward-buying takes place to minimise value at risk. In marketing, global procurement supports the business in sourcing creative media solutions, sponsorship and point of sale activities. Global procurement also supports business services, facilities and computer services.
The global technical function develops and implements consistent engineering solutions across the Global Supply organisation and in other production sites in Africa and Asia. The global supply chain function also provides logistics services in Europe and is responsible for a consistent customer service globally.
Corporate Corporate costs which cannot be directly allocated to the business areas are reported separately within Corporate in the analysis of business performance. Also included in Corporate are the revenues and costs related to rents receivable in respect of properties not used by Diageo in the manufacture, sale or distribution of premium drink products and the results of Gleneagles Hotel.
Seasonal impacts Approximately 40% of annual net sales occur in the last four months of each calendar year.
Employees Diageo's people, its culture and its values are at the heart of the company's strategy and Diageo's directors believe this to be a source of competitive advantage. It continues to be Diageo's goal to release the potential of all of its people.
Diageo's review of its operating model during the past year and the resulting changes have presented new challenges for its employees. In developed markets the new operating model has meant a focus on efficiency and customer orientation. For emerging markets, it has resulted in a greater focus on investment in brands and in commercial and leadership capability. As a consequence, there has been an internal shift of employees and resources to the areas of greatest potential growth. Early indicators suggest that Diageo's employees feel that they have benefited from this new and focused approach. Diageo has been committed to providing its employees with appropriate support during this transition period, both in the case of employees that have left the company following the changes and those that have taken on new roles within the company.
Diageo prides itself on creating an environment that is both welcoming and inspirational for its employees and is proud to have been included in the prestigious Great Place to Work Institute's '25 Best Multinational Workplaces', achieving an 11th place ranking confirming its place as a leading global employer. Diageo has also been recognised in reports published by Great Place to Work Institute as a leading workplace in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, the European Union, Germany, Ireland, the Latin America region, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Uruguay and Venezuela. These achievements have only been possible through the commitment of the thousands of talented and inspirational employees who have collectively made Diageo a great place to work.
Diageo values diversity in its workforce and works to ensure that the group is inclusive of all people, regardless of their background or style. To enhance diversity, Diageo aims to create opportunities that are attractive to a wide range of candidates, including those with disabilities, and seeks to make working for Diageo compatible with a variety of lifestyles. Diageo sponsors an ever growing number of employee networks around the world that seek to support diverse interest groups. The company also seeks to design and adjust roles to accommodate people's lifestyles and increasingly encourages flexible working. Not only is this approach to inclusion and diversity consistent with Diageo's values, it is also believed to be important for the long term health of the organisation. As part
of Diageo's global policies, Diageo emphasises the importance of treating individuals justly and in a non-discriminatory manner in all aspects of employment, including recruitment, compensation and benefits, training, promotion, transfer and termination. Accordingly, factors not relevant to the requirements of a role, including without limitation race, religion, colour, ethnic or national origin, disability, sexual orientation, gender or marital status, are not considered, and reasonable adjustments are considered (and if necessary appropriate training provided) so that no individual is disadvantaged.
Diageo strongly believes in the value of its employees sharing in the company's success and actively encourage employees to become shareholders. The group seeks out opportunities to extend employee share ownership around the world and in 2012 31 countries operated an all employee share plan. A further two countries will be invited to participate in Diageo's International Sharematch Plan later this year. This, combined with existing employee share plans, will further extend the opportunity to the majority of employees across a significant number of Diageo's markets to share in the company's growth and success. As at 30 June 2012, 16,531 past and present employees held 1.16% (2011 1.17%) of Diageo's ordinary issued share capital.
The average number of employees from 30 June 2011 to 30 June 2012 for developed markets has decreased by 393 from 15,984 to 15,591 and for emerging markets has increased by 2,305 from 7,802 to 10,107.
Competition Diageo competes on the basis of consumer loyalty, quality and price.
In spirits, Diageo's major global competitors are Pernod Ricard, Bacardi, Fortune Brands and Brown-Forman, each of which has several brands that compete directly with Diageo brands. In addition, Diageo faces competition from local and regional companies in the countries in which it operates.
In beer, the Guinness brand competes globally as well as on a regional and local basis (with the profile varying between regions) with several competitors, including AB InBev, Heineken, SABMiller, Coors Brewing (Carling) and Carlsberg.
In wine, the market is fragmented with many producers and distributors.
Research and development The overall nature of the group's business does not demand substantial expenditure on research and development. However, the group has ongoing programmes for developing new drinks products. Innovation forms an important part of Diageo's growth strategy, playing a key role in positioning its brands for continued growth in both the developed and emerging worlds. The strength and depth of Diageo's brand range provide solid platforms from which to drive innovation, while insights into shopper trends and changing consumer habits inform product and packaging development.
In the year ended 30 June 2012, the group's research and development expenditure amounted to £18 million (2011 £17 million; 2010 £13 million). Research and development expenditure is generally written off in the year in which it is incurred.
Trademarks Diageo produces, sells and distributes branded goods and is therefore substantially dependent on the maintenance and protection of its trademarks. All brand names mentioned in this document are trademarks. The group also holds numerous licences and trade secrets, as well as having substantial trade knowledge related to its products. The group believes that its significant trademarks are registered and/or otherwise protected (insofar as legal protections are available) in all material respects in its most important markets. Diageo also owns valuable patents and trade secrets for technology and takes all reasonable steps to protect these rights.
Regulations and taxes Diageo's worldwide operations are subject to extensive regulatory requirements regarding production, product liability, distribution, importation, marketing, promotion, sales, pricing, labelling, packaging, advertising, labour, pensions, compliance and control systems and environmental issues. In the United States, the beverage alcohol industry is subject to strict federal and state government regulations covering virtually every aspect of its operations, including production, distribution, marketing, promotion, sales, pricing, labelling, packaging and advertising.
Spirits, beer and wine are subject to national import and excise duties in many markets around the world. Most countries impose excise duties on beverage alcohol products, although the form of such taxation varies significantly from a simple application to units of alcohol by volume, to advanced systems based on imported or wholesale value of the product. Several countries impose additional import duty on distilled spirits, often discriminating between categories (such as Scotch whisky or bourbon) in the rate of such tariffs. Within the European Union, such products are subject to different rates of excise duty in each country, but within an overall European Union framework, there are minimum rates of excise duties that can be applied.
Import and excise duties can have a significant impact on the final pricing of Diageo's products to consumers. These duties have an impact on the competitive position as compared to other brands. The group devotes resources to encouraging the equitable taxation treatment of all beverage alcohol categories and to reducing government-imposed barriers to fair trading.
Advertising, marketing and sales of alcohol are subject to various restrictions in markets around the world. These range from a complete prohibition of alcohol in certain countries and cultures, through the prohibition of the import of spirits, wine and beer, to restrictions on the advertising style, media and messages used. In a number of countries, television is a prohibited medium for spirits brands and in other countries, television advertising, while permitted, is carefully regulated.
Spirits, beer and wine are also regulated in distribution. In many countries, alcohol may only be sold through licensed outlets, both on and off trade, varying from government or state operated
monopoly outlets (for example, Canada, Norway and certain US states) to the common system of licensed on trade outlets (for example, licensed bars and restaurants) which prevails in much of the western world (for example, most US states and the European Union). In about one-third of the states in the United States, price changes must be filed or published 30 days to three months, depending on the state, before they become effective.
Labelling of beverage alcohol products is also regulated in many markets, varying from health warning labels to importer identification, alcohol strength and other consumer information. As well as producer, importer or bottler identification, specific warning statements related to the risks of drinking beverage alcohol products are required to be included on all beverage alcohol products sold in the United States and in other countries where Diageo operates. Expressions of political concern signify the uncertain future of beverage alcohol products advertising on network television in the United States. Any prohibitions on advertising or marketing could have an adverse impact on sales of the group.
Regulatory decisions and changes in the legal and regulatory environment could increase Diageo's costs and liabilities or impact on its business activities.
Business services Diageo continues to standardise its key business activities with customers, consumers, suppliers and the processes that summarise and report financial performance. In that regard, global processes have been designed, built and implemented across a number of markets and operational entities.
Diageo uses shared services operations to deliver transaction processing and certain central finance activities, using captive and outsourced centres. A captive business service centre in Budapest, Hungary, performs various process tasks for markets and operational entities. In the year ended 30 June 2012, Diageo announced the opening of new captive business service centres in Nairobi, Kenya and Bogota, Colombia. Diageo also uses third party service centres in Manila, Shanghai and Bucharest to perform tasks for basic processes. Certain central finance activities, including elements of group financial planning and reporting and treasury, are performed in the business service centre in Budapest.
Associates Diageo's principal associate is Moët Hennessy. It also owns shares in a number of other associates. In the year ended 30 June 2012, the share of profits of associates after tax was £213 million (2011 £176 million; 2010 £142 million), of which Moët Hennessy accounted for £205 million (2011 £179 million; 2010 £134 million).
Diageo owns 34% of Moët Hennessy, the spirits and wine subsidiary of LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA (LVMH). LVMH is based in France and is listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. Moët Hennessy is also based in France and is a producer and exporter of a number of brands in its main business areas of champagne and cognac. Its principal champagne brands are Moët & Chandon (including Dom Pérignon), Veuve Clicquot and Mercier, all of which are included in the top 10 champagne brands worldwide by volume. Moët Hennessy also owns Hennessy, which is the top cognac brand worldwide by volume, and Glenmorangie, a malt whisky.
Since 1987, a number of joint distribution arrangements have been established with LVMH, principally covering distribution of Diageo's premium brands of Scotch whisky and gin and Moët Hennessy's premium champagne and cognac brands in the Asia Pacific region and France. Diageo and LVMH have each undertaken not to engage in any champagne or cognac activities competing with those of Moët Hennessy. The arrangements also contain certain provisions for the
protection of Diageo as a minority shareholder in Moët Hennessy. The operations of Moët Hennessy in France are conducted through a partnership in which Diageo has a 34% interest and, as a partner, Diageo pays any tax due on its share of the results of the partnership to the tax authorities.
Acquisitions and disposals Diageo has made a number of acquisitions of brands, distribution rights and equity interests in premium drinks businesses. Since 1 July 2009 the following acquisitions and disposals have been made:
Diageo believes the following to be the principal risks and uncertainties facing the group. If any of these risks occur, Diageo's business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer and the trading price and liquidity of securities could decline.
In the ongoing uncertain economic environment, certain risks may gain more prominence either individually or when taken together. The following are examples of ways that any of the risks below may become exacerbated. Demand for beverage alcohol products, in particular luxury or super premium products, may decrease with a reduction in consumer spending levels. Costs of operations may increase if inflation were to become prevalent, or upon an increase in the costs of raw materials. These factors may also lead to intensified competition for market share, with consequential potentially adverse effects on volumes and prices. The financial and economic situation may have a negative impact on third parties with whom Diageo does, or may do, business. Any of these factors may affect the group's results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Diageo has taken and may take further steps to manage its business through this challenging economic environment and position its business to benefit from economic recovery as and when it may occur in the various markets in which Diageo operates, but there can be no assurance that the steps taken will have the intended results.
If there is an extended period of constraint in the capital markets, with debt markets in particular experiencing a lack of liquidity, at a time when cash flows from Diageo's business may be under pressure, this may have an impact on Diageo's ability to maintain current long term strategies, with a consequent effect on the group's growth rate. Such developments may adversely affect shareholder returns or share price. Additionally, continued volatility in exchange rates used to translate foreign currencies into pounds sterling may have a significant impact on Diageo's reported results. Decreases in the trustees' valuations of Diageo's pension plans may also increase pension funding requirements.
Risks related to the global economy
Diageo's business may be adversely impacted by unfavourable economic conditions or political or other developments and risks in the countries in which it operates Diageo may be adversely affected by political and economic developments or industrial action in any of the countries where Diageo has distribution networks, production facilities or marketing companies. Diageo's business is dependent on general economic conditions in the United States, countries that form the European Union and other important markets. If the economy in the United States or in the countries that form the European Union do not recover as forecast or if there is a significant deterioration in the economic conditions in any of Diageo's important markets, including any resulting social unrest, reduction in consumer confidence and spending levels, customer destocking, the failure of customer, supplier or financial
counterparties or a reduction in the availability of, or an increase in the cost of financing to, Diageo, it could have a material adverse effect on Diageo's business and results of operations. In particular, the ongoing sovereign debt crisis in certain countries in Europe has increased concerns that, were one or more countries to leave the euro, Diageo's investment in any countries concerned could be impaired and may be subject to redenomination and other risks going forward. This crisis, as well as other economic events, may lead to reduced economic growth and, in turn, reduced demand for Diageo's products, in Europe and other markets in which Diageo operates, which could have a material adverse effect on Diageo's business and results of operations.
Diageo's operations are also subject to a variety of other risks and uncertainties related to trading in numerous foreign countries, including political or economic upheaval and the imposition of any import, investment or currency restrictions, including tariffs and import quotas or any restrictions on the repatriation of earnings and capital. Political and/or social unrest, potential health issues (including pandemic issues), natural disasters and terrorist threats and/or acts may also occur in various places around the world, which will have an impact on trade, tourism and travel. Many of these risks are heightened, or occur more frequently, in emerging markets. These disruptions can affect Diageo's ability to import or export products and to repatriate funds, as well as affecting the levels of consumer demand (for example, in duty free outlets at airports or in on trade premises in affected regions) and therefore Diageo's levels of sales or profitability. A substantial portion of Diageo's operations, representing nearly 40% of Diageo's net sales for the year ended 30 June 2012, are carried out in emerging markets, including Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Russia and emerging markets in Africa and Asia. Emerging markets are also generally exposed to relatively higher risk of liquidity, inflation, devaluation, price volatility, currency convertibility and sovereign default. Due to Diageo's specific exposures, any or all of the aforementioned factors may affect Diageo disproportionately or in a different manner as compared to its competitors.
Part of Diageo's growth strategy includes expanding its business in certain countries where consumer spending in general, and spending on Diageo's products in particular, has not historically been as great but where there are prospects for growth. There is no guarantee that this strategy will be successful and some of the markets represent a higher risk in terms of their changing regulatory environments and higher degree of uncertainty over levels of consumer spending.
Risks related to the industry
Demand for Diageo's products may be adversely affected by many factors, including changes in consumer preferences and tastes and adverse impacts of a declining economy Diageo's collection of brands includes some of the world's leading beverage alcohol brands as well as brands of local prominence. Maintaining Diageo's competitive position depends on its continued ability to offer products that have a strong appeal to consumers. Consumer preferences may shift due to a variety of factors including changes in demographic and social trends, public health regulations, changes in travel, vacation or leisure activity patterns, weather effects and a downturn in economic conditions, which may reduce consumers' willingness to purchase premium branded products. The competitive position of Diageo's brands could also be affected adversely by any failure to achieve consistent, reliable quality in the product or service levels to customers.
In addition, the social acceptability of Diageo's products may decline due to public concerns about alcohol consumption, including alcohol abuse, drink driving, underage drinking or potential health consequences. These concerns may also result in regulatory action, litigation or customer complaints against companies in the industry and may have an adverse effect on Diageo's profitability.
The launch and ongoing success of new products is inherently uncertain, especially as to their appeal to consumers. The failure to launch a new product successfully can give rise to inventory write-offs and other costs and can affect consumer perception of an existing brand. Growth in Diageo's business has been based on both the launch of new products and the creation of brand extensions, and can impact growth of existing products. Product innovation remains a significant aspect of Diageo's plans for growth. There can be no assurance as to Diageo's continuing ability to develop and launch successful new products or variants of existing products or as to the profitable lifespan of newly or recently developed products. Any significant changes in consumer preferences and failure to anticipate and react to such changes could result in reduced demand for Diageo's products and erosion of its competitive and financial position. Continued economic pressures could lead to consumer selection of products at lower price points, whether Diageo's or those of competitors, which may have an adverse effect on Diageo's profitability.
Diageo is subject to litigation directed at the beverage alcohol industry and other litigation Companies in the beverage alcohol industry are, from time to time, exposed to class action or other litigation relating to alcohol advertising, product liability, alcohol abuse problems or health consequences from the misuse of alcohol. Diageo may be subject to litigation with tax, customs and other regulatory authorities, including with respect to the methodology for assessing importation value, transfer pricing and compliance matters, and Diageo is routinely subject to litigation in the ordinary course of its operations. Diageo may also be subject to litigation arising from legacy and discontinued activities. Such litigation may result in damages, penalties or fines as well as reputational damage to Diageo or its brands, and as a result, Diageo's business could be materially adversely affected. For additional information with respect to legal proceedings, see 'Additional information for shareholders Legal proceedings' and note 31 to the consolidated financial statements.
Climate change, or legal, regulatory or market measures to address climate change, may negatively affect Diageo's business or operations, and water scarcity or poor quality could negatively impact Diageo's production costs and capacity There is a growing concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. In the event that such climate change has a negative effect on agricultural productivity, Diageo may be subject to decreased availability or less favourable pricing for certain raw materials that are necessary for Diageo's products, such as sugar, cereals, hops, agave and grapes. Water is the main ingredient in substantially all of Diageo's products. It is also a limited resource in many parts of the world, facing unprecedented challenges from climate change, overexploitation, increasing pollution, and poor management. As demand for water continues to increase around the world, and as water becomes scarcer and the quality of available water deteriorates, Diageo may be affected by increasing production costs or capacity constraints, which could adversely affect Diageo's results of operations and profitability.
An increase in the cost of raw materials or energy could affect Diageo's profitability The components that Diageo uses for the production of its beverage products are largely commodities that are subject to price volatility caused by changes in global supply and demand, weather conditions, agricultural uncertainty and/or governmental controls. Commodity price changes may result in unexpected increases in the cost of raw materials, glass bottles, flavours and other packaging materials and Diageo's beverage products. Diageo may also be adversely affected by shortages of such materials. In addition, energy cost increases result in higher transportation, freight and other operating costs. Diageo may not be able to increase its prices to offset these increased costs without suffering reduced volume, sales and operating profit. Diageo may experience significant increases in commodity costs and energy costs.
Risks related to regulation
Regulatory decisions and changes in the legal and regulatory environment could increase Diageo's costs and liabilities or limit its business activities Diageo's operations are subject to extensive regulatory requirements which include those in respect of production, product liability, distribution, importation, marketing, promotion, sales, pricing, labelling, packaging, advertising, labour, pensions, compliance and control systems, and environmental issues. Changes in laws, regulations or governmental or regulatory policies and/or practices could cause Diageo to incur material additional costs or liabilities that could adversely affect its business. In particular, governmental bodies in countries where Diageo operates may impose new labelling, product or production requirements, limitations on the advertising and/or promotion activities used to market beverage alcohol, restrictions on retail outlets, other restrictions on marketing, promotion, importation and distribution or other restrictions on the locations or occasions where beverage alcohol is sold which directly or indirectly limit the sales of Diageo products. Regulatory authorities under whose laws Diageo operates may also have enforcement power that can subject the group to actions such as product recall, seizure of products or other sanctions, which could have an adverse effect on its sales or damage its reputation. An increase in the stringency of the regulatory environment could cause Diageo to incur material additional costs or liabilities that could adversely affect its business.
In addition, beverage alcohol products are the subject of national excise, import duty and other duties in most countries around the world. An increase in any such duties could have a significant adverse effect on Diageo's sales revenue or margin, both through reducing overall consumption and by encouraging consumers to switch to lower-taxed categories of beverage alcohol.
Diageo's reported after tax income is calculated based on extensive tax and accounting requirements in each of its relevant jurisdictions of operation. Changes in tax law (including tax rates), accounting policies and accounting standards could materially reduce Diageo's reported after tax income.
Risks related to Diageo's business
Diageo faces competition that may reduce its market share and margins Diageo faces substantial competition from several international companies as well as local and regional companies in the countries in which it operates. Diageo competes with drinks companies across a wide range of consumer drinking occasions. Within a number of categories, consolidation or realignment is still possible. Consolidation is also taking place amongst Diageo's customers in many countries. Increased competition and unanticipated actions by competitors or customers could lead to downward pressure on prices and/or a decline in Diageo's market share in any of these categories, which would adversely affect Diageo's results and hinder its growth potential.
Diageo may not be able to derive the expected benefits from its strategy to focus on premium drinks or from its acquisitions or cost-saving and restructuring programmes designed to enhance earnings Diageo's strategy is to focus on premium drinks to grow its business through organic sales, operating profit growth and the acquisition of premium drinks brands that add value for shareholders. There can be no assurance that Diageo's strategic focus on premium drinks will result in opportunities for growth and improved margins.
It is possible that the pursuit of this strategic focus on premium drinks could give rise to further business combinations, acquisitions, disposals, joint ventures and/or partnerships (including any
associated financing or the assumption of actual or potential liabilities, depending on the transaction contemplated). There can be no assurance that any transaction will be completed. The success of any transaction will depend in part on Diageo's ability to successfully integrate new businesses with Diageo's existing operations and realise the anticipated benefits, cost savings or synergies. There can be no guarantee that any such business combination, acquisition, disposal, joint venture or partnership would deliver the benefits, cost savings or synergies anticipated, if any.
Similarly, there can be no assurance that the cost-saving or restructuring programmes implemented by Diageo in order to improve efficiencies and deliver cost-savings will deliver the expected benefits.
Contamination, counterfeiting or other events could harm the integrity of customer support for Diageo's brands and adversely affect the sales of those brands The success of Diageo's brands depends upon the positive image that consumers have of those brands, and contamination, whether arising accidentally, or through deliberate third party action, or other events that harm the integrity or consumer support for those brands, could adversely affect their sales. Diageo purchases most of the raw materials for the production and packaging of its products from third party producers or on the open market. Diageo may be subject to liability if contaminants in those raw materials or defects in the distillation, fermentation or bottling process lead to low beverage quality or illness among, or injury to, Diageo's consumers. In addition, Diageo may voluntarily recall products in the event of contamination or damage. A significant product liability judgement or a widespread product recall may negatively impact on sales and profitability of the affected brand or all Diageo brands for a period of time depending on product availability, competitive reaction and consumer attitudes. Even if a product liability claim is unsuccessful or is not fully pursued, resulting negative publicity could adversely affect Diageo's reputation with existing and potential customers and its corporate and brand image.
In addition, to the extent that third parties sell products which are either counterfeit versions of Diageo brands or inferior brands that look like Diageo brands, consumers of Diageo brands could confuse Diageo products with them. This could cause them to refrain from purchasing Diageo brands in the future and in turn could impair brand equity, adversely affecting Diageo's business.
Diageo's operating results may be adversely affected by increased costs or shortages of labour Diageo's operating results could be adversely affected by labour or skill shortages or increased labour costs due to increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover or increased employee benefit costs. Diageo's success is dependent on the capability of its employees. There is no guarantee that Diageo will continue to be able to recruit, retain and develop the capabilities that it requires to deliver its strategy, for example in relation to sales, marketing and innovation capability within markets or in its senior management. The loss of senior management or other key personnel or the inability to identify, attract and retain qualified personnel in the future could make it difficult to manage the business and could adversely affect operations and financial results.
Diageo's operating results may be adversely affected by disruption to production facilities, business service centres or information systems and change programs may not deliver the benefits intended Diageo would be affected if there were a catastrophic failure of its major production facilities or business service centres. See 'Business description Premium drinks Production' for details of Diageo's principal production areas. Diageo operates production facilities around the world. If there were a technical integrity failure, fire or explosion at one of Diageo's production facilities, it could result in damage to the facilities, plant or equipment, their surroundings or the environment, could lead to a loss in production capacity, or could result in regulatory action, legal liability or damage to
Diageo's reputation. In addition, the maintenance and development of information systems may result in systems failures which may adversely affect business operations.
Diageo has a substantial inventory of aged product categories, principally Scotch whisky and Canadian whisky, which may mature over periods of up to 30 years or more. The maturing inventory is stored primarily in Scotland, and the loss through contamination, fire or other natural disaster of all or a portion of the stock of any one of those aged product categories could result in a significant reduction in supply of those products, and consequently, Diageo would not be able to meet consumer demand for those products as it arises. There can be no assurance that insurance proceeds would cover the replacement value of Diageo's maturing inventory or other assets, were such assets to be lost due to contamination, fire or natural disasters or destruction resulting from negligence or the acts of third parties. In addition, there is an inherent risk of forecasting error in determining the quantity of maturing stock to lay down in a given year for future consumption. This could lead to an inability to supply future demand or lead to a future surplus of inventory and consequent write down in value of maturing stocks.
Any failure of information systems could adversely impact Diageo's ability to operate. As with all large systems, Diageo's information systems could be penetrated by outside parties' intent on extracting information, corrupting information or disrupting business processes. Such unauthorised access could disrupt Diageo's business and/or lead to loss of assets or to outside parties having access to privileged data or strategic information of Diageo and its employees, customers and consumers, or to making such information public in a manner that harms Diageo's reputation. The concentration of processes in business service centres also means that any disruption arising from system failure or physical plant issues could impact a large portion of Diageo's global business.
Certain change programmes designed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of end-to-end operating, administrative and financial systems and processes continue to be undertaken. This includes moving transaction processing from a number of markets to business service centres. There can be no certainty that these programmes will deliver the expected operational benefits. There may be disruption caused to production processes and to administrative and financial systems as further changes to such processes are effected. They could also lead to adverse customer or consumer reaction.
Diageo's operations and financial results may be adversely affected by movements in the value of its pension funds, fluctuations in exchange rates and fluctuations in interest rates Diageo has significant pension funds. These funds may be affected by, among other things, the performance of assets owned by these plans, the underlying actuarial assumptions used to calculate the surplus or deficit in the plans, in particular the discount rate and long term inflation rates used to calculate the liabilities of the pension funds, and any changes in applicable laws and regulations. If there are significant declines in financial markets and/or deterioration in the value of fund assets or changes in discount rates or inflation rates, Diageo may need to make significant contributions to the pension funds in the future. Furthermore, if the market values of the assets held by Diageo's pension funds decline, or if the valuations of those assets by the pension trustees decline, pension expenses may increase and, as a result, could materially adversely affect Diageo's financial position. There is no assurance that interest rates or inflation rates will remain constant or that pension fund assets can earn the assumed rate of return annually, and Diageo's actual experience may be significantly more negative.
Diageo may be adversely affected by fluctuations in exchange rates. In particular, any redenomination of the euro or its constituent parts could materially adversely affect Diageo. The results of operations of Diageo are accounted for in pounds sterling. Approximately 37% of sales in the year
ended 30 June 2012 were in US dollars, approximately 13% were in euros and approximately 10% were in sterling. Movements in exchange rates used to translate foreign currencies into pounds sterling may have a significant impact on Diageo's reported results of operations from year to year.
Diageo may also be adversely impacted by fluctuations in interest rates, mainly through an increased interest expense. To partly delay any adverse impact from interest rate movements, the group's policy is to maintain fixed rate borrowings within a certain percentage of forecast net borrowings, and the overall net borrowings portfolio is managed according to a duration measure. See note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.
Diageo's operations may be adversely affected by failure to maintain or renegotiate distribution, supply, manufacturing or licence agreements on favourable terms Diageo's business has a number of distribution, supply, manufacturing or licence agreements for brands owned by it or by other companies. These agreements vary depending on the particular brand, but tend to be for a fixed number of years. There can be no assurance that Diageo will be able to renegotiate its rights on favourable terms when they expire or that these agreements will not be terminated. Failure to renew these agreements on favourable terms could have an adverse impact on Diageo's sales and operating profit. In addition, Diageo's sales and operating profit may be adversely affected by any disputes with distributors of its products or with suppliers of raw materials.
Diageo may not be able to protect its intellectual property rights Given the importance of brand recognition to its business, Diageo has invested considerable effort in protecting its intellectual property rights, including trademark registration and domain names. Diageo's patents cover some of its process technology, including some aspects of its bottle marking technology. Diageo also uses security measures and agreements to protect its confidential information and trade secrets. However, Diageo cannot be certain that the steps it has taken will be sufficient or that third parties will not infringe on or misappropriate its intellectual property rights in its brands or products. Moreover, some of the countries in which Diageo operates offer less intellectual property protection than Europe or North America. Given the attractiveness of Diageo's brands to consumers, it is not uncommon for counterfeit products to be manufactured and traded. Diageo cannot be certain that the steps it takes to assist the authorities to prevent, detect and eliminate counterfeit products will be effective in preventing material loss of profits or erosion of brand equity resulting from lower quality or even dangerous counterfeit product reaching the market. If Diageo is unable to protect its intellectual property rights against infringement or misappropriation, this could materially harm its future financial results and ability to develop its business.
The value of Diageo's brands and its net sales may be negatively affected by its failure to maintain its brand image and corporate reputation The value of Diageo's brands and its profitability depends heavily on its ability to maintain its brand image and corporate reputation. Adverse publicity, whether or not justified, may tarnish Diageo's reputation and cause consumers to choose products offered by its competitors. Such adverse publicity could arise as a result of a perceived failure by Diageo to make adequate positive social contributions, any tax disputes or failures of internal controls or compliance breaches leading to a breach of Diageo's Code of Business Conduct, its other key policies or of the laws or regulations in the jurisdictions in which it operates.
Diageo also maintains an online presence as part of its business operations. Diageo's reputation may suffer if it is perceived to fail to appropriately restrict access to its online content or if it breaches any marketing regulation, code or policy. In addition, the proliferation of new methods of mass
communication facilitated by the internet makes it easier for false or unfounded allegations to adversely affect Diageo's brand image and reputation, which may in turn affect Diageo's profitability.
Data security and reliability is important to maintaining Diageo's business operations, and a breach of Diageo's data security could negatively affect Diageo The security and reliability of Diageo's data infrastructure are critical to maintaining the availability and reliable operation of Diageo's business applications, including technology used in Diageo's business operations, in the collection and processing of financial and operational data and in the maintenance of the confidentiality of certain third-party information. A breach of the security or reliability of Diageo's data infrastructure, whether by intentional actions, negligence or otherwise, could result in interruption of and serious damage to Diageo's business operations and, in some circumstances, could result in property damage, breaches of regulations, litigation, legal liabilities and reparation costs.
Risks related to Diageo's securities
It may be difficult to effect service of US process and enforce US legal process against the directors of Diageo Diageo is a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. The majority of Diageo's directors and officers, and some of the experts named in this document, reside outside of the United States, principally in the United Kingdom. A substantial portion of Diageo's assets, and the assets of such persons, are located outside of the United States. Therefore, it may not be possible to effect service of process within the United States upon Diageo or these persons in order to enforce judgements of US courts against Diageo or these persons based on the civil liability provisions of the US federal securities laws. There is doubt as to the enforceability in England and Wales, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgements of US courts, of civil liabilities solely based on the US federal securities laws.
This document contains 'forward-looking statements'. These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. In particular, forward-looking statements include all statements that express forecasts, expectations, plans, outlook and projections with respect to future matters, including trends in results of operations, margins, growth rates, overall market trends, the impact of changes in interest or exchange rates, the availability or cost of financing to Diageo, anticipated cost savings or synergies, expected investments, the completion of Diageo's strategic transactions and restructuring programmes, anticipated tax rates, expected cash payments, outcomes of litigation, anticipated deficit reductions in relation to pension schemes and general economic conditions. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risk and uncertainty because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including factors that are outside Diageo's control. These factors include, but are not limited to:
All oral and written forward-looking statements made on or after the date of this document and attributable to Diageo are expressly qualified in their entirety by the above factors and those described
in 'Business description Risk factors'. Any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of Diageo speak only as of the date they are made. Diageo does not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect any changes in Diageo's expectations with regard thereto or any changes in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. The reader should, however, consult any additional disclosures that Diageo may make in any documents which it publishes and/or files with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. All readers, wherever located, should take note of these disclosures.
This document includes names of Diageo's products, which constitute trademarks or trade names which Diageo owns, or which others own and license to Diageo for use. All rights reserved. © Diageo plc 2012.
The information in this document does not constitute an offer to sell or an invitation to buy shares in Diageo plc or an invitation or inducement to engage in any other investment activities.
This document includes information about Diageo's target debt rating. A security rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organisation. Each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.
Past performance cannot be relied upon as a guide to future performance.
Information presented Diageo is the world's leading premium drinks business and operates on an international scale selling all types of beverage alcohol. It is one of a small number of premium drinks companies that operate across spirits, beer and wine. Diageo's brands have broad consumer appeal across geographies, and as a result, the business is organised under the business areas of North America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, Asia Pacific and Global Supply. In view of the focus on reporting results by the location of third party customers in explaining the group's performance in the business review, the results of the Global Supply segment have been allocated to the geographic segments. The following discussion is based on Diageo's results for the year ended 30 June 2012 compared with the year ended 30 June 2011, and the year ended 30 June 2011 compared with the year ended 30 June 2010.
In the discussion of the performance of the business, net sales, defined as sales after deducting excise duties, are presented in addition to sales, as sales figures include significant excise duties which are set by external regulators and over which Diageo has no control. Diageo incurs excise duties throughout the world. In some countries, excise duties are based on sales and are separately identified on the face of the invoice to the external customer. In others, it is effectively a production tax, which is incurred when the spirit is removed from bonded warehouses. In these countries, excise duties are part of the cost of goods sold and are not separately identified on the sales invoice. Changes in the level of excise duties can significantly affect the level of reported sales and cost of sales without directly reflecting changes in volume, mix or profitability, which are the variables that have an impact on the element of sales retained by the group.
References to emerging markets comprise Russia and Eastern Europe, Turkey, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean and Asia Pacific excluding Australia, Korea and Japan.
References to reserve brands include Johnnie Walker Green Label, Johnnie Walker Gold Label 18 year old, Johnnie Walker Gold Label Reserve, Johnnie Walker Blue Label, Johnnie Walker Blue Label King George V, Johnnie Walker Platinum Label 18 year old, The John Walker, Classic Malts, Buchanan's Special Reserve, Buchanan's Red Seal, Dimple 18 year old, Bulleit Bourbon, Tanqueray No. TEN, Cîroc, Ketel One vodka, Don Julio, Zacapa, Godiva and Nuvo.
References to ready to drink also include ready to serve products, such as pre mix cans in some markets, and progressive adult beverages in the United States and certain markets supplied by the United States.
Price/mix is the number of percentage points by which the organic movement in net sales exceeds the organic movement in volume. The difference arises because of changes in the composition of sales between higher and lower priced variants or as price changes are implemented.
Presentation of information in relation to the business In addition to describing the significant factors that have impacted the income statement for the years ended 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2011, in each case as compared to the immediately preceding year, additional information is also presented on the operating performance and cash flows of the group.
There are several principal financial key performance indicators not specifically used in the consolidated financial statements themselves (non-GAAP measures) that are used by the group's management to assess the performance of the group in addition to income statement performance
measures. These are volume, organic movements in volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend, operating profit and operating margin and free cash flow. These key performance indicators are described below:
Volume is a non-GAAP measure that has been measured on an equivalent units basis to nine-litre cases of spirits. An equivalent unit represents one nine-litre case of spirits, which is approximately 272 servings. A serving comprises 33ml of spirits, 165ml of wine, or 330ml of ready to drink or beer. Therefore, to convert volume of products, other than spirits, to equivalent units, the following guide has been used: beer in hectolitres divide by 0.9, wine in nine-litre cases divide by five, ready to drink in nine-litre cases divide by 10 and certain pre-mixed products that are classified as ready to drink in nine-litre cases divide by five.
Organic movements in volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend, operating profit and operating margin are non-GAAP measures. The performance of the group is discussed using these measures.
In the discussion of the performance of the business, organic information is presented using pounds sterling amounts on a constant currency basis. This retranslates prior year reported numbers at current year exchange rates and enables an understanding of the underlying performance of the market that is most closely influenced by the actions of that market's management. The risk from exchange rate movements is managed centrally and is not a factor over which local managers have any control. Residual exchange impacts are reported within Corporate.
Acquisitions, disposals and exceptional items also impact the reported performance and therefore the reported movement in any year in which they arise. Management adjusts for the impact of such transactions in assessing the performance of the underlying business.
The underlying performance on a constant currency basis and excluding the impact of exceptional items, acquisitions and disposals is referred to as 'organic' performance. Organic movement calculations enable the reader to focus on the performance of the business which is common to both years.
Diageo's strategic planning and budgeting process is based on organic movements in volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend, operating profit and operating margin, and these measures closely reflect the way in which operating targets are defined and performance is monitored by the group's management.
These measures are chosen for planning, budgeting, reporting and incentive purposes since they represent those measures which local managers are most directly able to influence and they enable consideration of the underlying business performance without the distortion caused by fluctuating exchange rates, exceptional items and acquisitions and disposals.
The group's management believes these measures provide valuable additional information for users of the financial statements in understanding the group's performance since they provide information on those elements of performance which local managers are most directly able to influence and they focus on that element of the core brand portfolio which is common to both years. They should be viewed as complementary to, and not replacements for, the comparable GAAP measures and reported movements therein.
Organic operating margin improvement is the movement in the group's organic operating margin. Organic operating margin is the ratio calculated by dividing organic operating profit by organic net sales expressed as a percentage.
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP measure that comprises the net cash flow from operating activities aggregated with the net purchase and disposal of investments, property, plant and equipment and
computer software that form part of net cash flow from investing activities. The group's management believes the measure assists users of the financial statements in understanding the group's cash generating performance as it comprises items which arise from the running of the ongoing business.
The remaining components of net cash flow from investing activities that do not form part of free cash flow, as defined by the group's management, are in respect of the acquisition and sale of subsidiaries, associates and businesses. The group's management regards the purchase and disposal of property, plant and equipment and computer software as ultimately non-discretionary since ongoing investment in plant, machinery and technology is required to support the day-to-day operations, whereas acquisitions and sales of businesses are discretionary. However, free cash flow does not necessarily reflect all amounts which the group has either a constructive or legal obligation to incur. Where appropriate, separate discussion is given for the impacts of acquisitions and sale of businesses, equity dividends paid and the purchase of own shares, each of which arises from decisions that are independent from the running of the ongoing underlying business.
The free cash flow measure is used by management for their own planning, budgeting, reporting and incentive purposes since it provides information on those elements of performance which local managers are most directly able to influence.
Exceptional items Exceptional items are items which, in management's judgement, need to be disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence in order for the user to obtain a proper understanding of the financial information. Some figures are presented before exceptional items such as operating profit before exceptional items, taxation before exceptional items, the tax rate before exceptional items and earnings per share before exceptional items. The amounts before exceptional items are non-GAAP measures, used by management for their own reporting and incentive purposes since they provide information on the underlying performance of the group. The tax rate before exceptional items is calculated by dividing the tax charge on continuing operations before tax charges and credits in respect of exceptional items by profit before taxation, adjusted to exclude the impact of the sale of businesses and exceptional operating costs before taxation, expressed as a percentage.
Revised segmental information for prior reporting periods On 25 May 2011 Diageo announced changes to its regional structure. From 1 July 2011 two autonomous regions, Africa and Latin America and Caribbean replaced the International region. The Global Travel and duty free operations are now reported within the five geographical regions in which the external sales take place. The Middle East business has become part of Asia Pacific.
As a result of this change Diageo now reports the following operating segments externally: North America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, Asia Pacific and Corporate. In addition, for the year ended 30 June 2012, changes have been made to the allocation of specific corporate items better reflecting the geographic segments for which they are in respect of. As a consequence of these changes the figures for the operating segments for prior years have been restated. Revised segmental information for the years ended 30 June 2011 and 2010 are as follows.
Sales and net sales On a reported basis, sales increased by £1,362 million from £13,232 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 to £14,594 million in the year ended 30 June 2012 and net sales increased
by £826 million from £9,936 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 to £10,762 million in the year ended 30 June 2012. Exchange rate movements decreased reported sales by £123 million and reported net sales by £90 million. Acquisitions increased reported sales by £741 million and reported net sales by £320 million. Disposals decreased reported sales by £31 million and reported net sales by £29 million.
Operating costs before exceptional items On a reported basis, operating costs before exceptional items increased by £512 million from £7,052 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 to £7,564 million in the year ended 30 June 2012 due to an increase in cost of sales of £245 million from £3,983 million to £4,228 million, an increase in marketing spend of £153 million from £1,538 million to £1,691 million, and an increase in other operating expenses before exceptional costs of £114 million, from £1,531 million to £1,645 million. Exchange rate movements benefited total operating costs before exceptional items by £80 million.
Exceptional operating items Exceptional operating charges of £40 million for the year ended 30 June 2012 comprised:
In the year ended 30 June 2011 exceptional operating items also included a charge of £139 million in respect of duty settlements with the Turkish and the Thai customs authorities and settlements with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in respect of various regulatory and control matters.
In the year ended 30 June 2012 total restructuring cash expenditure was £158 million (2011 £118 million). In the year ended 30 June 2011 cash payments of £141 million were also made for the duty and the SEC settlements. An exceptional charge of approximately £50 million is expected to be incurred in the year ending 30 June 2013 in respect of the restructuring of Global Supply operations principally in Ireland, while cash expenditure is expected to be approximately £80 million.
Post employment plans The deficit in respect of post employment plans before taxation increased by £247 million from £838 million at 30 June 2011 to £1,085 million at 30 June 2012 primarily as a result of a decrease in the discount rate assumptions used to calculate the liabilities of the plans partly offset by a decrease in the inflation assumptions and changes in the calculation of future pension increases. Cash contributions to the group's UK and Irish pension plans in the year ended 30 June 2012 were £133 million (2011 £151 million) and are expected to be approximately £140 million for the year ending 30 June 2013.
Operating profit Reported operating profit for the year ended 30 June 2012 increased by £563 million to £3,158 million from £2,595 million in the prior year. Before exceptional operating items, operating profit for the year ended 30 June 2012 increased by £314 million to £3,198 million from £2,884 million in the prior year. Exchange rate movements decreased both operating profit and operating profit before exceptional items for the year ended 30 June 2012 by £10 million. Acquisitions increased reported operating profit by £79 million and disposals decreased reported operating profit by £3 million.
Exceptional non-operating items In the year ended 30 June 2012 gain on sale of businesses of £147 million included a step up gain of £124 million on the revaluation of the group's equity holdings in Quanxing and Shuijingfang to fair value as the associates became subsidiaries during the year. In addition, exceptional non-operating items include a gain of £23 million on the sale of the group's investment in Tanzania Breweries. In the year ended 30 June 2011 a net loss before taxation of £14 million on sale of businesses arose on the disposal of a number of small wine businesses in Europe and in the United States and on the termination of a joint venture in India.
Net finance charges Net finance charges amounted £397 million in the year ended 30 June 2012 (2011 £397 million).
Net interest charge increased by £13 million from £369 million in the prior year to £382 million in the year ended 30 June 2012. The effective interest rate was 4.7% (2011 4.9%) in the year ended 30 June 2012 and average net borrowings increased by £1.1 billion compared to the prior year. For the calculation of effective interest rate, the net interest charge excludes fair value adjustments to derivative financial instruments and borrowings and average monthly net borrowings include the impact of interest rate swaps that are no longer in a hedge relationship but exclude the market value adjustment for cross currency interest rate swaps. The income statement interest cover was 8.9 times and cash interest cover was 9.4 times (2011 8.3 times and 10.6 times, respectively).
Net other finance charges for the year ended 30 June 2012 were £15 million (2011 £28 million). There was a change of £10 million in finance charges in respect of post employment plans from a charge of £3 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 to an income of £7 million in the year ended 30 June 2012. Other finance charges also included £17 million (2011 £16 million) on unwinding of discounts on liabilities, a hyperinflation adjustment of £3 million (2011 £9 million) in respect of the group's Venezuela operations and £2 million (2011 £nil) in respect of net exchange movements on certain financial instruments. In the year ending 30 June 2013 the finance charge in respect of post employment plans is expected to be £12 million.
Associates The group's share of associates' profits after interest and tax was £213 million for the year ended 30 June 2012 compared to £176 million in the prior year. Diageo's 34% equity interest in Moët Hennessy contributed £205 million (2011 £179 million) to share of associates' profits after interest and tax.
Profit before taxation Profit before taxation increased by £761 million from £2,360 million in the prior year to £3,121 million in the year ended 30 June 2012.
Taxation The reported tax rate increased from 14.5% in the year ended 30 June 2011 to 33.3% in the year ended 30 June 2012. During the year tax authority negotiations were concluded resulting in a favourable change to the taxation basis of certain overseas profit and intangible assets which has reduced the ongoing tax rate but which resulted in the loss of future tax amortisation deductions giving rise to an exceptional write off of the related deferred tax assets of £524 million. The tax rate before exceptional items for the year ended 30 June 2012 was 17.7% compared with 17.4% in the year ended 30 June 2011. In the future it is expected that the tax rate before exceptional items will remain at approximately 18%.
The tax rates from continuing operations before exceptional and after exceptional items for the years ended 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2011 were calculated as follows:
Discontinued operations Discontinued operations in the year ended 30 June 2012 represent a charge after taxation of £11 million in respect of anticipated future payments to additional thalidomide claimants.
Exchange rate and other movements Foreign exchange movements in the year ended 30 June 2012 decreased net sales, operating profit before exceptional items and profit from associates by £90 million, £10 million and £2 million, respectively, and reduced net finance charges by £19 million.
For the year ending 30 June 2013 foreign exchange movements are not expected to materially affect operating profit or net finance charge based on applying current exchange rates (£1 = $1.57 : £1 = €1.28). This guidance excludes the impact of IAS 21 and IAS 39.
Dividend The directors recommend a final dividend of 26.9 pence per share, an increase of 8% from the year ended 30 June 2011. The full dividend will therefore be 43.5 pence per share, an increase of 8% from the year ended 30 June 2011. Subject to approval by shareholders, the final dividend will be paid on 22 October 2012 to shareholders on the register on 7 September 2012. Payment to US ADR holders will be made on 26 October 2012. A dividend reinvestment plan is available in respect of the final dividend and the plan notice date is 1 October 2012.
In order to assist the reader of the financial statements, the following comparison of 2012 with 2011 includes tables which present the exchange, acquisitions and disposals and organic components of the year on year movement for each of volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend and operating profit. Organic movements in the tables below are calculated as follows:
(a) The organic movement percentage is the amount in the column headed 'Organic movement' in the tables below expressed as a percentage of the aggregate of the amount in the column headed '2011 Reported', the amount in the column headed 'Exchange' and the amount, if any, in respect of acquisitions and disposals that have impacted the comparable prior year included in the column headed 'Acquisitions and disposals'. The inclusion of the column headed 'Exchange' in the organic movement
calculation reflects the adjustment to recalculate the prior year results as if they had been generated at the current year's exchange rates.
(b) Where a business, brand, brand distribution right or agency agreement was disposed of, or terminated, in the current or prior year, the group, in organic movement calculations, excludes the results for that business from the current year and prior year. In the calculation of operating profit, the overheads included in disposals are only those directly attributable to the businesses disposed of, and do not result from subjective judgements of management. For acquisitions in the current year, the post acquisition results are excluded from the organic movement calculations. For acquisitions in the prior year, post acquisition results are included in full in the prior year but are included in the organic movement calculation from the anniversary of the acquisition date in the current year. The acquisition column also eliminates the impact of transaction costs that have been charged to operating profit in the current or prior year in respect of acquisitions that in management assessment are expected to complete.
The organic movement calculations for volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend and operating profit for the year ended 30 June 2012 were as follows:
Notes: Information relating to the organic movement calculations.
In the year ended 30 June 2012 there were no material disposals impacting organic growth but adjustment is made to exclude the impact of the disposals completed under the reorganisation of the group's US wines operations and the Gilbeys wholesale wine business in Ireland in the year ended 30 June 2011.
Reported cost of sales for the year ended 30 June 2012 increased by £249 million from £4,010 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 to £4,259 million in the year ended 30 June 2012. Included in cost of sales in the year ended 30 June 2012 were exceptional items of £31 million (2011 £27 million). Acquisitions and disposals added £91 million, with Mey Içki being the principal contributor, and favourable exchange movements reduced cost of sales by £38 million. The 2% volume increase together with some mix benefits added £110 million to cost of sales. Cost increases on materials, utilities and logistics amounted to 5% of cost of sales, and half of this increase was offset by cost reductions through asset rationalisation, procurement benefits and operational efficiencies.
Net sales were £70 million in the year ended 30 June 2012, flat relative to the comparable prior period. Net operating charges were £186 million in the year ended 30 June 2012 having been £137 million in the year ended 30 June 2011. The movement was made up of:
Spirits was 66% of Diageo net sales and delivered over 80% of the group's growth. Developed markets grew net sales 4% on flat volume and emerging markets grew 18% with 9 percentage points of positive price/mix through strong pricing and favourable mix as consumers move up the price ladder.
Total Whisk(e)y was 35% of Diageo portfolio by net sales. Scotch delivered strong growth with net sales up 12%. Premium and super premium drove this growth and price/mix was up 7 percentage points as a result. In the developed markets, weakness in Southern Europe led to declines in value and standard scotch brands. These segments grew double digit in the emerging markets as Diageo continued to drive recruitment through the more affordable brands. Premium and super premium brands grew in all regions on the back of successful innovations and strong marketing. The Singleton more than doubled net sales in Germany and France behind the 'Best tasting Single Malt You decide' campaign and Old Parr grew 23% with 10 percentage points of positive price/mix through exceptional growth in PUB and Colombia. In the growing North America whiskey segment Bulleit delivered over 60% growth in net sales on the back of the success of Bulleit Rye.
Johnnie Walker had another exceptional year, posting 15% net sales growth, with the fastest growth coming from super deluxe variants. The growth of Red Label was driven by the emerging middle class recruitment programmes with the 'Step Up' activation delivering almost 60% net sales growth in South Africa and the 'Keep Walking Brazil' campaign driving 16% net sales growth in PUB. The continued success of Johnnie Walker Double Black, priced at a 20% premium to Black Label, together with price increases drove 15% net sales growth for the Black Label variant. Super deluxe grew 28% in the year as the brand experienced a significant shift to higher marks in North America, driven by the new Blue Label packaging and the successful engraving advertising campaign, and as Gold Label net sales more than doubled in Asia Pacific. Johnnie Walker XR21 was also very successful within its core geographical target region of Asia Pacific, reaching near 20% share in its segment since launch. Total marketing spend increased 11% with over 80% of the incremental investment directed towards emerging markets, especially Asia Pacific and Latin America, and behind proven global growth drivers, including the 'Walk with Giants' and 'Step Inside the Circuit' campaigns and ongoing grand prix sponsorships.
While the economic challenges in Europe have resulted in a 3% reduction in JeB net sales globally, this represented a significant slowing in the rate of decline versus last year as the JeB business is rebalancing between developed and emerging markets. Slowdown in the second half reflected the reversal of the pre excise duty increase buy-in in France, while underlying consumption trends did not change materially. Turkey posted 21% net sales growth and Africa and Latin America also saw double digit top line growth on the back of the 'City Remix' programme significantly increasing consumer engagement with the brand.
Buchanan's delivered strong double digit net sales growth for the third consecutive year, supported by the launch of the 'Share Yourself' campaign and the solid growth of Buchanan's Special Reserve, especially in Venezuela and Colombia. The 12 percentage points of positive price/mix was a result of price increases and premiumisation across the Americas, helped by the successful roll-out of Buchanan's Master, trading consumers up beyond deluxe at an 18% price premium. The brand posted 11% net sales growth in North America.
Windsor grew share and remained the leading scotch brand in Korea, net sales however declined 1% as the whisky market contracted further in the country. Share gain has been achieved through the 'Share the Vision' campaign in the first half, followed by point of sale promotions in the second half. Windsor 12 and 17 variants enjoyed 4 and 2 percentage points of positive price/mix, respectively on the back of price increases put through last year.
While Crown Royal held share in the highly competitive non flavoured North America whiskey segment, the brand's performance was impacted by the lapping of the successful launch of Crown Royal Black last year and also by its segment losing share to flavoured whiskey. Marketing spend was focused
behind the launch of the 'Crown Life' programme appealing to the African-American and Hispanic consumers in the United States.
Bushmills delivered double digit increases in both volume and net sales. Its performance was particularly strong in Eastern Europe, where it made some important share gains. Bushmills Honey was launched successfully in the United States and delivered a third of the brand's growth globally.
Vodka, 12% of Diageo net sales, saw 13% growth with positive price/mix as value vodka brands declined and super premium brands grew strongly with volume up almost 30%. The category drove a quarter of the group net sales growth with the super premium segment delivering 74% of that increase through the continued strong performance of Cîroc.
Smirnoff returned to strong growth, driven by a marked acceleration in developed markets and double digit growth in Africa and Latin America. Marketing spend increased 10% focusing on proven growth drivers. Fifty countries participated in the Smirnoff 'Nightlife Exchange Project', which in its second year was expanded by the collaboration with Live Nation and Madonna. In the United States, Smirnoff grew volume share with the highly successful innovation launches of Smirnoff Whipped Cream and Fluffed Marshmallow and also as a result of the Smirnoff 21 'I Choose' campaign. Great Britain, Germany and the Benelux led Smirnoff's growth in Europe through the execution of 'Madonna Limited Edition' campaigns.
Ketel One vodka delivered 8% net sales growth in North America with continued share gains fuelled by the highly successful 'Gentlemen, this is Vodka' campaign. Ketel One vodka is now sold in 63 markets. Latin America and Asia Pacific posted net sales growth over 50%, with PUB, Australia and South East Asia being the key drivers of growth in these regions on the back of leveraging the brand's association with cocktail culture through the media.
Cîroc had another outstanding year with 62% global top line growth supported by 52% increase in marketing spend, mainly behind the 'Cîroc the New Year' campaign and in the digital space. The highly successful launch of Cîroc Peach together with the continued double digit growth of Red Berry and Coconut depletions helped the brand to gain further share and it is the fastest growing ultra premium vodka in the United States. Outside North America, the brand more than doubled its net sales.
Rum, which was 6% of Diageo net sales, posted 8% growth with 2 percentage points of positive price/mix helped by 32% growth in Latin America and a 7% increase in North America.
The leading brand of the portfolio, Captain Morgan posted 9% net sales growth. In North America, the new 'Life, Love and Loot' campaign supplemented with the launch of Captain Morgan Black Spiced and marketing innovations, such as the 'Captain's Conquest', resulted in share gains and 7% net sales growth. Elsewhere the brand continued to benefit from the long running 'Got a Little Captain in You?' and the 'Captain's Island' campaigns, which drove the 15% increase in marketing spend globally and resulted in strong double digit top line growth in Germany, Ireland, Russia and Eastern Europe, and the brand almost tripled in the Benelux.
The wider rum category saw very strong double digit growth in Zacapa due to Latin America, Europe and North America. The successful extension of Bundaberg into the white rum segment and the launch of the limited edition premium Bundy Masters Distillers Collection drove growth of Bundaberg in Australia.
Liqueurs were 5% of Diageo net sales. The challenging commercial environment in Western Europe together with the reduction in the depth and frequency of promotions in Great Britain continued to
impact Baileys' performance. However, Baileys posted 6% growth outside Europe with net sales up 42% in China on the back of a new marketing campaign aimed at female consumers.
Tequila represented 3% of Diageo net sales. Don Julio continued its strong performance with 26% growth, outperforming the fast growing super premium tequila segment with the continued acceleration of 1942, Reposado, Anejo and the successful launch of Tequila Don Julio 70, the world's first Anejo Claro.
Jose Cuervo Especial declined 5%, driven by the impact of distributor destocking on Jose Cuervo Especial Gold in the first half and also by consumers shifting away from dark tequilas. This was partially offset by an increase in Jose Cuervo Especial Silver net sales, helped by consumer trends and the recruitment from the ProBeach Volleyball Series.
Gin represented 3% of Diageo net sales and grew 3%. Emerging market consumer demand drove double digit net sales growth of value gin brands in Africa, while super premium gin grew over 20% in Asia Pacific and Latin America as the category saw a resurgence as the 'white spirit of choice' with bartenders.
Tanqueray grew net sales 2% globally, despite a slight decline in its biggest market, North America, as the brand grew over 10% in its new markets across Western Europe, with Iberia up 24%, and grew 17% in the emerging markets, with both Africa and Latin America posting double digit growth. The new brand strategy and the supporting 'Tonight We Tanqueray' communications campaign drove 11% increase in marketing spend.
Premium local spirits: During the year Diageo completed the acquisition and integration of Mey Içki, the leading spirits company in Turkey. Mey Içki posted £291 million net sales in the year with 5.1 million equivalent units of volume. Raki is the main spirits category in the Turkish market and Mey Içki is a clear market leader in the category with Yeni Raki being the most recognised brand. Mey Içki gained share during the year as marketing spend was focused on modern and traditional raki occasions, building strong brand equities and maintaining executional excellence in store. Diageo also increased its shareholding in Quanxing by 4% and from 29 June has control of Shuijingfang, fiscal 2013 will be the first full year Diageo consolidates the company's results. Chinese white spirits delivered 36% net sales growth outside China, driven by price increases and expanded distribution footprint with Shui Jing Fang now available in the duty free channel at forty airports and on two airlines worldwide and also in seven domestic markets. During the year Diageo also acquired an additional 20.6% stake in Hanoi Liquor Joint Stock Company in Vietnam and agreed to acquire Ypióca, the leading premium cachaça brand in Brazil.
Beer brands represented 21% of Diageo net sales and grew 5% with the developed markets up 1% despite declining volumes and emerging markets growing 9% with 6 percentage points of positive price/mix.
Guinness made up 52% of Diageo's beer business by net sales. The brand delivered 2% net sales growth in the developed markets as the successful launch of Guinness Black Lager together with price increases on Guinness Kegs drove 9% net sales growth for Guinness in North America. In the emerging markets, net sales were up 8% with strong growth across Africa and continued share gains and price increases in Indonesia. Nigeria is now the biggest market for Guinness by net sales and the brand further extended its footprint this year with double digit growth across the other Africa markets. Marketing spend behind the 'Guinness The Match' and 'Guinness Football Challenge' campaigns tapped into African consumers' fervent love of football, and the launch of a landmark new TV campaign 'The Ticket', and 'Guinness VIP', a mobile phone relationship marketing programme with the participation of 2.4 million consumers, drove 7% increase in spend globally.
Local African beers continued to perform strongly, with Tusker and Harp posting strong double digit top line growth supported by innovations, such as the launch of Harp Lime in Nigeria and Tusker Lite in Kenya. Senator delivered more than a quarter of the beer net sales growth, driven by price increases and footprint expansion in Kenya.
Wine was 4% of Diageo net sales. It remained a challenging category with volume declining in North America and Europe and with a shift to the lower end of the portfolio.
Ready to drink, 7% of Diageo net sales, was flat. Emerging markets posted a 7% increase, offset by a 2% reduction in developed markets, driven by a decline in Australia despite share gains. The transfer of production and sales of Smirnoff ready to drink in South Africa to Diageo's associate had a full point impact on growth rates. Excluding this the category grew 1% globally. Smirnoff Ice posted strong growth across the emerging middle class consumers of Africa and Latin America and the launch of Parrot Bay and Smirnoff Frozen Pouches proved to be a huge success in the United States. The launch of Smirnoff Ice Green Apple and Raspberry Splash revived the Smirnoff Ice portfolio in Asia driving accessibility and recruiting female consumers to the category.
"The North American business has delivered another strong set of results. We have continued to drive price/mix by staying focused on: disciplined promotional spend, growth of our strategic brands and the continued growth of our premium and super premium brands, most notably Johnnie Walker and Cîroc. We've achieved this through consistent investment in targeted campaigns that have improved brand equities. Innovation continues to be a competitive strength and we have both sustained past launches and delivered exciting new products. Previously identified enhancements to our distribution system were implemented in the year and will benefit our future growth. Strong pricing and mix shift to premium products, coupled with our continued focus on cost, drove margin improvement, however this was offset by higher marketing. These measures, taken together, have delivered efficient growth and strengthened our business."
"The economy remains very uneven in Europe. We continue to deliver substantial sales and profit growth in Europe's emerging countries of Russia, Eastern Europe and Turkey, as well as a good performance across Northern Europe. Clearly though, Southern Europe remains challenging. From a category point of view, scotch remained very strong in the emerging markets offsetting decline in Southern Europe. Smirnoff continued to grow in Great Britain and Captain Morgan continued to perform strongly with 18% net sales growth. Weaker Baileys performance was driven by the change in promotional strategy in Great Britain and the challenges in Southern Europe. Overall marketing campaign activity has been maintained and the reinvestment rate increased as we spent more behind scotch and emerging markets while improving effectiveness in Western Europe. In Turkey, the integration of Mey Içki has been completed successfully and the enhanced route to market will be a key growth driver as we bring our international brands to the expanding middle class consumer base there. Finally, the new operating model has delivered further efficiencies and improved operating margin."
"Diageo Africa's strong routes to market and leading brands have harnessed the growth opportunities presented by the region. This has delivered another year of double digit net sales growth with particularly strong growth in East Africa, Ghana and Cameroon. While it was a further year of strong net sales growth in beer, spirits are now making a meaningful contribution, driving over 40% of total growth and representing 25% of net sales in the region. This increased breadth together with price
increases was reflected in operating margin improvement. Fiscal 2012 was another year of investment for growth. We invested in marketing our brands, primarily Guinness, Tusker and Johnnie Walker, and behind innovations such as the launch of Harp Lime in Nigeria. We invested in capital expenditure to expand capacity in Nigeria and East Africa and we broadened our presence across Africa, with the acquisition of the Meta Abo Brewery in Ethiopia."
"Our performance in Latin America and Caribbean during the year demonstrated the strength and sustainability of our business. In order to capture the consumer opportunity in the emerging middle class, we increased marketing spend to enhance our brand equities in scotch, increase the resonance of vodka and support innovation. We enhanced our routes to market with more dedicated distributors in Brazil, a new distributor agreement in Costa Rica and a new supply distribution centre in Panama. Additionally we have helped more than 12,000 people acquire vocational skills through our Learning for Life programme. We finished the year with the exciting acquisition of Ypióca, which will dramatically expand our presence in Brazil. This sustained investment is building a strong and successful business."
market, with more distributors on an exclusive basis and behind brands with a 14% increase in marketing spend, over half of which was focused behind Johnnie Walker and the 'Keep Walking Brazil' campaign, driving 17% net sales growth for the brand. The balance of spend focused on vodka, which accounted for over 20% of incremental net sales, driven by both the impressive growth of Smirnoff and Cîroc.
"We had another successful year in Asia Pacific maintaining our leadership position in international spirits and gaining share in all key markets and categories. The emerging markets of Asia grew double digit with South East Asia up 15%, Greater China 13% and India 24%. Uncertainty around the global economy led to further contraction of the whisky market in Korea and weaker consumer confidence in Australia which led to roughly flat net sales in developed Asia Pacific. The price increases we implemented in South East Asia, China and Global Travel Asia drove more than half of our incremental top line, and this together with the premiumisation of our portfolio delivered 6 percentage points of positive price/mix. Scotch remained the growth engine of the region delivering more than 80% of net sales growth and almost half of this growth came from our super deluxe brands. Other reserve brands also performed well, with very strong net sales growth from Zacapa, Ketel One vodka and Cîroc. I am also proud of the performance of Guinness, delivering 12% net sales growth through share gains and strong pricing. We continued to invest in infrastructure, sales execution, innovation and acquisitions, including our increased stake in Shuijingfang in China and Halico in Vietnam, creating a stronger platform for future growth. Despite these investments and as a result of our successful premiumisation strategy and focus on pricing, operating margin improved in the year."
basis of strong fundamentals. Increased focus and marketing spend delivered over 80% net sales growth of reserve brands, with Johnnie Walker's ultra premium brands the main contributors. Innovation extended Bundaberg into new segments with the launch of Bundaberg Five into white rum and the limited edition Bundy Masters Distillers Collection into premium to drive 5% growth. Smirnoff also grew 5% on the back of a successful advertising campaign. Baileys gained share but declined in a tough category.
Sales and net sales On a reported basis, sales increased by £274 million from £12,958 million in the year ended 30 June 2010 to £13,232 million in the year 30 June 2011 and net sales increased by £156 million from £9,780 million in the year ended 30 June 2010 to £9,936 million in the year ended 30 June 2011. Exchange rate movements decreased reported sales by £252 million and reported net sales by £221 million. Acquisitions increased reported sales by £38 million and reported net sales by £30 million for the year. Disposals decreased reported sales by £94 million and reported net sales by £85 million for the year.
Operating costs before exceptional items On a reported basis, operating costs before exceptional items increased by £23 million in the year ended 30 June 2011 due to a decrease in cost of sales of £70 million from £4,053 million to £3,983 million, an increase in marketing spend of £119 million from £1,419 million to £1,538 million, and a decrease in other operating expenses before exceptional costs of £26 million, from £1,557 million to £1,531 million. The impact of exchange rate movements decreased total operating costs before exceptional items by £239 million.
Exceptional operating items Exceptional operating costs of £289 million for the year ended 30 June 2011 (2010 £177 million) comprised a net charge of £111 million (2010 £142 million) in respect of restructuring programmes, an impairment charge of £39 million (2010 £35 million) in respect of the Ursus brand reflecting the impact of the significant downturn in the economy in one of its principal
markets, Greece, a charge of £92 million (2010 £nil) in respect of the settlement of the dispute with the Turkish customs authorities regarding import duty payable on beverage alcohol products sold in the domestic channel in Turkey, a charge of £35 million (2010 £nil) in respect of the settlement with the Thai customs authorities regarding a dispute over the price of imported goods and a charge of £12 million (2010 £nil) in respect of the settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission regarding various regulatory and control matters.
Restructuring programmes totalling £111 million comprised £77 million (2010 £nil) for the operating model review announced in May 2011 primarily in respect of employee termination charges, £24 million (2010 £93 million) for the restructuring of Global Supply operations in Scotland and the United States primarily in respect of accelerated depreciation and redundancies and £10 million (2010 £12 million) for the restructuring of the group's brewing operations in Ireland announced in 2008 in respect of accelerated depreciation. In the year ended 30 June 2010 restructuring programmes also included a charge of £85 million for the global restructuring programme and a £48 million net credit for the restructuring of the wines business in the United States.
In the year ended 30 June 2011 total restructuring cash expenditure was £118 million (2010 £145 million) and the cash payments made for the exceptional SEC and duty settlements amounted to £141 million (2010 £nil).
Post employment plans Post employment net costs for the year ended 30 June 2011 were a charge of £105 million (2010 £133 million) comprising £110 million (2010 £92 million) included in operating costs before exceptional items, pension curtailment gains of £8 million (2010 £6 million) in exceptional items and a charge of £3 million (2010 £47 million) in net finance charges.
The deficit in respect of post employment plans before taxation decreased by £367 million from £1,205 million at 30 June 2010 to £838 million at 30 June 2011 primarily as a result of an increase in the market value of assets held by the post employment plans. Cash contributions to the group's UK and Irish pension schemes in the year ended 30 June 2011 were £151 million.
Operating profit Reported operating profit for the year ended 30 June 2011 increased by £21 million to £2,595 million from £2,574 million in the prior year. Before exceptional operating items, operating profit for the year ended 30 June 2011 increased by £133 million to £2,884 million from £2,751 million in the prior year. Exchange rate movements increased both operating profit and operating profit before exceptional items for the year ended 30 June 2011 by £18 million. Acquisitions decreased reported operating profit by £13 million for the year. Disposals decreased reported operating profit by £1 million for the year.
Exceptional non-operating items A net loss before taxation of £14 million on sale of businesses arose on the disposal of a number of small wine businesses in Europe and in the United States and on the termination of a joint venture in India. In the year ended 30 June 2010 sale of businesses comprised a charge of £26 million in respect of the anticipated loss on the disposal of certain non-strategic wine brands in the United States and a gain of £11 million arising on the revaluation of the equity holding in the London Group, the owner of the Nuvo brand, following the acquisition of a majority equity stake in the London Group.
Net finance charges Net finance charges decreased from £462 million in the year ended 30 June 2010 to £397 million in the year ended 30 June 2011.
Net interest charge decreased by £6 million from £375 million in the prior year to £369 million in the year ended 30 June 2011. The effective interest rate was 4.9% in the year ended 30 June 2011
(2010 4.8%) and average net borrowings excluding interest rate related fair value adjustments decreased by £0.7 billion compared to the prior year. The income statement interest cover was 8.3 times and cash interest cover was 10.6 times (2010 7.7 times and 10.3 times, respectively).
Net other finance charges for the year ended 30 June 2011 were £28 million (2010 £87 million). There was a decrease of £44 million in finance charges in respect of post employment plans from £47 million in the year ended 30 June 2010 to £3 million in the year ended 30 June 2011. Other finance charges also included £16 million (2010 £18 million) on unwinding of discounts on liabilities and a hyperinflation adjustment of £9 million (2010 £16 million) in respect of the group's Venezuela operations. In the year ended 30 June 2010 an additional £4 million other finance income was recognised and a £10 million charge in respect of exchange rate translation differences on inter-company funding arrangements where hedge accounting was not applicable.
Associates The group's share of associates' profits after interest and tax was £176 million for the year ended 30 June 2011 compared to £142 million in the prior year. Diageo's 34% equity interest in Moët Hennessy contributed £179 million (2010 £134 million) to share of associates' profits after interest and tax.
Profit before taxation Profit before taxation increased by £121 million from £2,239 million in the prior year to £2,360 million in the year ended 30 June 2011.
Taxation The reported tax rate for the year ended 30 June 2011 was 14.5% compared with 21.3% for the year ended 30 June 2010. Factors that reduced the reported tax rate included settlements agreed with tax authorities that gave rise to releases of tax provisions and an increase of £115 million in the carrying value of deferred tax assets in respect of brands under the taxation basis applicable at 30 June 2011. The tax rate before exceptional items for the year ended 30 June 2011 was 17.4% compared with 21.6% for the year ended 30 June 2010.
The tax rates from continuing operations before exceptional and after exceptional items for the years ended 30 June 2011 and 30 June 2010 were calculated as follows:
Discontinued operations Discontinued operations in the year ended 30 June 2010 comprised a charge after taxation of £19 million in respect of anticipated future payments to thalidomide claimants.
Exchange rate and other movements Foreign exchange movements in the year ended 30 June 2011 decreased net sales by £221 million, increased operating profit before exceptional items by £18 million, decreased profit from associates by £5 million and reduced net finance charges by £1 million.
Foreign exchange movements in the year ended 30 June 2011 were adversely impacted by the Venezuelan bolivar.
As reported on page 35, Diageo announced changes to its regional structure on 25 May 2011. As a result of this change the segmental information for the years ended 30 June 2011 and 2010 have been restated. The restated organic movement calculations for volume, sales, net sales, marketing spend and operating profit for the group's operating segments for the year ended 30 June 2011 are included below: