XMEX:ORCL Oracle Corporation Annual Report 10-K Filing - 5/31/2012

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Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

x   

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

        

For the fiscal year ended May 31, 2012

OR

 

¨   

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF

THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

        

For the transition period from             to             

Commission file number: 000-51788

 

 

Oracle Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   54-2185193

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

500 Oracle Parkway

Redwood City, California

  94065

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

(650) 506-7000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES  x    NO  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    YES  ¨    NO  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES  x    NO  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    YES  x    NO  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer  x    Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer  ¨    Smaller reporting company  ¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     YES  ¨    NO  x

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $119,072,791,000 based on the number of shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of May 31, 2012, and based on the closing sale price of common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on November 30, 2011, which is the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. This calculation does not reflect a determination that persons are affiliates for any other purposes.

Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 20, 2012: 4,882,506,000.

Documents Incorporated by Reference:

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2012 annual stockholders’ meeting are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

ORACLE CORPORATION

FISCAL YEAR 2012

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  

PART I.

     

Item 1.

   Business      3   

Item 1A.

   Risk Factors      21   

Item 1B.

   Unresolved Staff Comments      34   

Item 2.

   Properties      34   

Item 3.

   Legal Proceedings      34   

Item 4.

   Mine Safety Disclosures      34   

PART II.

     

Item 5.

   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      35   

Item 6.

   Selected Financial Data      37   

Item 7.

   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      38   

Item 7A.

   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      76   

Item 8.

   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      78   

Item 9.

   Changes In and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      78   

Item 9A.

   Controls and Procedures      78   

Item 9B.

   Other Information      79   

PART III. 

     

Item 10.

   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      80   

Item 11.

   Executive Compensation      80   

Item 12.

   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related
Stockholder Matters
     80   

Item 13.

   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      80   

Item 14.

   Principal Accounting Fees and Services      80   

PART IV.

     

Item 15.

   Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules      81   
   Signatures      131   


Table of Contents

Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements

For purposes of this Annual Report, the terms “Oracle,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Oracle Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements that are not historical in nature, are predictive in nature, or that depend upon or refer to future events or conditions or contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These include, among other things, statements regarding:

 

   

our expectation to continue to acquire companies, products, services and technologies;

 

   

our intention that our direct sales force will sell proportionately more of our hardware systems products in the future;

 

   

continued realization of gains or losses with respect to our foreign currency exposures;

 

   

our expectation that our software business’ total revenues generally will continue to increase;

 

   

our belief that software license updates and product support revenues and margins will grow;

 

   

our expectation that our hardware business will have lower operating margins as a percentage of revenues than our software business;

 

   

our international operations providing a significant portion of our total revenues and expenses;

 

   

our expectation to continue to innovate and invest in Java technology;

 

   

our expectation to continue to make significant investments in research and development and related product opportunities, including those related to hardware products and services;

 

   

our expectation to grow our consulting revenues;

 

   

the sufficiency of our sources of funding for acquisitions or other matters;

 

   

our belief that we have adequately provided for any reasonably foreseeable outcomes related to our tax audits and that any settlement will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations;

 

   

our expectation to continue paying comparable cash dividends on a quarterly basis;

 

   

our expectation that seasonal trends will continue in fiscal 2013;

 

   

our expectation to continue to depend on third party manufacturers to build certain hardware systems products and third party logistics providers to deliver our products;

 

   

our expectation that to the extent customers renew support contracts or cloud software subscription contracts, we will recognize revenues for the full contracts’ values over the respective renewal periods;

as well as other statements regarding our future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies. Forward-looking statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “will,” “is designed to” and similar expressions. We claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for all forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about our business that could affect our future results and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report and as may be updated in filings we make from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), including the Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q to be filed by us in our fiscal year 2013, which runs from June 1, 2012 to May 31, 2013.

 

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We have no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or risks, except to the extent required by applicable securities laws. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements. New information, future events or risks could cause the forward-looking events we discuss in this Annual Report not to occur. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect our opinions only as of the date of this Annual Report.

 

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PART I

Item 1.    Business

General

We are the world’s largest provider of enterprise software and a leading provider of computer hardware products and services. Our software, hardware systems, and services businesses develop, manufacture, market, host and support database and middleware software, applications software, and hardware systems, with the latter consisting primarily of computer server and storage products. Our businesses provide products and services that are built upon industry standards, are engineered to work together or independently within existing customer information technology (IT) environments, and run securely on a wide range of customer IT environments, including cloud computing environments.

Cloud computing environments provide on demand access to a shared pool of computing resources in a scalable, self-service manner, delivering advantages in speed, agility and efficiency. Cloud computing has evolved from technologies and services that Oracle has provided for many years, including clustering, server virtualization, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), shared services, large-scale management automation, and more recently, engineered systems. Our secure, reliable, and scalable product offerings are designed to improve business efficiencies at a lower total cost of ownership. We seek to be an industry leader in each of the product categories in which we compete, and to expand into new and emerging markets.

We believe our ability to offer our customers choice and flexibility in the manner in which they deploy our products and services—while maintaining enterprise-grade reliability, security, and interoperability based upon industry standards—is important to our corporate strategy. Oracle Fusion Applications, for example, offer customers a choice of deployment models to run our standards-based software applications in on-premise or cloud computing IT environments. Oracle Cloud is a family of our cloud-based software subscription offerings that provides access to select Oracle software applications and software platforms on a subscription basis in a secure, standards-based cloud computing environment. Oracle Cloud includes software applications as a service, such as Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management (HCM) Cloud Service and Oracle Fusion Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Cloud Service, and software platform services such as Oracle Database Cloud Service and Oracle Java Cloud Service, among others.

We believe our internal growth and continued innovation with respect to our software, hardware and services businesses are the foundation of our long-term strategic plans. In each of fiscal 2012 and 2011, we invested $4.5 billion and in fiscal 2010, we invested $3.3 billion in research and development to enhance our existing portfolio of products and services and to develop new products and services. We continue to focus the engineering of our hardware and software products to make them work together more effectively and deliver improved computing performance, reliability, and security to our customers. For example, Oracle Engineered Systems, which include our Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, and SPARC SuperCluster products, amongst others, combine certain of our hardware and software offerings to provide engineered systems that increase computing performance and reduce storage requirements relative to our competitors’ products, creating time savings, efficiencies, and operational cost advantages for our customers.

We also believe that an active acquisition program is an important element of our corporate strategy as it strengthens our competitive position, enhances the products and services that we can offer to customers, expands our customer base, provides greater scale to accelerate innovation, grows our revenues and earnings and increases stockholder value. In recent years, we have invested billions of dollars to acquire a number of companies, products, services and technologies that add to, are complementary to, or have otherwise enhanced our existing offerings. We expect to continue to acquire companies, products, services and technologies to further our corporate strategy.

We are organized into three businesses—software, hardware systems and services—which are further divided into certain operating segments. Our software business is comprised of two operating segments: (1) new software licenses and (2) software license updates and product support. Our hardware systems business consists of two operating segments: (1) hardware systems products and (2) hardware systems support. Our services business is comprised of the remainder of our operating segments and offers consulting services, managed cloud services,

 

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and education services. Our software, hardware systems and services businesses represented 70%, 17% and 13% of our total revenues, respectively, in fiscal 2012; 68%, 19% and 13%, respectively, in fiscal 2011; and 77%, 9% and 14%, respectively, in fiscal 2010. Prior to our acquisition of Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun) in January 2010, we did not have a hardware systems business. See Note 16 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for additional information related to our operating segments.

Oracle Corporation was incorporated in 2005 as a Delaware corporation and is the successor to operations originally begun in June 1977.

Oracle and Cloud Computing

Our cloud computing strategy offers customers a broad portfolio of enterprise-grade software and hardware products and services that are secure, scalable, and reliable, and based upon industry standards to enable interoperability and portability. Additionally, we offer customers a pragmatic roadmap to adopt the cloud computing environment that best fits their needs, whether that is a “private” cloud or a “public” cloud. Private clouds are exclusive to a single organization, whereas “public” clouds are used by multiple organizations on a shared basis and hosted and managed by a third-party service provider. Our enterprise-grade software and hardware products and services for private and public cloud computing environments include, among others:

 

   

Oracle Cloud, which was created to give access to certain Oracle software in a secure, elastically scalable, highly available, cloud-based IT environment that we offer to customers on a subscription basis, includes access, hosting, infrastructure management, the use of software updates, and support;

 

   

Oracle Engineered Systems, which include our Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, and Oracle SPARC SuperCluster products, and which are designed to be foundations for cloud computing by incorporating pre-integrated and optimized combinations of hardware and software that deliver high performance efficiently and at a lower total cost of ownership;

 

   

Our Oracle software product and hardware-related software portfolio, which includes:

 

  ¡    

Oracle Fusion Applications in the cloud, which are the newest generation of applications offered to customers. With over 100 modules available, Oracle is the only company with such a broad cloud based application suite;

 

  ¡    

Oracle SOA Suite and Oracle Business Process Management Suite for process integration and Oracle Data Integrator and Oracle GoldenGate for data integration, which are both designed to enable integration within and across public and private clouds;

 

  ¡    

Oracle Identity Management and Oracle Database Security, which are designed to enable customers to secure their own cloud environments and integrate with public clouds;

 

  ¡    

Oracle VM for SPARC and x86, which are designed to enable customers to create virtual environments for multiple applications to share a physical server for higher utilization and efficiency; and which simplify and accelerate software deployment by enabling pre-configured software images to be created and rapidly deployed onto virtualized servers;

 

  ¡    

Oracle operating systems and management, which include Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux, which are the foundation for building, deploying and managing IaaS clouds and provide secure, reliable operating environments for SPARC and x86 servers; and,

 

  ¡    

Oracle Enterprise Manager, which is designed to provide a complete management solution for clouds from application to disk—including IaaS and PaaS offerings—and enables customers to plan and set up clouds; package, test and deploy applications on clouds; manage and monitor clouds and applications on clouds; and meter, charge and optimize clouds over time; and

 

   

Our Oracle hardware product portfolio, which includes our Oracle Engineered Systems hardware, our SPARC and x86 based servers, and our storage and networking products, and which provides the underlying mission-critical infrastructure for Oracle’s various cloud offerings and our customers’ and partners’ private and public cloud offerings, including software-as-a-service (SaaS, software that we offer on a subscription basis and deliver as a service to customers that includes access, hosting,

 

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infrastructure management, the use of software updates and support), platform-as-a-service (PaaS, an application development and deployment platform delivered as a service to developers who use the platform to build, deploy and manage applications) and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS, which consists of computing servers, storage and networking delivered as a service) clouds.

Oracle Cloud

Oracle Cloud is a family of our cloud-based software subscription offerings that provides our customers and partners subscription-based, self-service access to certain of our database and middleware, and applications software. Oracle Cloud provides many common services including: resource management and isolation, security, data exchange and integration, virus scanning, and centralized self-service monitoring.

Oracle Cloud provides customers with flexible deployment models to run our business applications in cloud computing or on-premise IT environments, and includes Oracle Fusion CRM Cloud Service, Oracle Fusion HCM Cloud Service and the Oracle Social Network. We also offer certain software applications via subscription-based, cloud computing delivery models including Oracle RightNow Customer Experience and Oracle Taleo Talent Management Cloud Service, among others.

Oracle Cloud also provides our software platforms as services including Oracle Java Cloud Service and Oracle Database Cloud Service. Oracle Java Cloud Service provides customers with an open, standards-based Java application development and deployment platform built on Oracle’s WebLogic Server functionality in a cloud environment that we manage and offer to customers via a subscription-based arrangement. Customers and partners are able to use standard Java Integrated Development Environments such as Oracle JDeveloper, NetBeans and Eclipse to create applications that can then be deployed on the Oracle Java Cloud Service. Oracle Database Cloud Service provides customers with Oracle Database functionality in a cloud environment that we manage and offer to customers via a subscription-based arrangement. Oracle Database Cloud Service includes the Oracle Application Express (APEX) application development environment and a set of business productivity applications that are designed to be easy to use and can be quickly provisioned.

Oracle Engineered Systems

An important element of our corporate strategy and product development efforts is to engineer our hardware and software products together to deliver efficiencies that simplify our customers’ IT environments; provide increased IT performance, reliability, and security; and free up resources that customers can use to invest in innovation and competitive differentiation. Oracle Engineered Systems are a part of our hardware systems segment, and are pre-integrated products engineered to include multiple elements of Oracle software and hardware products. Oracle Engineered Systems provide the foundation for IT consolidation and cloud computing, and are designed to deliver high performance and scalability; provide faster time to production; reduce data storage costs; and enable customers to efficiently purchase, deploy and support their IT environments. All Oracle Engineered Systems are tested in the factory and delivered ready to run. These pre-integrated products are also designed to be upgraded effectively and efficiently. As integrated systems, Oracle Engineered Systems simplify routine maintenance, such as software patching, by providing a single solution that covers the entire system. Oracle Engineered Systems include Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, SPARC SuperCluster, Oracle Database Appliance, and Oracle Big Data Appliance.

Oracle Exadata Database Machine

Oracle Exadata Database Machine is a family of integrated software and hardware products that combines our database, storage and operating system software with our server, storage and networking hardware. Oracle Exadata Database Machine is designed to enable customers to consolidate databases, manage large volumes of data, improve query response times, and reduce costs by improving data storage and using fewer IT resources.

Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud

Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud is an engineered system that combines Oracle Fusion Middleware software with our hardware to run Java and non-Java applications and provide customers with an applications platform for cloud computing. Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud is designed to improve the performance of applications that run

 

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on it and enable customers to consolidate multiple applications onto a single system that is designed to be scalable, reliable and secure.

Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine

The Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine is a single server that is designed to be configured for in-memory analytics for business intelligence workloads. The Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine features an optimized Oracle Business Intelligence Foundation Suite and Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database. The Oracle Business Intelligence Foundation Suite takes advantage of large memory, processors, storage, networking, operating system and system configuration of the Oracle Exalytics hardware. This optimization is designed to provide better query responsiveness, higher user scalability and lower total cost of ownership.

SPARC SuperCluster

Our SPARC SuperCluster is a general purpose engineered system that combines the computing power of our SPARC processor, the performance and scalability of Oracle Solaris, the optimized database performance of Oracle Exadata storage and the accelerated middleware processing of the Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud. Oracle SPARC SuperCluster is designed to provide the scalability and performance demanded by a wide range of Oracle and non-Oracle enterprise workloads. It is an ideal mission-critical consolidation platform that is designed to run multiple tiers, from database to middleware to application, and to support multiple applications and operating systems side by side. SPARC SuperCluster enables faster deployment, increased systems utilization and reduced data center space and energy requirements.

Oracle Database Appliance

Oracle Database Appliance is an integrated, fault resilient system of software, servers, storage and networking in a single box that is designed to deliver high-availability database services for a wide range of homegrown and packaged online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing applications. The Oracle Database Appliance is designed to enable enterprises to consolidate OLTP and data warehousing databases up to four terabytes in size.

Oracle Big Data Appliance

Oracle Big Data Appliance is an engineered system designed for acquiring, organizing and loading unstructured data into an Oracle database. By integrating the key components of a big data platform into a single product, Oracle Big Data Appliance is a scalable and supported big data infrastructure that reduces the risks of a custom built solution. Built using our industry-standard hardware, Oracle Big Data Appliance is installed and configured for high performance and availability.

Software, Hardware Systems and Services Businesses

Software Business

Our software business consists of our new software licenses segment and software license updates and product support segment.

New Software Licenses

The new software licenses operating segment of our software business primarily includes the licensing of database and middleware software, as well as applications software.

Our software solutions are designed to help customers reduce the cost and complexity of their IT infrastructures by delivering solutions via an industry standards-based, integrated architecture. This standards-based architecture enables our software to work in customer environments that may include Oracle or non-Oracle hardware or software components. This approach is designed to support customer choice, to reduce customer risk and to be adapted to the specific needs of any industry or application. In this model, our database and certain of our middleware offerings are designed to manage and protect a customer’s underlying business information, while

 

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application servers run enterprise applications that are designed to automate multiple business functions and provide intelligence in critical functional areas. Our software products are designed to operate on both single server and clustered server configurations for on-premise or cloud computing IT environments and to support a choice of operating systems, including, for example, Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, Microsoft Windows and third party UNIX products.

New software license revenues represented 27%, 26% and 28% of total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Database and Middleware Software

Our database and middleware software provide a range of offerings that are designed to provide a cost-effective, high-performance platform for running and managing business applications for midsize businesses, as well as large, global enterprises. Our customers are increasingly focused on reducing the total cost of their IT infrastructure and we believe that our software offerings help them achieve this goal. Our software is designed to accommodate demanding, non-stop business environments using clustered middleware and database servers and storage. These clusters are designed to scale incrementally as required to address our customers’ IT capacity, satisfy their planning and procurement needs, support their business applications with a standardized platform architecture, reduce their risk of data loss and IT infrastructure downtime and efficiently utilize available IT resources to meet quality of service expectations.

New software license revenues from database and middleware products represented 70% of our new software license revenues in fiscal 2012 and 72% in each of fiscal 2011 and 2010.

Database Software

Oracle Database software is the world’s most popular enterprise database software. It is designed to enable reliable and secure storage, retrieval and manipulation of all forms of data, including: transactional data, business information, and analytics; semi-structured and unstructured data in the form of weblogs, text, social media feeds, XML files, office documents, images, video and spatial images; and other specialized forms of data, such as human genomic and medical data. Oracle Database software is used for a variety of purposes, including packaged applications, custom application development, OLTP applications, data warehousing and business intelligence, and as a document repository or specialized data store.

Oracle Database software is available in four editions: Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One and Express Edition. All editions are built using the same underlying code, which means that our database software can scale from small, single processor servers to clusters of multi-processor servers and our Oracle Exadata Database Machines.

We also offer customers in-memory database software, including Oracle TimesTen In-Memory, the world’s most popular in-memory database, and Oracle In-Memory Database Cache. Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database is designed to deliver real-time data management and transaction processing speeds for performance-critical applications, from complex analytical queries and speed-of-thought data visualization, to mission-critical, industry-specific applications such as call centers, trading platforms, reservation systems, and smart meters. Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database supports multiple computing platforms, is compatible with Oracle Database software, and can work as a standalone database at the applications tier. Oracle In-Memory Database Cache acts as a high performance cache for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and is used to provide immediate access to historical data in existing Oracle Databases that are frequently accessed such as customer and user lists, open orders, and product catalogs.

A number of optional add-on products are available with Oracle Database Enterprise Edition software to address specific customer requirements. In the areas of performance and scalability, we offer Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Advanced Compression and Oracle Partitioning software options. In the area of data security, we offer Oracle Advanced Security, Oracle Database Vault, Oracle Audit Vault and Oracle Database Firewall software options.

 

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In addition to the four editions of Oracle Database, we also offer a portfolio of specialized database software products to address particular customer requirements, including:

 

   

MySQL, the world’s most popular open source database, designed for high performance and scalability of web applications and embedded applications, available in Enterprise, Standard, Classic, Cluster and Community editions;

 

   

Oracle Berkeley DB, a family of open source, embeddable, relational, XML and key-value (NoSQL) databases designed for developers to embed within their applications and devices; and

 

   

Oracle NoSQL Database, a distributed key-value database designed for high availability and massive scalability of high volume transaction processing with predictable low-latency.

Middleware Software

Oracle Fusion Middleware software is a broad family of integrated application infrastructure software products that is designed to form a reliable and scalable foundation on which customers can build, deploy, secure, access and integrate business applications and automate their business processes. Built with Oracle’s Java technology platform, Oracle Fusion Middleware products can be used as a foundation for custom, packaged and composite applications—or applications that can be deployed in private or public cloud environments.

Oracle Fusion Middleware software is designed to protect customers’ IT investments and work with both Oracle and non-Oracle database, middleware and applications software through its open architecture and adherence to industry standards such as Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) and Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), among others.

By using Oracle Fusion Middleware software, we believe customers can better adapt to business changes rapidly, reduce their risks related to security and compliance, increase user productivity and drive better business decisions. Specifically, Oracle Fusion Middleware software is designed to enable customers to integrate heterogeneous business applications, automate business processes, scale applications to meet customer demand, simplify security and compliance, manage lifecycles of documents and get actionable, targeted business intelligence; all while continuing to utilize their existing IT systems. In addition, Oracle Fusion Middleware software supports multiple development languages and tools, which enables developers to build and deploy web services, websites, portals and web-based applications.

Oracle Fusion Middleware software is used to integrate, extend, rapidly configure and secure enterprise applications. Oracle Fusion Middleware integrates with Oracle Applications as well as other third party applications, including applications in clouds. Oracle Fusion Middleware software is also the foundation for Oracle Fusion Applications—providing customers greater benefits from a unified application platform.

Oracle Fusion Middleware software is available in various software products and suites, including the following functional areas:

 

   

Application Server and Cloud Application Foundation;

 

   

Service-Oriented Architecture and Business Process Management;

 

   

Business Intelligence;

 

   

Identity and Access Management;

 

   

Data Integration;

 

   

Web Experience Management, Portals, Content Management and Social Networks; and

 

   

Development Tools.

Application Server and Cloud Application Foundation

The foundation of Oracle Fusion Middleware software is Oracle WebLogic Server—an application server that is compliant with the Java EE specification. Oracle WebLogic Server incorporates clustering and caching technology,

 

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which increases application reliability, performance, security and scalability. In addition to Oracle WebLogic, Oracle combines cloud infrastructure components into the Oracle cloud application foundation, including Oracle Virtual Assembly Builder, Oracle Coherence, Oracle JRockit, Oracle Tuxedo and Oracle GlassFish Server.

Oracle Virtual Assembly Builder works with Oracle WebLogic Server to increase the efficiency of application virtualization and to enable users to quickly and easily design and deploy multi-tier applications to virtualized IT environments, both conventional and cloud. Oracle Coherence is an in-memory data grid solution that enables organizations to predictably scale applications by providing fast and reliable access to frequently used data. Oracle JRockit is a high performance Java Virtual Machine designed to run Java applications on multi-core processors with higher and more predictable performance. Oracle Tuxedo runs legacy, mainframe and non-Java applications written in the C, C++ and COBOL languages that have transaction reliability, scalability and performance requirements. Oracle GlassFish Server enhances the value of Oracle Fusion Middleware software for developers by accelerating development practices and decreasing application time-to-market.

Service-Oriented Architecture and Business Process Management

Service-Oriented Architecture is a software development and architecture methodology that creates a modular, re-usable approach to applications development; makes it easy to integrate systems with each other; and reduces the need for costly custom development. Oracle SOA Suite is a suite of middleware software products used to create, deploy and manage applications on a Service-Oriented Architecture including Oracle JDeveloper, Oracle BPEL Process Manager, Oracle Web Services Manager, Oracle Business Rules, Oracle Business Activity Monitoring and Oracle Service Bus. Oracle Business Process Management Suite is a suite of software that is designed to enable business and IT professionals to design, implement, automate and evolve business processes and workflows within and across organizations. Oracle SOA Governance is designed to maintain the security and integrity of our customers’ SOA deployments.

Business Intelligence

Oracle Business Intelligence (BI) is a comprehensive set of analytic software products designed to provide customers with the information they need to make better business decisions. Oracle’s Business Intelligence software products include Oracle BI Suite Enterprise Edition, a comprehensive query and analysis server; Oracle Essbase, an online analytical processing server; Oracle BI Publisher, a self-service production and operational reporting tool; and Oracle Real-Time Decisions, a real-time data classification and optimization solution. Users can access these tools from a variety of user interfaces including browser-based interactive dashboards; ad hoc query and analysis; proactive detection and alerts integrated with e-mail; Microsoft Office integration including support for Excel, Word and PowerPoint; and mobile analytics for mobile and smart phones.

Identity and Access Management

Oracle’s identity and access management software products are designed to enable customers to manage internal and external users, secure corporate information from potential software threats and streamline compliance initiatives while lowering the total cost of their security and compliance initiatives. These software products include a lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP) directory service to store and manage user identities and policies; identity provisioning to provision users and roles in multiple enterprise applications and systems; access management to manage access control and entitlements for customers, partners and employees; and identity analytics to audit and identify users attempting to access systems for which they are not authorized.

Data Integration

Oracle’s data integration offerings consist of Oracle GoldenGate, Oracle Data Integrator and Oracle Enterprise Data Quality products. Oracle GoldenGate is a high performance data movement and continuous availability solution designed to capture transaction records on one system and to move and apply them to other systems with low impact on system and network performance. Oracle Data Integrator is an extract-transform-load (ETL) solution that enables users to extract data from one system, transform it from the source system’s format to a target system’s format and load it into the target system (such as a data warehouse). Oracle Data Integrator also

 

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includes big data capabilities to transform and load unstructured data from non-Oracle environments into Oracle Database or Oracle Exadata. Additionally, Oracle Enterprise Data Quality enables users to profile any type of data (customer or product-oriented) and to clean it using a variety of automated matching and cleansing rules making the data more reliable and more accurate.

Web Experience Management, Portals, Content Management and Social Networks

Oracle WebCenter is designed to deliver a complete user engagement platform for social business, connecting people and information. It brings together a broad portfolio of portal, web experience management, content, social and collaboration technologies into a single product suite. Oracle WebCenter is designed to improve customer loyalty and sales by helping marketing-driven organizations deliver contextual and targeted web experiences to users and give employees readily available access to information and applications in the context of an interaction and business process through portals and composite applications. Oracle WebCenter helps people work together more efficiently through contextual collaboration tools that optimize connections among people, information and applications while ensuring users have access to the right information in the context of their daily business processes.

Oracle WebCenter Content is an enterprise content management software suite that is designed to enable users to capture, manage and publish information that is either unstructured, not easily readable or has not been stored, including documents, images, audio, video and a wide variety of other forms of digital content. Oracle WebCenter Sites enables marketers and business users to easily create and manage contextually relevant, social and interactive online experiences across multiple channels on a global scale. Oracle WebCenter Portal is a portal and composite applications solution that is designed to deliver intuitive user experiences for the enterprise that are seamlessly integrated with enterprise applications. Oracle WebCenter social, which includes Oracle Social Network and Oracle WebCenter Real-Time Collaboration, enables secure social networking and enterprise collaboration tools for the enterprise.

Development Tools

Oracle JDeveloper is an integrated software environment that is designed to facilitate rapid development of a variety of different types of applications using Oracle Fusion Middleware software and popular open source technologies. Oracle JDeveloper software provides support for developing Java applications; web services, composite SOA applications and business processes; rich user interfaces using AJAX/DHTML and Flash technologies; and websites using popular scripting languages. Oracle JDeveloper software also provides comprehensive application lifecycle management facilities including modeling, building, debugging, unit testing, profiling and optimizing applications and is integrated with the Oracle Application Development Framework software, which provides a declarative framework for building business applications and popular open source tools, including Eclipse and NetBeans.

Java

Java is the computer industry’s most widely-used software development language and is viewed as a global standard. The Java programming language and platform together represent one of the most popular and powerful development environments in the world, one that is used by millions of developers globally to develop business applications. Oracle Fusion Middleware software products and Oracle Fusion Applications are built using our Java technology platform, which we believe is a key advantage for our business.

Java is designed to enable developers to write software on a single platform and run it on many other different platforms, independent of operating system and hardware architecture. Java has been adopted by both independent software vendors (ISV) that have built their products on Java and by enterprise organizations building custom applications or consuming Java-based ISV products.

For customers, the Java platform is designed to enable a variety of compatible applications, independent of their vendor, and to support a global community of Java developers, support engineers and knowledge bases that can help customers reduce the risk of and time to deployment as well as the ongoing cost of ownership and maintenance.

 

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There are three primary editions of Java (Standard, Enterprise and Micro) that support a broad spectrum of usage ranging from mobile phones to desktop computers to server applications. Java can also be found embedded in a variety of devices and machines, including printers, cars, airplanes, tablets, DVD players, set-top boxes, pens, smart meters and bank ATM machines; and JavaCard is designed for specialized use in smart cards. Certain of our products are built primarily to enable customers to run Java applications on and with them, such as Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle Coherence. Many more of our products are built with and rely on Java, such as the Oracle Fusion Middleware software product family and Oracle Fusion Applications. We expect to continue to innovate and invest in Java technology for the benefit of customers and the Java community.

Management Software

Oracle Enterprise Manager is Oracle’s integrated enterprise IT management and cloud management family of products. Oracle Enterprise Manager is designed to combine the self-management capabilities built into Oracle products with its business-driven IT management capabilities to deliver a holistic approach to IT management across the entire Oracle technology portfolio, including Oracle Database and Oracle Exadata, Oracle Fusion Middleware and Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Applications, Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, Oracle VM and our complete hardware portfolio. Oracle Enterprise Manager is designed to manage Oracle’s software and hardware portfolio whether deployed using traditional IT architectures or in cloud computing architectures. In both cases, Oracle Enterprise Manager is designed to provide a complete IT lifecycle management approach, including configuring elements of an IT environment, monitoring service levels; diagnosing and troubleshooting problems, patching and provisioning IT environments, managing compliance reporting, and providing change management in a unified way across physical and virtualized IT environments.

Virtualization Software

Oracle VM is server virtualization software for both Oracle SPARC and x86-based servers, and supports both Oracle and non-Oracle applications. Oracle VM software is designed to enable different applications to share a single physical system for higher utilization and efficiency, and simplify software deployment by enabling pre-configured software images to be created and rapidly deployed without installation or configuration errors.

Applications Software

Oracle Applications are designed using an industry standards-based, integrated architecture to manage and automate core business functions across the enterprise, as well as help customers differentiate and innovate in those processes unique to their industries or organizations. Oracle Applications are also designed to reduce the risk, cost, and complexity of our customers’ IT infrastructures, while supporting customer choice and providing flexibility in deployment models and upgrade paths.

Through a focused strategy of investments in internal research and development and strategic acquisitions, we also provide industry-specific solutions for customers in a number of different industries, including communications, engineering and construction, financial services, health services, manufacturing, public sector, retail, and utilities. We continue to broaden the number of software applications that we offer on a subscription basis via a cloud computing environment to provide our customers with choice and flexibility in how they manage their software investments and software deployments. New software license revenues from applications software represented 30% of our new software license revenues in fiscal 2012 and 28% in each of fiscal 2011 and 2010.

Oracle’s Applications strategy provides customers with a secure path to adopt our latest technology advances which are designed to improve the customer software experience and enable better business performance. Central to that strategy is Oracle’s Applications Unlimited program, which is our commitment to customer choice through ongoing investment and innovation in our current applications offerings. Oracle Fusion Applications build upon this commitment and are designed to work with and evolve customer investments in their existing applications portfolio. Oracle Lifetime Support helps ensure customers will continue to have a choice in upgrade paths based on their enterprise needs.

 

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We protect our customers’ current investments in Oracle Applications by delivering new product releases that incorporate customer-specific and industry-specific innovations across product lines. Since announcing our Applications Unlimited program in 2005, we have delivered major releases on all applications product lines by combining business functionality with innovative technologies such as role-based analytics, secure search, identity management, self-service and workflow to deliver adaptive industry processes, business intelligence and insights, and optimal end-user productivity.

Oracle Fusion Applications are part of a comprehensive suite of modular, next-generation software applications that enable efficient management of core business functions across the enterprise. Oracle Fusion Applications are designed using commercially-available technology standards such as Java and BPEL; the principles of SOA; and a common approach and architecture for the user experience, business intelligence, social networking and mobility. With their tailored user experience and embedded analytical capabilities, Oracle Fusion Applications are designed to increase user productivity and allow customers to manage functions across different environments more effectively. Using a SOA approach, Oracle Fusion Applications are engineered to provide customers with more flexibility to innovate and adopt next-generation technologies at their own pace, whether via one module, a product family, or an entire suite. Oracle Fusion Applications are engineered to be cloud-ready and thus offer flexible deployment options, including on-premise, public cloud, private cloud, or a combination of these options.

We also continue to offer and enhance Oracle Applications, including our Oracle E-Business Suite, Siebel, PeopleSoft, and JD Edwards product families. All Oracle Applications are enterprise-grade and based upon industry standards, and designed to automate core business processes and address industry-specific needs.

The primary applications software offerings include:

 

   

Human Capital Management;

 

   

Customer Relationship Management;

 

   

Financials;

 

   

Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC);

 

   

Procurement;

 

   

Supply Chain Management (SCM);

 

   

Enterprise Project Portfolio Management (EPPM) ;

 

   

Enterprise Performance Management (EPM);

 

   

Business Intelligence / Analytic Applications;

 

   

Web Commerce; and

 

   

Industry-Specific Applications.

Human Capital Management

We offer a broad portfolio of Human Resource and Talent Management applications, and flexible deployment options for on-premise or cloud computing IT environments. Our complete and integrated offerings provide core human resource transactions, workforce service automation and delivery, and complete enterprise talent management. Our global, web-based, single system architecture is designed for organizations of every size, industry and region. In fiscal 2012, we acquired Taleo Corporation, a leading provider of cloud-based talent management software that helps organizations attract, develop, motivate, and retain human capital. We believe our portfolio of HCM solutions creates a broad offering for organizations to manage their human resource operations and employee careers, either via cloud offerings such as Oracle Fusion HCM Cloud Service and Oracle Taleo Talent Management service; or on-premise solutions, including Oracle Fusion HCM (which is also cloud ready), Oracle E-Business Suite HCM, and PeopleSoft HCM.

 

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Customer Relationship Management

We offer a broad portfolio of CRM applications, including Siebel CRM, Oracle E-Business Suite CRM, PeopleSoft CRM, Oracle Fusion Applications for CRM, and Oracle RightNow CX Service Cloud, that are designed to help our customers manage their selling processes more efficiently; integrate marketing campaigns and content into their selling processes more effectively; and deliver high quality customer service across multiple channels, including call centers, web, and mobile devices. Our Oracle CRM On Demand and Siebel CRM offerings also provide many industry-specific features designed to support the specialized needs of users in key sectors, such as communications, consumer products, financial services, high technology, insurance, life sciences and the public sector. Customers may also elect to use our subscription-based CRM cloud offerings, including Oracle Fusion CRM Cloud Service and Oracle RightNow Customer Experience, among others.

Financials and Governance, Risk and Compliance

Our financial management and GRC solutions are designed to enable our customers to meet fiduciary and statutory requirements, more efficiently manage risk across a global enterprise, accelerate the credit-to-cash cycle of business transactions, track financial operations and cash flow through accounting and treasury functions and manage business performance. In addition to our portfolio of financial management applications from Oracle E-Business Suite, PeopleSoft, and JD Edwards, we also offer Oracle Fusion GRC, a component of the Oracle Fusion Applications suite, to provide unified intelligence and insight into all GRC activities, end-to-end support for cross-industry and industry-specific GRC processes, and automated controls that work across multiple business applications.

Procurement

We offer a broad portfolio of advanced procurement applications, including JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Supply Management, JD Edwards World Distribution Management and Supplier Self-Service, Oracle E-Business Suite Advanced Procurement, Oracle Fusion Procurement, and PeopleSoft Supplier Relationship Management, among others. These integrated procurement applications are designed to provide packaged integration to back-office applications that fully support “source-to-settle” processes for all categories of spend, including capital goods, direct materials, indirect goods and services. Our procurement applications also provide industry-specific capabilities and the flexibility to leverage applications on demand, on-premise or in any combination to achieve procurement objectives.

Supply Chain Management

We offer a broad portfolio of SCM applications, including Agile, Demantra, JD Edwards, Oracle E-Business Suite, and Oracle Fusion Applications, among others, that support supply chain management processes such as demand management, order management, supply chain planning, sales and operations planning, procurement and sourcing to product development, manufacturing, transportation and warehouse management. Our SCM software offerings are designed to provide our customers with the ability to forecast and fulfill demand for their products through end-to-end, integrated, yet modular software. For example, customers can use Demantra products to predict demand and market requirements; Agile products to manage the lifecycle of their products, innovate, and adapt them in response to volatile market conditions; Oracle Advanced Procurement products to optimize supplier and procurement networks and reduce costs; Oracle Fusion Order Orchestration to orchestrate and fulfill orders across global networks; and Oracle, PeopleSoft, and JD Edwards manufacturing applications to deploy lean, mixed-mode manufacturing with integrated manufacturing execution systems that meet both discrete and process requirements.

Enterprise Project Portfolio Management

We offer a broad portfolio of EPPM applications, including JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Project Management, Oracle E-Business Suite’s family of Oracle Projects, Oracle Fusion Project Portfolio Management, PeopleSoft Enterprise Service Automation, and Primavera Project Portfolio Management. Oracle EPPM applications target project-intensive industries such as engineering and construction, aerospace and defense, utilities, oil and gas,

 

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manufacturing, professional services, and project-intensive departments within other industries. Our EPPM products help companies propose, prioritize and select project investments; and plan, manage and control the most complex projects and project portfolios. Additionally, our Primavera Project Portfolio Management family of products provides industry-specific solutions for project-intensive industries such as oil and gas, utilities, engineering and construction, aerospace and defense, and public sector. Through role-based user experience, embedded analytics, and collaborative tools, our EPPM solutions are designed to provide project stakeholders, project managers, and team members with the information needed to plan, mandate and deliver across the organization.

Enterprise Performance Management

Our Oracle Hyperion Performance Management suite of products are a modular set of integrated applications that integrate with both Oracle and non-Oracle transactional systems to help organizations automate, integrate and administer a broad range of financial and operational management processes. Our EPM applications include Hyperion Strategy Management; Hyperion Financial Close and Reporting; Hyperion Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting; and Hyperion Profitability and Cost Management. These applications enable organizations to define and model their financial structure, define their operating plans and manage financial budgets, allocate indirect revenues and costs to better understand business unit profitability, consolidate and aggregate financial results from a variety of systems, and manage the financial close and statutory reporting processes.

Business Intelligence / Analytic Applications

We provide packaged business intelligence applications for cross-industry business processes as well as industry-specific analytic applications. Each of our business intelligence applications features packaged data models, packaged ETL processes, packaged key performance indicators (KPIs), and packaged dashboards to deliver insight that is tailored for specific business processes. Our business intelligence applications are built on Oracle’s business intelligence technology, and source data from multiple versions of Oracle’s comprehensive portfolio of applications as well as from non-Oracle data sources. Our EPM and business intelligence applications, together with our business intelligence technology, enable us to offer our customers an integrated solution that spans planning and budgeting, financial management, operational analytics, and reporting.

Web Commerce

Our Web Commerce solutions are designed to enable enterprises to deliver a consistent, relevant and personalized cross-channel buying experience through catalog, merchandising, marketing, guided search and navigation, personalization, automated recommendations and live-help capabilities. By combining certain technologies that we have recently acquired including Art Technology Group, Inc.’s and Endeca Technologies Inc.’s Web Commerce software with our legacy Oracle and Siebel CRM software, we offer a unified cross-channel commerce and CRM platform, which is designed to enable businesses to deliver a consistent experience across a variety of different customer points of contact, including online, in-store, mobile, social and kiosk. This combined platform is designed to enable our customers to strengthen their customers’ loyalty, improve brand value, achieve better operating results, increase customer service and improve business response times across online and traditional commerce environments.

Industry-Specific Applications

Oracle Applications can be tailored to offer customers a variety of industry-specific solutions. As a part of our strategy, we strive to ensure that our applications portfolio addresses the major industry-influenced technology challenges of customers in key industries that we view as strategic to our future growth, including communications, consumer goods, education, energy, engineering and construction, financial services, healthcare, life sciences, manufacturing, professional services, public sector, retail, travel, transportation and utilities. For example, we offer the financial services sector a suite of applications addressing cash management, trade, treasury, payments, lending, private wealth management, asset management, compliance, enterprise risk and business analytics, among others. We offer the retail sector software solutions designed to provide unified and actionable data among store, merchandising and financial operations. Our applications for consumer goods

 

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manufacturers are designed to provide them with the ability to build their brand against retail private label programs by engaging directly with the consumer. Our Public Sector solutions are designed to provide national and local governments with the ability to improve service delivery to citizens, increase internal efficiency and improve transparency. Our ability to offer applications to address industry-specific complex processes provides us an opportunity to expand our customers’ knowledge of our broader product offerings and address customer specific technology challenges.

Software License Updates and Product Support

We seek to protect and enhance our customers’ current investments in Oracle software by offering proactive and personalized support services, including our Lifetime Support policy and unspecified product enhancements and upgrades. Software license updates provide customers with rights to unspecified software product upgrades and maintenance releases and patches released during the term of the support period. Product support includes internet and telephone access to technical support personnel located in our global support centers, as well as internet access to technical content through “My Oracle Support”. Software license updates and product support contracts are generally priced as a percentage of the net new software license fees. Substantially all of our customers purchase software license updates and product support contracts when they acquire new software licenses and renew their software license updates and product support contracts annually. Our software license updates and product support revenues represented 43%, 42% and 49% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Hardware Systems Business

Our hardware systems business consists of two operating segments: hardware systems products and hardware systems support.

Hardware Systems Products

We provide a complete selection of hardware systems and related services including servers, storage, networking, virtualization software, operating systems, and management software to support diverse public and private cloud computing environments. We engineer our hardware systems with virtualization and management capabilities to enable the rapid deployment and efficient management of cloud infrastructures. Oracle’s hardware systems support many of the world’s largest public and private clouds, and power Oracle’s own internal cloud initiatives, including our software development private cloud and Oracle University’s self-service private cloud.

Our hardware products and services are designed to be “open,” or to work in customer environments that may include other Oracle or non-Oracle hardware or software components. These products and services also help to meet customers’ demands to manage growing amounts of data and business requirements to meet increasing compliance and regulatory demands and to reduce energy, space and operational costs. We have also engineered our hardware systems products to create performance and operational cost advantages for customers when our hardware and software products are combined as Oracle Engineered Systems.

Our Oracle Engineered Systems include Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, SPARC SuperCluster, Oracle Database Appliance and Oracle Big Data Appliance. By combining our server and storage hardware with our software, our open, integrated products better address customer and cloud computing requirements for performance, scalability, reliability, security, ease of management and lower total cost of ownership. Our hardware systems products represented 10%, 12% and 6% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Servers

We offer a wide range of server systems using our SPARC microprocessor. Our SPARC servers are differentiated by their reliability, security and scalability; and by the customer environments that they target (general purpose or specialized systems). Our midsize and large servers are designed to offer greater performance and lower total cost of ownership than mainframe systems for business critical applications and for customers having more computationally intensive needs. Our SPARC servers run the Oracle Solaris operating system and

 

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are designed for the most demanding mission critical enterprise environments at any scale. SPARC servers are also a core component of the SPARC SuperCluster, one of our Oracle Engineered Systems.

We also offer enterprise x86 servers. These x86 servers are primarily based on microprocessor platforms from Intel Corporation (Intel) and are also compatible with Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, Microsoft Windows and other operating systems. Our x86 systems are also a core component of many of Oracle Engineered Systems, including Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine and Oracle Big Data Appliance.

Our Netra line of products are aimed at the unique needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and network equipment providers (NEPs). Rack-optimized systems and our blade product offerings combine high-density hardware architecture and system management software that OEMs find particularly useful in building their own solution architectures.

Storage

Our storage products are designed to securely manage, protect, archive and restore customers’ mission critical data assets and consist of tape, disk, hardware-related software including file systems software, back-up and archive software and storage management software and networking for mainframe and open systems environments. Our storage products are designed to improve data availability by providing fast data access and dynamic data protection for restoration and secure archiving for compliance. Our storage products are designed to work together, to work with Oracle software and to work with multi-vendor application and systems environments to maximize performance and efficiency while minimizing management overhead and reducing the total cost of ownership.

Our Sun ZFS Storage Appliance Network Attached Storage (NAS) offering is designed to provide improved performance, manageability and reduced total cost of ownership by combining third-generation software with high-performance controllers, flash-based caches and disks. Our Oracle Pillar Axiom Storage Area Network (SAN) system leverages a patented quality-of-service architecture designed to meet business critical service level agreements under dynamic, multi-application loads and enable customers to consolidate storage applications into a single data center storage solution.

Our tape storage product line includes StorageTEK libraries, drives, virtualization systems, media and device software. These products are intended to provide robust solutions for both long-term preservation and near-term protection of customer data at a lower total cost of ownership.

Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux Operating Systems and Hardware-Related Software

The Oracle Solaris operating system is designed to provide a reliable, secure and scalable operating system environment through significant core feature development, networking, security and file system technologies as well as close integration with hardware features. This design provides us with an ability to combine Oracle Solaris with our own hardware components to achieve certain performance and efficiency advantages in comparison to our competitors. The Oracle Solaris operating system is based on the UNIX operating system, but is unique among UNIX systems in that it is available on our SPARC servers and x86 servers that are substantially based upon microprocessors from Intel. We also support Oracle Solaris deployed on other companies’ hardware products.

Oracle provides a broad virtualization solution from the desktop to the data center. Oracle Solaris 11 provides comprehensive, built-in virtualization capabilities for the operating system, network and storage resources. In addition to its built-in virtualization capabilities, Oracle Solaris 11 is engineered for server virtualization on both x86 and SPARC based systems.

The Oracle Linux operating system with Oracle’s Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is a Linux operating system for enterprise workloads including databases, middleware and applications. Oracle’s Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is designed to work well with Oracle products to patch core operating systems without downtime.

In addition to Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux operating systems, we also develop a range of other hardware-related software, including development tools, compilers, management tools for servers and storage, diagnostic tools, virtualization, and file systems.

 

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Hardware Systems Support

Our hardware systems support offerings provide customers with software updates for the software components that are essential to the functionality of our server and storage products, such as Oracle Solaris and can include product repairs, maintenance services and technical support services. We continue to evolve hardware systems support processes that are intended to proactively identify and solve quality issues and to increase the amount of new hardware systems support contracts sold in connection with the sales of our hardware systems products. Hardware systems support contracts are generally priced as a percentage of the net hardware systems products fees. Our hardware systems support revenues represented 7% of our total revenues in each of fiscal 2012 and 2011 and 3% in fiscal 2010.

Services Business

We deliver an integrated services solution to help customers and partners maximize the performance of their investments in Oracle technology. Our services are differentiated based on our focus on Oracle technology, extensive experience and broad set of intellectual property and best practices. Our services business is comprised of the remainder of our operating segments and offers consulting services, managed cloud services and education services. Our services business represented 13% of our total revenues in each of fiscal 2012 and 2011 and 14% of our total revenues in fiscal 2010.

Consulting

Oracle Consulting is designed to help our customers more successfully architect and deploy our products. Our consulting services include business and IT strategy alignment, enterprise architecture planning and design, initial product implementation and integration and ongoing product enhancements and upgrades. Together, these services are designed to help our customers achieve their business goals, reduce the risk associated with their IT initiatives and maximize their return on investment. Oracle Consulting engages customers directly and provides specialized expertise to our global systems integrator partners. We utilize a global, blended delivery model to optimize value for our customers and partners, consisting of on-premise consultants from local geographies, industry specialists and consultants from our global delivery and solution centers.

Managed Cloud Services

Oracle managed cloud services provide comprehensive software and hardware management and maintenance services—including deployment, management, monitoring, patching, security and upgrade services—for customers hosted at our Oracle data center facilities, select partner data centers, or physically on-premise at customer facilities. Additionally, we provide support services, both on-premise and remote, to Oracle customers to enable increased performance and higher availability of their products and services. We believe that our managed cloud services offerings provide our customers with greater value and choice through increased business performance, reduced risk, a predictable cost and more flexibility in terms of service in order to maximize the performance of their Oracle software and hardware products and services.

Education

We provide training to customers, partners and employees as a part of our mission of accelerating the adoption and use of our software and hardware products and to create opportunities to grow our product revenues. Our training is provided through a variety of formats, including instructor-led classes at our education centers, live virtual training, self-paced online training, training via CD-ROM, private events and custom training. Our live virtual class offerings allow students anywhere in the world to receive real-time, interactive training online. In addition, we also offer a certification program certifying database administrators, developers, implementers, consultants and architects.

Marketing and Sales

We directly market and sell our products and services to businesses of many sizes and in many industries, government agencies and educational institutions. We also market and sell our products through indirect channels. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 or 2010.

 

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In the United States, our sales and service employees are based in our headquarters and in field offices throughout the country. Outside the United States, our international subsidiaries sell and support our products in their local countries as well as within other foreign countries where we do not operate through a direct sales subsidiary. Our geographic coverage allows us to draw on business and technical expertise from a global workforce, provides stability to our operations and revenue streams to offset geography-specific economic trends and offers us an opportunity to take advantage of new markets for our products. Our international operations subject us to certain risks, which are more fully described in “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A. of this Annual Report. A summary of our domestic and international revenues and long-lived assets is set forth in Note 16 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

We also market our products worldwide through indirect channels. The companies that comprise our indirect channel network are members of the Oracle Partner Network. The Oracle Partner Network is a global program that manages our business relationships with a large, broad-based network of companies, including independent software and hardware vendors, system integrators and resellers that deliver innovative solutions and services based upon our products. By offering our partners access to our premier products, educational information, technical services, marketing and sales support, the Oracle Partner Network program extends our market reach by providing our partners with the resources they need to be successful in delivering solutions to customers globally. The majority of our hardware systems products are sold through indirect channels including independent distributors and value added resellers.

Seasonality and Cyclicality

Our quarterly revenues have historically been affected by a variety of seasonal factors, including the structure of our sales force incentive compensation plans, which are common in the technology industry. Our total revenues and operating margins are typically highest in our fourth fiscal quarter and lowest in our first fiscal quarter. The operating margins of our businesses are generally affected by seasonal factors in a similar manner as our revenues (in particular, our new software licenses segment) as certain expenses within our cost structure are relatively fixed in the short term. See “Selected Quarterly Financial Data” in Item 7 of this Annual Report for a more complete description of the seasonality and cyclicality of our revenues, expenses and margins.

Competition

We face intense competition in all aspects of our business. The nature of the IT industry creates a competitive landscape that is constantly evolving as firms emerge, expand or are acquired, as technology evolves and as customer demands and competitive pressures otherwise change.

Our customers are demanding less complexity and lower total cost in the implementation, sourcing, integration and ongoing maintenance of their enterprise software and hardware systems. Our enterprise software and hardware offerings compete directly with some offerings from some of the largest and most competitive companies in the world, including Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft), International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Intel, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) and SAP AG, and smaller companies like Salesforce.com, as well as many others. In addition, the low barriers to entry in many of our market segments regularly introduce new technologies and new and growing competitors to challenge our offerings. Our competitors range from companies offering broad IT solutions across many of our lines of business to vendors providing point solutions, or offerings focused on a specific functionality, product area or industry. In addition, as we expand into new market segments, we will face increased competition as we will compete with existing competitors, as well as firms that may be partners in other areas of our business and other firms with whom we have not previously competed. Moreover, we or our competitors may take certain strategic actions—including acquisitions, partnerships and joint ventures, or repositioning of product lines—which invite even greater competition in one or more product categories.

Key competitive factors in each of the segments in which we currently compete and may compete in the future include: total cost of ownership, performance, scalability, reliability, security, functionality, efficiency, ease of management and quality of technical support. Our product sales (and the relative strength of our products versus those of our competitors) are also directly and indirectly affected by the following, among other things:

 

   

the adoption of SaaS, hosted or cloud software offerings;

 

   

the adoption of commodity servers and microprocessors;

 

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the broader “platform” competition between our industry standard Java technology platform and the .NET programming environment of Microsoft;

 

   

operating system competition among, primarily, our Oracle Solaris operating system, Microsoft’s Windows Server, UNIX (including HP-UX from HP and AIX from IBM) and Linux;

 

   

the adoption of open source alternatives to commercial software by enterprise software customers;

 

   

products, features and functionality developed internally by customers and their IT staff;

 

   

products, features or functionality customized and implemented for customers by consultants, systems integrators or other third parties; and

 

   

attractiveness of offerings from business processing outsourcers.

For more information about the competitive risks we face, refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Manufacturing

To produce our hardware systems products, we rely on both our internal manufacturing operations as well as third party manufacturing partners. Our internal manufacturing operations consist primarily of final assembly, test and quality control of our enterprise and data center servers and storage systems. For substantially all other manufacturing, we rely on third party manufacturing partners. We distribute most of our hardware systems products either from our facilities or partner facilities. Our manufacturing processes are based on standardization of components across product types, centralization of assembly and distribution centers and a “build-to-order” methodology in which products generally are built only after customers have placed firm orders. Production of our hardware products requires that we purchase materials, supplies, product subassemblies and full assemblies from a number of vendors. For most of our hardware products, we have existing alternate sources of supply or such sources are readily available. However, we do rely on sole sources for certain of our hardware products. As a result, we continue to evaluate potential risks of disruption to our supply chain operations. Refer to “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A. within this Annual Report for additional discussion of the challenges we encounter with respect to the sources and availability of supplies for our products and the related risks to our business.

Research and Development

We develop the substantial majority of our products internally. In addition, we have extended our product offerings and intellectual property through acquisitions of businesses and technologies. We also purchase or license intellectual property rights in certain circumstances. Internal development allows us to maintain technical control over the design and development of our products. We have a number of United States and foreign patents and pending applications that relate to various aspects of our products and technology. While we believe that our patents have value, no single patent is essential to us or to any of our principal business segments. Research and development expenditures were $4.5 billion in each of fiscal 2012 and 2011 and $3.3 billion in fiscal 2010, or 12%, 13% and 12% of total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Rapid technological advances in hardware and software development, evolving standards in computer hardware and software technology, changing customer needs and frequent new product introductions and enhancements characterize the software and hardware markets in which we compete. We plan to continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to research and development efforts to maintain and improve our current product and services offerings.

Employees

As of May 31, 2012, we employed approximately 115,000 full-time employees, including approximately 30,000 in sales and marketing, approximately 9,000 in software license updates and product support, approximately 1,000 in the manufacturing of our hardware systems products, approximately 6,000 in hardware systems support, approximately 26,000 in services, approximately 32,000 in research and development and approximately 11,000 in general and administrative positions. Of these employees, approximately 42,000 were located in the United States and approximately 73,000 were employed internationally. None of our employees in the United States is represented by a labor union; however, in certain foreign subsidiaries workers’ councils represent our employees.

 

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Available Information

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available, free of charge, on our Investor Relations web site at www.oracle.com/investor as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information posted on our web site is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

Executive Officers of the Registrant

Our executive officers are listed below.

 

Name

  

Office(s)

Lawrence J. Ellison

   Chief Executive Officer and Director

Jeffrey O. Henley

   Chairman of the Board of Directors

Safra A. Catz

   President, Chief Financial Officer and Director

Mark V. Hurd

   President and Director

John Fowler

   Executive Vice President, Systems

Thomas Kurian

   Executive Vice President, Product Development

Dorian E. Daley

   Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

William Corey West

   Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer

Mr. Ellison, 67, has been Chief Executive Officer and a Director since he founded Oracle in June 1977. He served as Chairman of the Board from May 1995 to January 2004.

Mr. Henley, 67, has served as Chairman of the Board since January 2004 and as a Director since June 1995. He served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from March 1991 to July 2004.

Ms. Catz, 50, has been a President since January 2004, Chief Financial Officer most recently since April 2011 and has served as a Director since October 2001. She was previously Chief Financial Officer from November 2005 until September 2008 and Interim Chief Financial Officer from April 2005 until July 2005. Prior to being named President, she held various other positions with us since joining Oracle in 1999. She also currently serves as a director of HSBC Holdings plc.

Mr. Hurd, 55, has been a President and served as a Director since September 2010. Prior to joining us, he served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of HP from September 2006 to August 2010 and as Chief Executive Officer, President and a member of the Board of Directors of HP from April 2005 to August 2010.

Mr. Fowler, 51, has been Executive Vice President, Systems since February 2010. Prior to joining us, Mr. Fowler served as Sun Microsystems, Inc.’s Executive Vice President, Systems Group from May 2006 to February 2010, as Executive Vice President, Network Systems Group from May 2004 to May 2006, as Chief Technology Officer, Software Group from July 2002 to May 2004 and Director, Corporate Development from July 2000 to July 2002.

Mr. Kurian, 45, has been Executive Vice President, Product Development since July 2009. He served as Senior Vice President of Development from February 2001 until July 2009. Mr. Kurian worked in Oracle Server Technologies as Vice President of Development from March 1999 until February 2001. He also held various other positions with us since joining Oracle in 1996.

Ms. Daley, 53, has been Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since October 2007. She served as Vice President, Legal, Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from June 2004 to October 2007, as Associate General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from October 2001 to June 2004, and as Associate General Counsel from February 2001 to October 2001. She held various other positions with us since joining Oracle’s Legal Department in 1992.

Mr. West, 50, has been Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer since February 2008 and was Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer from April 2007 to February 2008. His previous experience includes 14 years with Arthur Andersen LLP, most recently as a partner.

 

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors

We operate in rapidly changing economic and technological environments that present numerous risks, many of which are driven by factors that we cannot control or predict. The following discussion, as well as our “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” discussion in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Item 7), highlights some of these risks. The risks described below are not exhaustive and you should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties before investing in our securities.

Economic, political and market conditions can adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, including our revenue growth and profitability, which in turn could adversely affect our stock price.    Our business is influenced by a range of factors that are beyond our control and that we have no comparative advantage in forecasting. These include:

 

   

general economic and business conditions;

 

   

the overall demand for enterprise software, hardware systems and services;

 

   

governmental budgetary constraints or shifts in government spending priorities;

 

   

general political developments; and

 

   

currency exchange rate fluctuations.

Macroeconomic developments like the debt crisis in certain countries in the European Union and slowing economies in parts of Asia and South America could negatively affect our business, operating results or financial condition which, in turn, could adversely affect our stock price. A general weakening of, and related declining corporate confidence in, the global economy or the curtailment in government or corporate spending could cause current or potential customers to reduce their information technology (IT) budgets or be unable to fund software, hardware systems or services purchases, which could cause customers to delay, decrease or cancel purchases of our products and services or cause customers not to pay us or to delay paying us for previously purchased products and services.

In addition, political unrest in regions like the Middle East, terrorist attacks around the globe and the potential for other hostilities in various parts of the world, potential public health crises and natural disasters continue to contribute to a climate of economic and political uncertainty that could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, including our revenue growth and profitability. These factors generally have the strongest effect on our sales of new software licenses, hardware systems products, hardware systems support and related services and, to a lesser extent, also may affect our renewal rates for software license updates and product support.

We may fail to achieve our financial forecasts due to inaccurate sales forecasts or other factors.    Our revenues, and particularly our new software license revenues and hardware systems products revenues, are difficult to forecast, and, as a result, our quarterly operating results can fluctuate substantially. Our limited experience with managing our hardware business and forecasting its future financial results creates additional challenges with our forecasting processes.

We use a “pipeline” system, a common industry practice, to forecast sales and trends in our business. Our sales personnel monitor the status of all proposals and estimate when a customer will make a purchase decision and the dollar amount of the sale. These estimates are aggregated periodically to generate a sales pipeline. Our pipeline estimates can prove to be unreliable both in a particular quarter and over a longer period of time, in part because the “conversion rate” or “closure rate” of the pipeline into contracts can be very difficult to estimate. A contraction in the conversion rate, or in the pipeline itself, could cause us to plan or budget incorrectly and adversely affect our business or results of operations. In particular, a slowdown in IT spending or economic conditions generally can unexpectedly reduce the conversion rate in particular periods as purchasing decisions are delayed, reduced in amount or cancelled. The conversion rate can also be affected by the tendency of some of our customers to wait until the end of a fiscal period in the hope of obtaining more favorable terms, which can also impede our ability to negotiate, execute and deliver upon these contracts in a timely manner. In addition, for

 

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newly acquired companies, we have limited ability to predict how their pipelines will convert into sales or revenues for a number of quarters following the acquisition. Conversion rates post-acquisition may be quite different from the acquired companies’ historical conversion rates. Differences in conversion rates can also be affected by changes in our business practices that we implement with our newly acquired companies that may affect customer behavior.

A substantial portion of our new software license revenue contracts and hardware systems products contracts is completed in the latter part of a quarter and a significant percentage of these are large orders. Because a significant portion of our cost structure is largely fixed in the short-term, revenue shortfalls tend to have a disproportionately negative impact on our profitability. The number of large new software license transactions, and to a lesser extent hardware systems products transactions, also increases the risk of fluctuations in our quarterly results because a delay in even a small number of these transactions could cause our quarterly revenues and profitability to fall significantly short of our predictions.

Our success depends upon our ability to develop new products and services, integrate acquired products and services and enhance our existing products and services.    Rapid technological advances and evolving standards in computer hardware and software development and communications infrastructure, changing and increasingly sophisticated customer needs and frequent new product introductions and enhancements characterize the enterprise software and hardware systems markets in which we compete. If we are unable to develop new or sufficiently differentiated products and services, or enhance and improve our products and support services in a timely manner or to position and/or price our products and services to meet demand, customers may not buy new software licenses or hardware systems products or purchase or renew software license updates and product support or hardware systems support contracts. Renewals of these support contracts are important to the growth of our business. In addition, IT standards from both consortia and formal standards-setting forums as well as de facto marketplace standards are rapidly evolving. We cannot provide any assurance that the standards on which we choose to develop new products will allow us to compete effectively for business opportunities in emerging areas.

We have released Oracle Fusion Applications, the next generation of our applications software offerings, which are designed to unify the best-of-business functional capabilities from all of our applications on an open-standards-based technology foundation accessible by customers through the cloud or on-premise. We have also recently designed and built our Oracle Engineered Systems product offerings including Oracle Exadata Database Machine, a fast database warehousing machine that runs online transaction processing applications; Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, an integrated “cloud” machine which has server hardware and middleware software that have been engineered together; Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, an engineered system featuring in-memory software and hardware and an optimized business intelligence platform; and SPARC SuperCluster, an engineered system which combines optimized database performance with accelerated middleware processing capabilities; among others. If we do not continue to develop and release these or other new or enhanced products and services within the anticipated time frames, if there is a delay in market acceptance of a new, enhanced or acquired product line or service, if there are changes in information technology trends for which we do not adequately anticipate or react our product development efforts toward, if we do not timely optimize complementary product lines and services or if we fail to adequately integrate, support or enhance acquired product lines or services, our business may be adversely affected.

If we are unable to compete effectively with existing or new hardware systems or software competitors, the results of operations and prospects for our business could be harmed through fewer customer orders, reduced pricing, lower revenues or lower profits.    Our hardware systems business will compete with, among others, (i) systems manufacturers and resellers of systems based on our own microprocessors and operating systems and those of our competitors, (ii) microprocessor/chip manufacturers and (iii) providers of storage products. Our hardware systems business may also cause us to compete with companies who historically have been our partners. These competitors may have more experience than we do in managing a hardware business. A large portion of our hardware products are based on our SPARC microprocessor and Oracle Solaris operating system platform, which has a smaller installed base than certain of our competitors’ platforms and which may make it difficult for us to win new customers that have already made significant investments in our competitors’

 

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platforms. Certain of these competitors also compete very aggressively on price. A loss in our competitive position could result in lower revenues or profitability, which could adversely impact our ability to realize the revenue and profitability forecasts for our hardware systems business.

Many vendors develop and market databases, middleware products, application development tools, business applications, collaboration products and business intelligence products, amongst others, that compete with our software offerings. In addition, several companies offer software-as-a-service (SaaS) or cloud computing and business process outsourcing (BPO) as competitive alternatives to buying software and hardware, and customer interest in cloud or SaaS solutions is increasing. Some of these competitors have greater financial or technical resources than we do. Our competitors that offer business applications and middleware products may influence a customer’s purchasing decision for the underlying database in an effort to persuade potential customers not to acquire our products. We could lose customers if our competitors introduce new competitive products, add new functionality, acquire competitive products, reduce prices or form strategic alliances with other companies. Vendors that offer SaaS, cloud or BPO solutions may persuade our customers not to purchase our products. We may also face increasing competition from open source software initiatives in which competitors may provide software and intellectual property for free. Existing or new competitors could gain sales opportunities or customers at our expense.

Our hardware systems offerings are complex products. If we cannot successfully manage the required processes to meet customer requirements and demand on a timely basis, the results of our hardware systems business will suffer.    Designing, developing, manufacturing and introducing new hardware systems products are complicated processes. The development process is uncertain and requires a high level of innovation from both systems hardware and software product designers and engineers and the suppliers of the components used in these products. The development process is also lengthy and costly. Once a new hardware systems product is developed, we face several challenges in the manufacturing process. We must be able to forecast customer demand and manufacture new hardware systems products in sufficient volumes to meet this demand and do so in a cost effective manner. Our “build-to-order” manufacturing model, in which our hardware systems products generally are not built until after customers place orders, may from time to time experience delays in delivering our hardware systems products to customers in a timely manner. These delays could cause our customers to purchase hardware products and services from our competitors. We must also manage new hardware product introductions and transitions to minimize the impact of customer delayed purchases of existing hardware systems products in anticipation of new hardware systems product releases. Because the design and manufacturing processes for components are also very complicated, it is possible that we could experience design or manufacturing flaws. These design or manufacturing flaws could delay or prevent the production of the components for which we have previously committed to pay or need to fulfill orders from customers. These types of component flaws could also prevent the production of our hardware products or cause our hardware products to be returned, recalled or rejected resulting in lost revenues, increases in warranty costs or costs related to remediation efforts, damage to our reputation, penalties and litigation.

Acquisitions present many risks and we may not realize the financial and strategic goals that were contemplated at the time of a transaction.    In recent years, we have invested billions of dollars to acquire a number of companies, products, services and technologies. An active acquisition program is an important element of our overall corporate strategy and we expect to continue to make acquisitions in the future. Risks we may face in connection with our acquisition program include:

 

   

our ongoing business may be disrupted and our management’s attention may be diverted by acquisition, transition or integration activities;

 

   

an acquisition may not further our business strategy as we expected, we may not integrate an acquired company or technology as successfully as we expected or we may overpay for, or otherwise not realize the expected return on, our investments, which could adversely affect our business or operating results;

 

   

we may have difficulties (i) managing an acquired company’s technologies or lines of business or (ii) entering new markets where we have no or limited direct prior experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;

 

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our operating results or financial condition may be adversely impacted by claims or liabilities that we assume from an acquired company or technology or that are otherwise related to an acquisition, including claims from government agencies, terminated employees, current or former customers, former stockholders or other third parties; pre-existing contractual relationships of an acquired company that we would not have otherwise entered into, the termination or modification of which may be costly or disruptive to our business; unfavorable revenue recognition or other accounting treatment as a result of an acquired company’s practices; and intellectual property claims or disputes;

 

   

we may fail to identify or assess the magnitude of certain liabilities, shortcomings or other circumstances prior to acquiring a company or technology, which could result in unexpected litigation or regulatory exposure, unfavorable accounting treatment, unexpected increases in taxes due, a loss of anticipated tax benefits or other adverse effects on our business, operating results or financial condition;

 

   

we may not realize the anticipated increase in our revenues from an acquisition for a number of reasons, including if a larger than predicted number of customers decline to renew software license updates and product support contracts, hardware systems support contracts and cloud software subscription contracts, if we are unable to sell the acquired products to our customer base or if contract models of an acquired company do not allow us to recognize revenues on a timely basis;

 

   

we may have difficulty incorporating acquired technologies or products with our existing product lines and maintaining uniform standards, architecture, controls, procedures and policies;

 

   

we may have multiple product lines as a result of our acquisitions that are offered, priced and supported differently, which could cause customer confusion and delays;

 

   

we may have higher than anticipated costs in continuing support and development of acquired products, in general and administrative functions that support new business models, or in compliance with associated regulations that are more complicated than we had anticipated;

 

   

we may be unable to obtain timely approvals from, or may otherwise have certain limitations, restrictions, penalties or other sanctions imposed on us by, worker councils or similar bodies under applicable employment laws as a result of an acquisition, which could adversely affect our integration plans in certain jurisdictions;

 

   

we may be unable to obtain required approvals from governmental authorities under competition and antitrust laws on a timely basis, if at all, which could, among other things, delay or prevent us from completing a transaction, otherwise restrict our ability to realize the expected financial or strategic goals of an acquisition or have other adverse effects on our current business and operations;

 

   

our use of cash to pay for acquisitions may limit other potential uses of our cash, including stock repurchases, dividend payments and retirement of outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

we may significantly increase our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition and we may have to delay or not proceed with a substantial acquisition if we cannot obtain the necessary funding to complete the acquisition in a timely manner or on favorable terms;

 

   

to the extent that we issue a significant amount of equity securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders may be diluted and earnings per share may decrease; and

 

   

we may experience additional or unexpected changes in how we are required to account for our acquisitions pursuant to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, including arrangements that we assume from an acquisition.

The occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows, particularly in the case of a larger acquisition or several concurrent acquisitions.

 

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Our hardware systems revenues and profitability could decline if we do not manage the risks associated with our hardware systems business.    Our hardware systems business may adversely affect our overall profitability if we do not manage the associated risks. We may not achieve our estimated revenue, profit or other financial projections with respect to our hardware systems business in a timely manner or at all due to a number of factors, including:

 

   

our relative inexperience in managing a hardware systems business and related processes or the unplanned departures of some important employees could adversely impact our ability to successfully run our hardware systems business, which could adversely impact our ability to realize the forecasts for our hardware systems business and its results of operations;

 

   

our focus on our more profitable Oracle Engineered Systems products like Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud and Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, which are in the relatively early stages of adoption by our customers, and our de-emphasis on our lower profit margin commodity hardware systems products that historically constituted a larger portion of our hardware systems revenues;

 

   

we may forgo sales opportunities, customers and revenues as a result of our reducing the resale of third party products and services for which Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun) historically acted as a reseller;

 

   

we may not be able to increase sales of hardware systems support contracts or such increase may take longer than we anticipate, which could result in lower revenues and profitability, or slower than expected growth of such revenues and profitability;

 

   

our hardware systems business has higher expenses as a percentage of revenues, and thus has been less profitable, than our software business. We have reported lower overall operating margins as a percentage of revenues in the past and we may report lower operating margins as a percentage of revenues in the future; and

 

   

we face a greater risk of potential write-downs and impairments of inventory, higher warranty expenses than we had historically encountered in our existing software and services businesses and higher amortization from, and potential impairment of, intangible assets associated with our hardware systems business. Any of these items could result in material charges and adversely affect our operating results.

Our strategy of transitioning to a mixed direct and indirect sales model for our hardware systems products may not succeed and could result in lower hardware revenues or profits. Disruptions to our software indirect sales channel could affect our future operating results.    Although we will continue to sell our hardware systems products through indirect channels, including independent distributors and value added resellers, we have enhanced our direct sales coverage for our hardware products and intend that our direct sales force will sell a larger portion of our hardware products in the future than they do now. These direct sales efforts, however, may not be successful. Our relationships with some of our channel partners may deteriorate because we are reducing our reliance on some of these partners for sales of our hardware products, are modifying our approach and timing to the manufacturing of our products and have altered certain of Sun’s legacy business practices with these channel partners, which could result in reduced demand from the channel partners or certain customer segments serviced by these channel partners. Some hardware revenues from channel partners may not be replaced by revenues generated from our own sales personnel or may not be replaced as quickly as we expect. In addition, we may not be able to hire qualified hardware salespeople, sales consultants and other personnel for our direct sales model at the rate or in the numbers we need to generate the hardware revenues and profit margins we have projected for future periods. Even if we can meet our hiring needs, these salespeople may not be able to achieve our sales forecasts for our hardware business. If we experience any of these risks, our hardware revenues and/or profits may decline.

Our software indirect channel network is comprised primarily of resellers, system integrators/implementers, consultants, education providers, internet service providers, network integrators and independent software vendors. Our relationships with these channel participants are important elements of our software marketing and sales efforts. Our financial results could be adversely affected if our contracts with channel participants were terminated, if our relationships with channel participants were to deteriorate, if any of our competitors enter into

 

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strategic relationships with or acquire a significant channel participant or if the financial condition of our channel participants were to weaken. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in maintaining, expanding or developing our relationships with channel participants. If we are not successful, we may lose sales opportunities, customers and revenues.

Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that can adversely affect our operating results.    We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from, and have significant operations, outside of the United States. Our international operations include software and hardware systems development, manufacturing, assembly, sales, customer support, consulting, managed cloud services and shared administrative service centers.

Compliance with international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. These laws and regulations include U.S. laws and local laws which include data privacy requirements, labor relations laws, tax laws, anti-competition regulations, prohibitions on payments to governmental officials, import and trade restrictions and export requirements. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could result in prohibitions on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, could delay or prevent potential acquisitions and could also materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, our business and our operating results. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate these risks and manage these difficulties. We monitor our international operations and investigate allegations of improprieties relating to transactions and the way in which such transactions are recorded. Where circumstances warrant, we provide information and report our findings to government authorities, but no assurance can be given that action will not be taken by such authorities.

We are also subject to a variety of other risks and challenges in managing an organization operating in various countries, including those related to:

 

   

general economic conditions in each country or region;

 

   

fluctuations in currency exchange rates and related impacts to our operating results;

 

   

natural disasters;

 

   

regulatory changes;

 

   

political unrest, terrorism and the potential for other hostilities;

 

   

longer payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;

 

   

overlapping tax regimes;

 

   

our ability to repatriate funds held by our foreign subsidiaries to the United States at favorable tax rates;

 

   

difficulties in transferring funds from or converting currencies in certain countries;

 

   

public health risks, particularly in areas in which we have significant operations; and

 

   

reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries.

As a result of our hardware systems business, the volume and complexity of laws and regulations that we are subject to have increased. The variety of risks and challenges listed above could also disrupt or otherwise negatively impact the supply chain operations for our hardware systems products segment and the sales of our products and services in affected countries or regions.

As the majority shareholder of Oracle Financial Services Software Limited, a publicly traded Indian software company focused on the banking industry, we are faced with several additional risks, including being subject to local securities regulations and being unable to exert full control.

The future operating results of our hardware systems business will depend on our ability to manage our component inventory to meet the demands of our hardware systems customers and to avoid component inventory write-downs.    We depend on suppliers to design, develop, manufacture and deliver on a timely basis

 

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the necessary components for our hardware products. While many of the components purchased are standard, some components (standard or otherwise) require long lead times to manufacture and deliver. Furthermore, there are some components that can only be purchased from a single vendor due to price, quality, technology or other business constraints. As a result, our supply chain operations could be disrupted or negatively impacted by natural disasters, political unrest or other factors affecting the countries or regions where these single source component vendors are located. We may be unable to purchase these items from the respective single vendors on acceptable terms or may experience significant delays or quality issues in the delivery of necessary parts or components from a particular vendor. If we had to find a new supplier for these parts and components, hardware systems product shipments could be delayed, which would adversely affect our hardware systems revenues. We could also experience fluctuations in component prices which, if unanticipated, could negatively impact our hardware systems business cost structure. These factors may make it difficult for us to plan and procure appropriate component inventory levels in a timely fashion to meet customer demand for our hardware products. Therefore we may experience component inventory shortages which may result in production delays or customers choosing to purchase fewer hardware products from us or systems products from our competitors. We negotiate supply commitments with vendors early in the manufacturing process to ensure we have sufficient components for our hardware products to meet anticipated customer demand. We must also manage our levels of older component inventories used in our hardware products to minimize inventory write-offs or write-downs. If we have excess inventory, it may be necessary to write-down the inventory, which would adversely affect our operating results. If one or more of the risks described above occurs, our hardware systems business and related operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

We expect to continue to depend on third party manufacturers to build certain hardware systems products and third party logistics providers to deliver our products. As such, we are susceptible to manufacturing and logistics delays that could prevent us from shipping customer orders on time, if at all, and may result in the loss of sales and customers.    We outsource the manufacturing, assembly and delivery of certain of our hardware products to a variety of companies, many of which are located outside the United States. Our reliance on these third parties reduces our control over the manufacturing and delivery process, exposing us to risks, including reduced control over quality assurance, product costs, product supply and delivery delays as well as the political and economic uncertainties and natural disasters of the international locations where certain of these third party manufacturers have facilities and operations. Any manufacturing disruption or logistics delays by these third parties could impair our ability to fulfill orders for these hardware systems products for extended periods of time. If we are unable to manage our relationships with these third parties effectively, or if these third parties experience delays, disruptions, capacity constraints, regulatory issues or quality control problems in their operations, or fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship and/or deliver certain of our hardware systems products to our customers could be impaired and our hardware systems business could be harmed.

We have simplified our supply chain processes by reducing the number of third party manufacturing partners and the number of locations where these third party manufacturers build our hardware systems products. We therefore have become more dependent on a fewer number of these manufacturing partners and locations. If these partners experience production problems or delays or cannot meet our demand for products, we may not be able to find alternate manufacturing sources in a timely or cost effective manner, if at all. If we are required to change third party manufacturers, our ability to meet our scheduled hardware systems products deliveries to our customers could be adversely affected, which could cause the loss of sales and existing or potential customers, delayed revenue recognition or an increase in our hardware systems products expenses, all of which could adversely affect the margins of our hardware business.

We may experience foreign currency gains and losses.    We conduct a significant number of transactions in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. Changes in the value of major foreign currencies, particularly the Euro, Japanese Yen and British Pound relative to the U.S. Dollar can significantly affect our revenues and operating results. Generally, our revenues and operating results are adversely affected when the dollar strengthens relative to other currencies and are positively affected when the dollar weakens.

In addition, we incur foreign currency transaction gains and losses, primarily related to sublicense fees and other intercompany agreements among us and our subsidiaries that we expect to cash settle in the near term, which are

 

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charged against earnings in the period incurred. We have a program which primarily utilizes foreign currency forward contracts to offset the risks associated with these foreign currency exposures that we may suspend from time to time. As a part of this program, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts so that increases or decreases in our foreign currency exposures are offset by gains or losses on the foreign currency forward contracts in order to mitigate the risks and volatility associated with our foreign currency transaction gains or losses. A large portion of our consolidated operations are international and we expect that we will continue to realize gains or losses with respect to our foreign currency exposures, net of gains or losses from our foreign currency forward contracts. For example, we will experience foreign currency gains and losses in certain instances if it is not possible or cost effective to hedge our foreign currency exposures or should we suspend our foreign currency forward contract program. Our ultimate realized loss or gain with respect to currency fluctuations will generally depend on the size and type of cross-currency exposures that we enter into, the currency exchange rates associated with these exposures and changes in those rates, whether we have entered into foreign currency forward contracts to offset these exposures and other factors. All of these factors could materially impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows, the timing of which is variable and generally outside of our control.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights.    We rely on copyright, trademark, patent and trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures, controls and contractual commitments to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts, these protections may be limited. Unauthorized third parties may try to copy or reverse engineer portions of our products or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property. Any patents owned by us may be invalidated, circumvented or challenged. Any of our pending or future patent applications, whether or not being currently challenged, may not be issued with the scope of the claims we seek, if at all. In addition, the laws of some countries do not provide the same level of protection of our intellectual property rights as do the laws and courts of the United States. If we cannot protect our intellectual property rights against unauthorized copying or use, or other misappropriation, we may not remain competitive.

Third parties have claimed and, in the future, may claim infringement or misuse of intellectual property rights and/or breach of license agreement provisions.    We periodically receive notices from, or have lawsuits filed against us by, others claiming infringement or other misuse of their intellectual property rights and/or breach of our agreements with them. These third parties include entities that do not have the capabilities to design, manufacture, or distribute products or services or that acquire intellectual property like patents for the sole purpose of monetizing their acquired intellectual property through asserting claims of infringement and misuse. We expect the number of such claims will increase as:

 

   

we continue to acquire companies and expand into new businesses;

 

   

the number of products and competitors in our industry segments grows;

 

   

the use and support of third party code (including open source code) becomes more prevalent in the industry;

 

   

the volume of issued patents continues to increase; and

 

   

the proliferation of non-practicing entities asserting intellectual property infringement claims increases.

Responding to any such claim, regardless of its validity, could:

 

   

be time consuming, costly and result in litigation;

 

   

divert management’s time and attention from developing our business;

 

   

require us to pay monetary damages or enter into royalty and licensing agreements that we would not normally find acceptable;

 

   

require us to stop selling or to redesign certain of our products;

 

   

require us to release source code to third parties, possibly under open source license terms;

 

   

require us to satisfy indemnification obligations to our customers; or

 

   

otherwise adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

 

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We may lose key employees or may be unable to hire enough qualified employees.    We rely on the continued service of our senior management, including our Chief Executive Officer and founder, members of our executive team and other key employees and the hiring of new qualified employees. In the technology industry, there is substantial and continuous competition for highly skilled business, product development, technical and other personnel. In addition, acquisitions could cause us to lose key personnel of the acquired companies or at Oracle. We may also experience increased compensation costs that are not offset by either improved productivity or higher sales. We may not be successful in recruiting new personnel and in retaining and motivating existing personnel. With rare exceptions, we do not have long-term employment or non-competition agreements with our employees. Members of our senior management team have left Oracle over the years for a variety of reasons and we cannot assure you that there will not be additional departures, which may be disruptive to our operations.

We continually focus on improving our cost structure by hiring personnel in countries where advanced technical expertise is available at lower costs. When we make adjustments to our workforce, we may incur expenses associated with workforce reductions that delay the benefit of a more efficient workforce structure. We may also experience increased competition for employees in these countries as the trend toward globalization continues, which may affect our employee retention efforts and increase our expenses in an effort to offer a competitive compensation program. Our compensation program includes stock options, which are an important tool in attracting and retaining employees in our industry. If our stock price performs poorly, it may adversely affect our ability to retain or attract employees. In addition, because we expense all stock-based compensation, we may in the future change our stock-based and other compensation practices. Some of the changes we consider from time to time include a reduction in the number of employees granted options, a reduction in the number of options granted per employee and a change to alternative forms of stock-based compensation. Any changes in our compensation practices or changes made by competitors could affect our ability to retain and motivate existing personnel and recruit new personnel.

Our sales to government clients subject us to risks including early termination, audits, investigations, sanctions and penalties.    We derive revenues from contracts with the U.S. government, state and local governments and their respective agencies, which may terminate most of these contracts at any time, without cause. There is increased pressure for governments and their agencies, both domestically and internationally, to reduce spending. Our federal government contracts are subject to the approval of appropriations being made by the U.S. Congress to fund the expenditures under these contracts. Similarly, our contracts at the state and local levels are subject to government funding authorizations. Additionally, government contracts are generally subject to audits and investigations which could result in various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, refund of a portion of fees received, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from future government business.

We may need to change our pricing models to compete successfully.    The intense competition we face in the sales of our products and services and general economic and business conditions can put pressure on us to change our prices. If our competitors offer deep discounts on certain products or services or develop products that the marketplace considers more valuable, we may need to lower prices or offer other favorable terms in order to compete successfully. Any such changes may reduce margins and could adversely affect operating results. Our software license updates and product support fees and hardware systems support fees are generally priced as a percentage of our net new software license fees and net new hardware systems products fees, respectively. Our competitors may offer lower pricing on their support offerings, which could put pressure on us to further discount our new license prices.

Any broad-based change to our prices and pricing policies could cause our revenues to decline or be delayed as our sales force implements and our customers adjust to the new pricing policies. Some of our competitors may bundle products for promotional purposes or as a long-term pricing strategy or provide guarantees of prices and product implementations. These practices could, over time, significantly constrain the prices that we can charge for certain of our products. If we do not adapt our pricing models to reflect changes in customer use of our products or changes in customer demand, our revenues could decrease. Additionally, increased distribution of applications through cloud and SaaS providers, may reduce the average price for our products or adversely affect other sales of our products, reducing our revenues unless we can offset price reductions with volume increases. The increase in open source software distribution may also cause us to change our pricing models.

 

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Our cloud computing strategy, including our Oracle Cloud and Oracle managed cloud services offerings, may not be successful.    We offer customers a broad portfolio of software and hardware products and services to enable a roadmap for customers to adopt cloud computing. Oracle Cloud includes our cloud software subscription offerings such as Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management Cloud Service, Oracle Fusion Customer Relationship Management Cloud Service, Oracle RightNow Customer Experience and Oracle Taleo Talent Management Cloud Service, among others, all of which provide our customers with certain of our software applications functionality within a cloud-based IT environment that we manage and offer via a subscription-based model. In addition, Oracle Cloud also includes software platforms within a cloud-based IT environment that we manage and offer to customers via a subscription-based model including Oracle Database Cloud Service and Oracle Java Cloud Service. Oracle managed cloud services include software and hardware management and maintenance services hosted at our data center facilities, select partner data centers or physically on-premise at customer facilities. These business models continue to evolve and we may not be able to compete effectively, generate significant revenues or maintain their profitability. We incur expenses associated with the infrastructures and marketing of our managed cloud services and cloud software subscription offerings in advance of our ability to recognize the revenues associated with these offerings. Demand for our cloud software subscription offerings may unfavorably impact demand for certain of our other products and services including new software licenses and software license updates and product support services.

If our data protection or other security measures are compromised and as a result our data, our customers’ data or our IT systems are accessed improperly, made unavailable, or improperly modified, our products and services may be perceived as vulnerable, our brand and reputation could be damaged, the IT services we provide to our customers could be disrupted, and customers may stop using our products and services, all of which could reduce our revenue and earnings, increase our expenses and expose us to legal claims and regulatory actions.    We are in the information technology business, and our products and services store, retrieve, manipulate and manage our customers’ information and data as well as our own. We have a reputation for secure and reliable software and hardware products and services and have invested a great deal of time and resources in protecting the integrity and security of our products, services and internal and external data that we manage.

Nevertheless, computer hackers will attempt to penetrate or bypass our data protection and other security measures and gain unauthorized access to our networks, systems and data or compromise the confidential information or data of our customers. Computer hackers may be able to develop and deploy IT related viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that could attack our products and services, exploit potential security vulnerabilities of our products and services, create system disruptions and cause shutdowns or denials of service. Data may also be accessed or modified improperly as a result of employee or supplier error or malfeasance and third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing sensitive information such as user names, passwords or other information in order to gain access to our data, our customers’ data or our IT systems.

Although this is an industry-wide problem that affects other software and hardware companies, it affects Oracle in particular because computer hackers tend to focus their efforts on the most popular or well-known IT companies, and they may focus on Oracle because of our reputation for, and marketing efforts associated with, having secure products and services. These risks for us will increase as we continue to grow our cloud-based offerings and services and store and process increasingly large amounts of our customers’ confidential information and data and host or manage parts of our customers’ businesses in cloud-based IT environments, especially in customer sectors involving particularly sensitive data such as health sciences, financial services and the government. We also have an active acquisition program and have acquired a number of companies, products, services and technologies over the years. While we make significant efforts to address any IT security issues with respect to our acquisitions, we may still inherit such risks when we integrate these acquisitions within Oracle.

If a cyberattack or other security incident described above were to allow unauthorized access to or modification of our customers’ data or our own data or our IT systems or if the services we provide to our customers were disrupted, or if our products or services are perceived as having security vulnerabilities, we could suffer damage to our brand and reputation. Customers could lose confidence in the security and reliability of our products and

 

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services and perceive them to be not secure. This in turn could lead to fewer customers using our products and services and result in reduced revenue and earnings. The costs we would incur to address and fix these security incidents would increase our expenses. These types of security incidents could also lead to lawsuits, regulatory investigations and claims and increased legal liability, including in some cases contractual costs related to customer notification and fraud monitoring.

Further, as regulatory focus on privacy issues continues to increase and worldwide laws and regulations concerning the protection of personal information expand and become more complex, these potential risks to our business will intensify. Changes in laws or regulations associated with the protection of certain types of data, such as healthcare data or other personally identifiable information, could greatly increase our cost of providing our products and services.

Our periodic workforce restructurings can be disruptive.    We have in the past restructured or made other adjustments to our workforce, including our direct sales force on which we rely heavily, in response to management changes, product changes, performance issues, acquisitions and other internal and external considerations. In the past, sales force and other restructurings have generally resulted in a temporary lack of focus and reduced productivity. These effects could recur in connection with future acquisitions and other restructurings and our revenues could be negatively affected.

We might experience significant errors in our software and hardware products and services.    Despite testing prior to their release, software and hardware products sometimes contain errors, especially when first introduced or when new versions are released. The detection and correction of any errors can be time consuming and costly. Errors in our software or hardware products could affect the ability of our products to work with other software or hardware products, could delay the development or release of new products or new versions of products and could adversely affect market acceptance of our products. If we experience errors or delays in releasing our new software or hardware products or new versions of our software or hardware products, we could lose revenues. In addition, we run our own business operations, cloud software subscription offerings, Oracle managed cloud services and other outsourcing services, support and consulting services, on our products and networks and any flaws, if exploited, could affect our ability to conduct our business operations. End users, who rely on our software products and services for applications that are critical to their businesses, may have a greater sensitivity to product errors than customers for software products generally. Errors in our software and hardware products or services could expose us to product liability, performance and/or warranty claims as well as harm our reputation, which could impact our future sales of products and services.

We may not receive significant revenues from our current research and development efforts for several years, if at all.    Developing software and hardware products is expensive and the investment in product development often involves a long return on investment cycle. We have made and expect to continue to make significant investments in research and development and related product opportunities. Accelerated product introductions and short product life cycles require high levels of expenditures for research and development that could adversely affect our operating results if not offset by revenue increases. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we do not expect to receive significant revenues from these investments for several years, if at all.

Business disruptions could affect our operating results.    A significant portion of our research and development activities and certain other critical business operations are concentrated in a few geographic areas. We are a highly automated business and a disruption or failure of our systems could cause delays in completing sales and providing services, including some of our cloud software subscription and managed cloud services offerings. A major earthquake, fire or other catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical business or IT systems could severely affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and, as a result, our future operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

Adverse litigation results could affect our business.    We are subject to various legal proceedings. Litigation can be lengthy, expensive and disruptive to our operations and results cannot be predicted with certainty. An adverse decision could result in monetary damages or injunctive relief that could affect our business, operating results or financial condition. Additional information regarding certain of the lawsuits we are involved in is discussed under Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

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We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities.    As a multinational corporation, we are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities and those authorities often do not agree with positions taken by us on our tax returns.

Changes in tax laws or tax rulings may have a significantly adverse impact on our effective tax rate. For example, certain U.S. government proposals for fundamental U.S. international tax reform, if enacted, could have a significant adverse impact on our effective tax rate. Further, in the ordinary course of a global business, there are many intercompany transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our intercompany transfer pricing is currently being reviewed by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and by foreign tax jurisdictions and will likely be subject to additional audits in the future. We have negotiated certain unilateral Advance Pricing Agreements with the IRS and certain selected bilateral Advance Pricing Agreements that cover many of our intercompany transfer pricing issues and preclude the relevant tax authorities from making a transfer pricing adjustment within the scope of these agreements. However, these agreements do not cover substantial elements of our transfer pricing. In addition, our provision for income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions which we consider to be indefinitely reinvested outside the United States that have lower statutory tax rates and earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates.

We are also subject to non-income based taxes, such as payroll, sales, use, value-added, net worth, property and goods and services taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities with respect to these non-income based taxes and may have exposure to additional non-income based tax liabilities. Our acquisition activities have increased our non-income based tax exposures, particularly with our entry into the hardware systems business, which increased the volume and complexity of laws and regulations that we are subject to and with which we must comply.

Although we believe that our income and non-income based tax estimates are reasonable, there is no assurance that the final determination of tax audits or tax disputes will not be different from what is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals.

Charges to earnings resulting from acquisitions may adversely affect our operating results.    Under business combination accounting standards pursuant to ASC 805, Business Combinations, we recognize the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interests in acquired companies generally at their acquisition date fair values and, in each case, separately from goodwill. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess amount of consideration transferred, which is also generally measured at fair value, and the net of the acquisition date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable but which are inherently uncertain. After we complete an acquisition, the following factors could result in material charges and adversely affect our operating results and may adversely affect our cash flows:

 

   

costs incurred to combine the operations of companies we acquire, such as transitional employee expenses and employee retention, redeployment or relocation expenses;

 

   

impairment of goodwill or intangible assets;

 

   

amortization of intangible assets acquired;

 

   

a reduction in the useful lives of intangible assets acquired;

 

   

identification of or changes to assumed contingent liabilities, both income tax and non-income tax related, after our final determination of the amounts for these contingencies or the conclusion of the measurement period (generally up to one year from the acquisition date), whichever comes first;

 

   

charges to our operating results to maintain certain duplicative pre-merger activities for an extended period of time or to maintain these activities for a period of time that is longer than we had anticipated, charges to eliminate certain duplicative pre-merger activities, and charges to restructure our operations or to reduce our cost structure;

 

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charges to our operating results resulting from expenses incurred to effect the acquisition; and

 

   

charges to our operating results due to the expensing of certain stock awards assumed in an acquisition.

Substantially all of these costs will be accounted for as expenses that will decrease our net income and earnings per share for the periods in which those costs are incurred. Charges to our operating results in any given period could differ substantially from other periods based on the timing and size of our future acquisitions and the extent of integration activities. A more detailed discussion of our accounting for business combinations and other items is presented in the “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Item 7).

There are risks associated with our outstanding and future indebtedness.    As of May 31, 2012, we had an aggregate of $16.5 billion of outstanding indebtedness that will mature between the remainder of calendar 2012 and calendar 2040 and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our ability to pay interest and repay the principal for our indebtedness is dependent upon our ability to manage our business operations, generate sufficient cash flows to service such debt and the other factors discussed in this section. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage any of these risks successfully.

We may also need to refinance a portion of our outstanding debt as it matures. There is a risk that we may not be able to refinance existing debt or that the terms of any refinancing may not be as favorable as the terms of our existing debt. Furthermore, if prevailing interest rates or other factors at the time of refinancing result in higher interest rates upon refinancing, then the interest expense relating to that refinanced indebtedness would increase. Should we incur future increases in interest expense, our ability to utilize certain of our foreign tax credits to reduce our U.S. federal income tax could be limited, which could unfavorably affect our provision for income taxes and effective tax rate. In addition, changes by any rating agency to our outlook or credit rating could negatively affect the value of both our debt and equity securities and increase the interest amounts we pay on outstanding or future debt. These risks could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Environmental laws and regulations subject us to a number of risks and could result in significant liabilities and costs.    Some of our hardware systems operations are subject to state, federal and international laws governing protection of the environment, proper handling and disposal of materials used to manufacture our products, human health and safety and regulating the use of certain chemical substances. We endeavor to comply with these environmental laws, yet compliance with such laws could increase our product design, development, procurement and manufacturing costs, limit our ability to manage excess and obsolete non-compliant inventory, change our sales activities, or otherwise impact future financial results of our hardware systems business. Any violation of these laws can subject us to significant liability, including fines, penalties and possible prohibition of sales of our products into one or more states or countries and result in a material adverse effect on the financial condition or results of operations of our hardware systems business. A significant portion of our hardware systems revenues come from international sales. Environmental legislation within the European Union (EU), including the EU Directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive), as well as China’s regulation on Management Methods for Controlling Pollution Caused by Electronic Information Products may increase our cost of doing business internationally and impact our hardware systems revenues from EU countries and China as we endeavor to comply with and implement these requirements. In addition, similar environmental legislation has been or may be enacted in other jurisdictions, the cumulative impact of which could be significant.

Our stock price could become more volatile and your investment could lose value.    All of the factors discussed in this section could affect our stock price. The timing of announcements in the public market regarding new products, product enhancements or technological advances by our competitors or us and any announcements by us of acquisitions, major transactions, or management changes could also affect our stock price. Changes in the amounts and frequency of share repurchases or dividends could adversely affect our stock price. Our stock price is subject to speculation in the press and the analyst community, changes in recommendations or earnings estimates by financial analysts, changes in investors’ or analysts’ valuation measures for our stock, our credit ratings and market trends unrelated to our performance. A significant drop in our stock price could also expose us to the risk of securities class actions lawsuits, which could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business.

 

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Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.      Properties

Our properties consist of owned and leased office facilities for sales, support, research and development, consulting, manufacturing and administrative personnel. Our headquarters facility consists of approximately 2.1 million square feet in Redwood City, California, substantially all of which we own. We lease our principal internal manufacturing facility for our hardware systems products in Hillsboro, Oregon. We also own or lease other office facilities for current use consisting of approximately 24.9 million square feet in various other locations in the United States and abroad. We believe our facilities are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business. Approximately 5.1 million square feet, or 19%, of total owned and leased space is sublet or is being actively marketed for sublease or disposition.

Item 3.      Legal Proceedings

The material set forth in Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.      Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

 

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ORCL” and has been traded on the NASDAQ since our initial public offering in 1986. According to the records of our transfer agent, we had 15,269 stockholders of record as of May 31, 2012. The following table sets forth the low and high sale price of our common stock, based on the last daily sale, in each of our last eight fiscal quarters.

 

     Fiscal 2012      Fiscal 2011  
     Low Sale
Price
     High Sale
Price
     Low Sale
Price
     High Sale
Price
 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 25.61       $ 30.24       $ 30.20       $ 36.37   

Third Quarter

   $ 25.51       $ 31.90       $ 27.65       $ 33.68   

Second Quarter

   $ 26.00       $ 33.69       $ 22.48       $ 29.53   

First Quarter

   $ 24.78       $ 34.09       $ 21.46       $ 24.64   

We declared and paid cash dividends totaling $0.24 and $0.21 per outstanding common share over the course of fiscal 2012 and 2011, respectively.

In June 2012, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.06 per share of outstanding common stock payable on August 3, 2012 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on July 13, 2012. We currently expect to continue paying comparable cash dividends on a quarterly basis; however, future declarations of dividends and the establishment of future record and payment dates are subject to the final determination of our Board of Directors.

For equity compensation plan information, please refer to Item 12 in Part III of this Annual Report.

Stock Repurchase Programs

Our Board of Directors has approved a program for us to repurchase shares of our common stock. On December 20, 2011, we announced that our Board of Directors approved an expansion of our stock repurchase program by an additional $5.0 billion. On June 18, 2012, we announced that our Board of Directors approved a further expansion by an additional $10.0 billion. Approximately $3.1 billion remained available for stock repurchases as of May 31, 2012 pursuant to our stock repurchase program prior to the additional amount authorized in June 2012.

Our stock repurchase authorization does not have an expiration date and the pace of our repurchase activity will depend on factors such as our working capital needs, our cash requirements for acquisitions and dividend payments, our debt repayment obligations or repurchases of our debt, our stock price and economic and market conditions. Our stock repurchases may be effected from time to time through open market purchases or pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan. Our stock repurchase program may be accelerated, suspended, delayed or discontinued at any time.

The following table summarizes the stock repurchase activity for the three months ended May 31, 2012 and the approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased pursuant to our stock repurchase program:

 

(in millions, except per share amounts)

   Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
     Average Price
Paid per
Share
     Total Number of
Shares  Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Programs
     Approximate Dollar
Value  of Shares that
May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Programs
 

March 1, 2012—March 31, 2012

     18.6       $ 29.49         18.6       $ 5,055.1   

April 1, 2012—April 30, 2012

     32.3       $ 28.97         32.3       $ 4,119.5   

May 1, 2012—May 31, 2012

     36.8       $ 27.19         36.8       $ 3,119.5   
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

Total

     87.7       $ 28.34         87.7      
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

 

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Stock Performance Graph and Cumulative Total Return

The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Information Technology Index for each of the last five fiscal years ended May 31, 2012, assuming an investment of $100 at the beginning of such period and the reinvestment of any dividends. The comparisons in the graphs below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.

 

LOGO

*$100 INVESTED ON MAY 31, 2007 IN STOCK OR

INDEX-INCLUDING REINVESTMENT OF DIVIDENDS

 

     5/07      5/08      5/09      5/10      5/11      5/12  

Oracle Corporation

     100.00         117.85         101.35         117.78         179.90         140.29   

S&P 500 Index

     100.00         93.31         62.92         76.12         95.87         95.48   

S&P Information Technology Index

     100.00         102.55         73.06         93.86         113.70         122.30   

 

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth selected financial data as of and for the last five fiscal years. This selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 15 of this Annual Report. Over the last five fiscal years, we have acquired a number of companies including Sun Microsystems, Inc. in fiscal 2010 and BEA Systems, Inc. in fiscal 2008, among others. The results of our acquired companies have been included in our consolidated financial statements since their respective dates of acquisition and have contributed to our growth in revenues, income, earnings per share and total assets.

 

    As of and for the Year Ended May 31,  

(in millions, except per share amounts)

  2012     2011     2010     2009     2008  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

         

Total revenues

  $   37,121      $   35,622      $   26,820      $   23,252      $   22,430   

Operating income

  $ 13,706      $ 12,033      $ 9,062      $ 8,321      $ 7,844   

Net income

  $ 9,981      $ 8,547      $ 6,135      $ 5,593      $ 5,521   

Earnings per share—basic

  $ 1.99      $ 1.69      $ 1.22      $ 1.10      $ 1.08   

Earnings per share—diluted

  $ 1.96      $ 1.67      $ 1.21      $ 1.09      $ 1.06   

Basic weighted average common shares outstanding

    5,015        5,048        5,014        5,070        5,133   

Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding

    5,095        5,128        5,073        5,130        5,229   

Cash dividends declared per common share

  $ 0.24      $ 0.21      $ 0.20      $ 0.05      $   

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

         

Working capital(1)

  $ 24,635      $ 24,982      $ 12,313      $ 9,432      $ 8,074   

Total assets

  $ 78,327      $ 73,535      $ 61,578      $ 47,416      $ 47,268   

Notes payable and other borrowings(2)

  $ 16,474      $ 15,922      $ 14,655      $ 10,238      $ 11,236   

 

(1) 

Total working capital sequentially increased in most periods primarily due to the favorable impact to our net current assets resulting from our net income generated during these periods and the issuances of $3.25 billion and $4.5 billion of long-term senior notes in fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, respectively. These increases were partially offset by cash used for acquisitions and repurchases of common stock in all periods presented and repayments of certain of our senior notes in fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009 and dividend payments made in fiscal 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009.

 

(2) 

Our notes payable and other borrowings, which represented the summation of our notes payable, current and other current borrowings and notes payable and other non-current borrowings as reported per our consolidated balance sheets as of the dates listed in the table above, generally increased between fiscal 2008 and 2012 due to the issuances of $1.7 billion and $1.15 billion of short-term borrowings made pursuant to our revolving credit agreements in fiscal 2012 and 2011, respectively, $3.25 billion of long-term senior notes in fiscal 2011 and $4.5 billion of long-term senior notes in fiscal 2010. See Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for additional information regarding our notes payable and other borrowings.

 

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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

We begin Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations with an overview of our key operating business segments and significant trends. This overview is followed by a summary of our critical accounting policies and estimates that we believe are important to understanding the assumptions and judgments incorporated in our reported financial results. We then provide a more detailed analysis of our results of operations and financial condition.

Business Overview

We are the world’s largest provider of enterprise software and a leading provider of computer hardware products and services. Our software, hardware systems, and services businesses develop, manufacture, market, host and support database and middleware software, applications software, and hardware systems, with the latter consisting primarily of computer server and storage products. Our businesses provide products and services that are built upon industry standards, are engineered to work together or independently within existing customer information technology (IT) environments and run securely on a wide range of customer IT environments, including cloud computing environments.

Cloud computing environments provide on demand access to a shared pool of computing resources in a scalable, self-service manner, delivering advantages in speed, agility and efficiency. Cloud computing has evolved from technologies and services that Oracle has provided for many years, including clustering, server virtualization, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), shared services, large-scale management automation, and more recently, engineered systems. Our secure, reliable and scalable product offerings are designed to improve business efficiencies at a low total cost of ownership. We seek to be an industry leader in each of the product offering categories in which we compete and to expand into new and emerging markets.

We believe our ability to offer our customers choice and flexibility in the manner in which they deploy our products and services—while maintaining enterprise-grade reliability, security and interoperability based upon industry-standards—is important to our corporate strategy. Oracle Fusion Applications, for example, offer customers a choice of deployment models to run our standards-based software applications in on-premise or cloud computing IT environments. Oracle Cloud, a family of our cloud-based software subscription offerings, provides access to select Oracle software applications and software platforms on a subscription basis in a secure, standards-based cloud computing environment. Oracle Cloud includes software applications as a service, such as Oracle Fusion Human Capital Management Cloud Service and Oracle Fusion Customer Relationship Management Cloud Service, and software platform services such as Oracle Database Cloud Service and Oracle Java Cloud Service, among others.

We believe our internal growth and continued innovation with respect to our software, hardware and services businesses are the foundation of our long-term strategic plans. In each of fiscal 2012 and 2011, we invested $4.5 billion and in fiscal 2010 we invested $3.3 billion in research and development to enhance our existing portfolio of products and services and to develop new products and services. We continue to focus the engineering of our hardware and software products to make them work together more effectively and deliver improved computing performance, reliability, and security to our customers. For example, Oracle Engineered Systems, which include our Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, and SPARC SuperCluster products, amongst others, combine certain of our hardware and software offerings to provide engineered systems that increase computing performance and reduce storage requirements relative to our competitors’ products, creating time savings, efficiencies, and operational cost advantages for our customers.

We also believe that an active acquisition program is an important element of our corporate strategy as it strengthens our competitive position, enhances the products and services that we can offer to customers, expands our customer base, provides greater scale to accelerate innovation, grows our revenues and earnings and increases stockholder value. In recent years, we have invested billions of dollars to acquire a number of companies, products, services and technologies that add to, are complementary to, or have otherwise enhanced our existing offerings. We expect to continue to acquire companies, products, services and technologies to further our corporate strategy.

 

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We are organized into three businesses—software, hardware systems and services—which are further divided into certain operating segments. Prior to our acquisition of Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun) in January 2010, we did not have a hardware systems business or related operating segments. Each of our businesses and operating segments has unique characteristics and faces different opportunities and challenges. Although we report our actual results in U.S. Dollars, we conduct a significant number of transactions in currencies other than U.S. Dollars. Therefore, we present constant currency information to provide a framework for assessing how our underlying businesses performed excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations. An overview of our three businesses and related operating segments follows.

Software Business

Our software business, which represented 70%, 68% and 77% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, is comprised of two operating segments: (1) new software licenses and (2) software license updates and product support. On a constant currency basis, we expect that our software business’ total revenues generally will continue to increase due to continued demand for our software products and software license updates and product support offerings, including the high percentage of customers that renew their software license updates and product support contracts and due to our acquisitions, which should allow us to grow our profits and continue to make investments in research and development.

New Software Licenses:    We license our database and middleware as well as our applications software and provide subscription-based access to select Oracle software applications and software platforms through a cloud-based IT environment to businesses of many sizes, government agencies, educational institutions and resellers. The growth in new software license revenues that we report is affected by the strength of general economic and business conditions, governmental budgetary constraints, the competitive position of our software products, our acquisitions and foreign currency fluctuations. The substantial majority of our new software license business is also characterized by long sales cycles. The timing of a few large software license transactions can substantially affect our quarterly new software license revenues. Since our new software license revenues in a particular quarter can be difficult to predict as a result of the timing of a few large software license transactions, we believe that analysis of new software license revenues on a trailing 4-quarter period (as provided in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q) provides additional visibility into the underlying performance of our new software license business. New software license revenues represented 27%, 26% and 28% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The proportion of our new software license revenues relative to our total revenues was affected by our entry into the hardware systems business as a result of our acquisition of Sun in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. Our new software license segment’s margins have historically trended upward over the course of the four quarters within a particular fiscal year due to the historical upward trend of our new software license revenues over those quarterly periods and because the majority of our costs for this segment are predominantly fixed in the short-term. However, our new software license segment’s margins have been and will continue to be affected by fair value adjustments relating to the cloud software subscription obligations that we assumed in business combinations (described further below) and by the amortization of intangible assets associated with companies and technologies that we have acquired.

We recorded adjustments to reduce obligations under our assumed cloud software subscription offerings in business combinations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. As a result, as required by business combination accounting rules, we did not recognize cloud software subscription revenues as a part of our new software licenses revenues that would have been otherwise recorded as revenues by the acquired businesses as independent entities in the amount of $22 million in fiscal 2012. To the extent underlying cloud software subscription contracts are renewed with us following an acquisition, we will recognize the revenues for the full value of the cloud software subscription contracts over the contract periods.

Software License Updates and Product Support:    Customers that purchase software license updates and product support are granted rights to unspecified product upgrades and maintenance releases issued during the support period, as well as technical support assistance. Substantially all of our customers renew their software license updates and product support contracts annually. The growth of software license updates and product support revenues is primarily influenced by three factors: (1) the percentage of our support contract customer base that renews its support contracts, (2) the amount of new support contracts sold in connection

 

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with the sale of new software licenses and (3) the amount of support contracts assumed from companies we have acquired.

Software license updates and product support revenues, which represented 43%, 42% and 49% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, is our highest margin business unit. The proportion of our software license updates and product support revenues relative to our total revenues was affected by our entry into the hardware systems business as a result of our acquisition of Sun in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. Margins during fiscal 2012 were 87% and accounted for 72% of our total margins over the same period. Our software license update and product support margins have been affected by fair value adjustments relating to software support obligations assumed in business combinations (described further below) and by amortization of intangible assets. However, over the longer term, we believe that software license updates and product support revenues and margins will grow for the following reasons:

 

   

substantially all of our customers, including customers from acquired companies, renew their support contracts when eligible for renewal;

 

   

substantially all of our customers purchase software license updates and product support contracts when they buy new software licenses, resulting in a further increase in our support contract base. Even if new software license revenues growth was flat, software license updates and product support revenues would continue to grow in comparison to the corresponding prior year periods assuming renewal and cancellation rates and foreign currency rates remained relatively constant since substantially all new software license transactions result in the sale of software license updates and product support contracts, which add to our support contract base; and

 

   

our acquisitions have increased our support contract base, as well as the portfolio of products available to be licensed and supported.

We recorded adjustments to reduce support obligations assumed in business combinations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. As a result, as required by business combination accounting rules, we did not recognize software license updates and product support revenues related to software support contracts that would have been otherwise recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities in the amounts of $48 million, $80 million and $86 million in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. To the extent underlying support contracts are renewed with us following an acquisition, we will recognize the revenues for the full value of the support contracts over the support periods, the majority of which are one year.

Hardware Systems Business

Our hardware systems business consists of two operating segments: (1) hardware systems products and (2) hardware systems support. Our hardware business represented 17%, 19% and 9% of our total revenues in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We expect our hardware business to have lower operating margins as a percentage of revenues than our software business due to the incremental costs we incur to produce and distribute these products and to provide support services, including direct materials and labor costs. We expect to make investments in research and development to improve existing hardware products and services and to develop new hardware products and services.

Hardware Systems Products:    We provide a complete selection of hardware systems and related services including servers, storage, networking, virtualization software, operating systems, and management software to support diverse IT environments, including public and private cloud computing environments. We engineer our hardware systems with virtualization and management capabilities to enable the rapid deployment and efficient management of cloud infrastructures. Our hardware systems products consist primarily of computer server, storage and hardware-related software, including our Oracle Solaris operating system. Our hardware systems component products are designed to be “open,” or to work in customer environments that may include other Oracle or non-Oracle hardware or software components. We have also engineered our hardware systems products to create performance and operational cost advantages for customers when our hardware and software products are combined as Oracle Engineered Systems.

 

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Our Oracle Engineered Systems include Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, SPARC SuperCluster, Oracle Database Appliance and the Oracle Big Data Appliance. By combining our server and storage hardware with our software, our open, integrated products better address customer on-premise and cloud computing requirements for performance, scalability, reliability, security, ease of management and lower total cost of ownership.

We offer a wide range of server systems using our SPARC microprocessor. Our SPARC servers are differentiated by their reliability, security, scalability and customer environments that they target (general purpose or specialized systems). Our midsize and large servers are designed to offer greater performance and lower total cost of ownership than mainframe systems for business critical applications and for customers having more computationally intensive needs. Our SPARC servers run the Oracle Solaris operating system and are designed for the most demanding mission critical enterprise environments at any scale.

We also offer enterprise x86 servers. These x86 servers are primarily based on microprocessor platforms from Intel Corporation and are also compatible with Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, Microsoft Windows and other operating systems.

Our Netra line of servers are aimed at the unique needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and network equipment providers. Rack-optimized systems and our blade product offerings combine high-density hardware architecture and system management software that OEMs find particularly useful in building their own solution architectures.

Our storage products are designed to securely manage, protect, archive and restore customers’ mission critical data assets and consist of tape, disk, hardware-related software including file systems software, back-up and archive software and storage management software and networking for mainframe and open systems environments.

The majority of our hardware systems products are sold through indirect channels, including independent distributors and value added resellers.

To produce our hardware products, we rely on both our internal manufacturing operations as well as third party manufacturing partners. Our internal manufacturing operations consist primarily of final assembly, test and quality control of enterprise and data center servers and storage systems. For all other manufacturing, we rely on third party manufacturing partners. We distribute most of our hardware products either from our facilities or partner facilities. We strive to reduce costs by simplifying our manufacturing processes through increased standardization of components across product types and a “build-to-order” manufacturing process in which products generally are built only after customers have placed firm orders. In addition, we seek to enhance hardware systems support processes that are designed to proactively identify and solve quality issues and to increase the amount of new hardware systems support contracts sold in connection with the sales of new hardware products.

Our hardware systems products revenues, cost of hardware systems products and operating margins that we report are affected by the strength of general economic and business conditions, governmental budgetary constraints, our strategy for and the competitive position of our hardware systems products, our acquisitions and foreign currency rate fluctuations. In addition, our operating margins for our hardware systems products segment have been and will be affected by the amortization of intangible assets.

We have limited experience in predicting our quarterly hardware systems products revenues. The timing of customer orders and delays in our ability to timely manufacture or deliver a few large transactions could substantially affect the amount of hardware systems products revenues, expenses and operating margins that we report.

Hardware Systems Support:    Our hardware systems support offerings provide customers with software updates for the software components that are essential to the functionality of our server and storage products, such as Oracle Solaris, and can include product repairs, maintenance services and technical support services. Typically, our hardware systems support contract arrangements are invoiced to the customer at the beginning of the support period and are one year in duration. Our hardware systems support revenues that we report are influenced by a

 

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number of factors, including the volume of purchases of hardware products, the mix of hardware products purchased and the percentage of our hardware systems support contract customer base that renews its support contracts. All of these factors are heavily influenced by our customers’ decisions to either maintain or upgrade their existing hardware systems’ infrastructure to newly developed technologies that are available.

Our hardware systems support margins have been and will be affected by our acquisitions and related accounting including fair value adjustments relating to hardware systems support obligations assumed and by the amortization of intangible assets. As required by business combination accounting rules, we recorded adjustments to reduce our hardware systems support revenues for contracts assumed from our acquisitions to their estimated fair values. These amounts would have been recorded as hardware systems support revenues by the acquired businesses as independent entities in the amounts of $30 million, $148 million and $128 million for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

To the extent underlying hardware systems support contracts are renewed with us following an acquisition, we will recognize the revenues for the full values of the hardware systems support contracts over the support periods.

Services Business

Our services business is comprised of the remainder of our operating segments and offers consulting services, managed cloud services and education services. Our services business, which represented 13% of our total revenues in each of fiscal 2012 and 2011 and 14% of our total revenues in fiscal 2010, has lower margins than our software and hardware businesses. The proportion of our services revenues relative to our total revenues was affected by our entry into the hardware systems business as a result of our acquisition of Sun in the third quarter of fiscal 2010. Our services revenues are impacted by certain of our acquisitions, general economic conditions, personnel reductions in our customers’ IT departments, tighter controls over discretionary spending and the growth in our software and hardware systems products revenues.

Our consulting line of business primarily provides services to customers in business and IT strategy alignment, enterprise architecture planning and design, initial product implementation and integration and ongoing product enhancements and upgrades. The amount of consulting revenues recognized tends to lag the amount of our software and hardware systems products revenues by several quarters since consulting services, if purchased, are typically segmentable from the products with which they relate and are performed after the customer’s purchase of the products. Our services revenues as they relate to consulting services are dependent upon general economic conditions and the level of our product revenues, in particular the new software license sales of our application products. To the extent we are able to grow our products revenues, in particular our software application product revenues, we would also generally expect to be able to eventually grow our consulting revenues.

Oracle managed cloud services provide comprehensive software and hardware management and maintenance services—including deployment, management, monitoring, patching, security and upgrade services—for customers hosted at our Oracle data center facilities, select partner data centers, or physically on-premise at customer facilities. Additionally, we provide support services, both on-premise and remote, to Oracle customers to enable increased performance and higher availability of their products and services. We believe that our managed cloud services offerings provide our customers with greater value and choice through increased business performance, reduced risk, a predictable cost and more flexibility in terms of service in order to maximize the performance of their Oracle software and hardware products and services.

Education services provide training to customers, partners and employees as a part of our mission to further the adoption and usage of our software and hardware products by our customers and create opportunities to grow our products revenues.

Acquisitions

An active acquisition program is another important element of our corporate strategy. In recent years, we have invested billions of dollars to acquire a number of complementary companies, products, services and technologies including Taleo Corporation (Taleo) and RightNow Technologies, Inc (RightNow) in fiscal 2012,

 

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and Art Technology Group, Inc. (ATG) and Phase Forward Incorporated (Phase Forward) in fiscal 2011, among others. We believe our acquisition program strengthens our competitive position, enhances the products and services that we can offer to customers, expands our customer base, provides greater scale to accelerate innovation, grows our revenues and earnings and increases stockholder value. We expect to continue to acquire companies, products, services and technologies in furtherance of our corporate strategy. Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report provides additional information related to our recent acquisitions.

We believe we can fund our future acquisitions with our internally available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, cash generated from operations, additional borrowings or from the issuance of additional securities. We estimate the financial impact of any potential acquisition with regard to earnings, operating margin, cash flow and return on invested capital targets before deciding to move forward with an acquisition.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) as set forth in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (Codification) and consider the various staff accounting bulletins and other applicable guidance issued by the SEC. GAAP, as set forth within the Codification, requires us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe that the estimates, judgments and assumptions upon which we rely are reasonable based upon information available to us at the time that these estimates, judgments and assumptions are made. These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. To the extent there are differences between these estimates, judgments or assumptions and actual results, our financial statements will be affected. The accounting policies that reflect our more significant estimates, judgments and assumptions and which we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include the following:

 

   

Revenue Recognition

 

   

Business Combinations

 

   

Goodwill and Intangible Assets—Impairment Assessments

 

   

Accounting for Income Taxes

 

   

Legal and Other Contingencies

 

   

Stock-Based Compensation

 

   

Allowances for Doubtful Accounts

In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP and does not require management’s judgment in its application. There are also areas in which management’s judgment in selecting among available alternatives would not produce a materially different result. Our senior management has reviewed the below critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Finance and Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Revenue Recognition

Our sources of revenues include: (1) software, which includes new software license revenues earned from granting licenses to use our software products and fees from cloud software subscription offerings, and software license updates and product support revenues; (2) hardware systems, which includes the sale of hardware systems products including computer servers and storage products, and hardware systems support revenues; and (3) services, which includes software and hardware related services including consulting, managed cloud services and education revenues. Revenue generally is recognized net of any taxes collected from customers and subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.

 

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Revenue Recognition for Software Products and Software Related Services (Software Elements)

New software license revenues primarily represent fees earned from granting customers licenses to use our database, middleware and applications software and exclude revenues derived from software license updates, which are included in software license updates and product support revenues. The basis for our new software license revenue recognition is substantially governed by the accounting guidance contained in ASC 985-605, Software-Revenue Recognition, we exercise judgment and use estimates in connection with the determination of the amount of software and services revenues to be recognized in each accounting period.

For software license arrangements that do not require significant modification or customization of the underlying software, we recognize new software license revenues when: (1) we enter into a legally binding arrangement with a customer for the license of software; (2) we deliver the products; (3) the sale price is fixed or determinable and free of contingencies or significant uncertainties; and (4) collection is probable. Revenues that are not recognized at the time of sale because the foregoing conditions are not met, are recognized when those conditions are subsequently met.

Substantially all of our software license arrangements do not include acceptance provisions. However, if acceptance provisions exist as part of public policy, for example, in agreements with government entities where acceptance periods are required by law, or within previously executed terms and conditions that are referenced in the current agreement and are short-term in nature, we generally recognize revenues upon delivery provided the acceptance terms are perfunctory and all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. If acceptance provisions are not perfunctory (for example, acceptance provisions that are long-term in nature or are not included as standard terms of an arrangement), revenues are recognized upon the earlier of receipt of written customer acceptance or expiration of the acceptance period.

The vast majority of our software license arrangements include software license updates and product support contracts, which are entered into at the customer’s option and are recognized ratably over the term of the arrangement, typically one year. Software license updates provide customers with rights to unspecified software product upgrades, maintenance releases and patches released during the term of the support period. Product support includes internet access to technical content, as well as internet and telephone access to technical support personnel. Software license updates and product support contracts are generally priced as a percentage of the net new software license fees. Substantially all of our customers renew their software license updates and product support contracts annually.

Revenue Recognition for Multiple-Element ArrangementsSoftware Products and Software Related Services (Software Arrangements)

We often enter into arrangements with customers that purchase both software related products and software related services from us at the same time, or within close proximity of one another (referred to as software related multiple-element arrangements). Such software related multiple-element arrangements include the sale of our software products, software license updates and product support contracts and other software related services whereby software license delivery is followed by the subsequent or contemporaneous delivery of the other elements. For those software related multiple-element arrangements, we have applied the residual method to determine the amount of software license revenues to be recognized pursuant to ASC 985-605. Under the residual method, if fair value exists for undelivered elements in a multiple-element arrangement, such fair value of the undelivered elements is deferred with the remaining portion of the arrangement consideration recognized upon delivery of the software license or services arrangement. We allocate the fair value of each element of a software related multiple-element arrangement based upon its fair value as determined by our vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE—described further below), with any remaining amount allocated to the software license.

Revenue Recognition for Hardware Systems Products, Hardware Systems Related Services and Cloud Software Subscription Offerings (Nonsoftware Elements)

Revenues from the sale of hardware systems products represent amounts earned primarily from the sale of computer servers and storage products. Our revenue recognition policy for these nonsoftware deliverables and

 

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other nonsoftware deliverables including hardware systems related services and cloud software subscription offerings is based upon the accounting guidance contained in ASC 605, Revenue Recognition, and we exercise judgment and use estimates in connection with the determination of the amount of hardware systems products, hardware systems related services revenues and cloud software subscription revenues to be recognized in each accounting period.

Revenues from the sales of our nonsoftware elements are recognized when: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) we deliver the products and passage of the title to the buyer occurs; (3) the sale price is fixed or determinable; and (4) collection is reasonably assured. Revenues that are not recognized at the time of sale because the foregoing conditions are not met are recognized when those conditions are subsequently met. When applicable, we reduce revenues for estimated returns or certain other incentive programs where we have the ability to sufficiently estimate the effects of these items. Where an arrangement is subject to acceptance criteria and the acceptance provisions are not perfunctory (for example, acceptance provisions that are long-term in nature or are not included as standard terms of an arrangement), revenues are recognized upon the earlier of receipt of written customer acceptance or expiration of the acceptance period.

Our hardware systems support offerings generally provide customers with software updates for the software components that are essential to the functionality of our server and storage products and can also include product repairs, maintenance services and technical support services. Hardware systems support contracts are generally priced as a percentage of the net hardware systems products fees. Hardware systems support contracts are entered into at the customer’s option and are recognized ratably over the contractual term of the arrangements, which are typically one year.

Our cloud software subscription offerings generally provide customers access to certain of our software within a cloud-based IT environment that we manage and offer to customers on a subscription basis. Revenues for our cloud software subscription offerings are recognized ratably over the contract term commencing with the date our service is made available to customers and all other revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied.

Revenue Recognition for Multiple-Element ArrangementsHardware Systems Products and Hardware Systems Related Services (Nonsoftware Arrangements)

We enter into arrangements with customers that purchase both nonsoftware related products and services from us at the same time, or within close proximity of one another (referred to as nonsoftware multiple-element arrangements). Each element within a nonsoftware multiple-element arrangement is accounted for as a separate unit of accounting provided the following criteria are met: the delivered products or services have value to the customer on a standalone basis; and for an arrangement that includes a general right of return relative to the delivered products or services, delivery or performance of the undelivered product or service is considered probable and is substantially controlled by us. We consider a deliverable to have standalone value if the product or service is sold separately by us or another vendor or could be resold by the customer. Further, our revenue arrangements generally do not include a general right of return relative to the delivered products. Where the aforementioned criteria for a separate unit of accounting are not met, the deliverable is combined with the undelivered element(s) and treated as a single unit of accounting for the purposes of allocation of the arrangement consideration and revenue recognition. For those units of accounting that include more than one deliverable but are treated as a single unit of accounting, we generally recognize revenues over the delivery period. For the purposes of revenue classification of the elements that are accounted for as a single unit of accounting, we allocate revenue to the respective revenue line items within our consolidated statements of operations based on a rational and consistent methodology utilizing our best estimate of relative selling prices of such elements.

For our nonsoftware multiple-element arrangements, we allocate revenue to each element based on a selling price hierarchy at the arrangement’s inception. The selling price for each element is based upon the following selling price hierarchy: VSOE if available, third party evidence (TPE) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price (ESP) if neither VSOE nor TPE are available (a description as to how we determine VSOE, TPE and ESP is provided below). If a tangible hardware systems product includes software, we determine whether the tangible hardware systems product and the software work together to deliver the product’s essential functionality and, if

 

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so, the entire product is treated as a nonsoftware deliverable. The total arrangement consideration is allocated to each separate unit of accounting for each of the nonsoftware deliverables using the relative selling prices of each unit based on the aforementioned selling price hierarchy. We limit the amount of revenue recognized for delivered elements to an amount that is not contingent upon future delivery of additional products or services or meeting of any specified performance conditions.

When possible, we establish VSOE of selling price for deliverables in nonsoftware multiple-element arrangements using the price charged for a deliverable when sold separately and for software license updates and product support and hardware systems support, based on the renewal rates offered to customers. TPE is established by evaluating similar and interchangeable competitor products or services in standalone arrangements with similarly situated customers. If we are unable to determine the selling price because VSOE or TPE does not exist, we determine ESP for the purposes of allocating the arrangement by reviewing historical transactions, including transactions whereby the deliverable was sold on a standalone basis and considering several other external and internal factors including, but not limited to, pricing practices including discounting, margin objectives, competition, the geographies in which we offer our products and services, the type of customer (i.e. distributor, value added reseller, government agency and direct end user, among others) and the stage of the product lifecycle. The determination of ESP is made through consultation with and approval by our management, taking into consideration our pricing model and go-to-market strategy. As our, or our competitors’, pricing and go-to-market strategies evolve, we may modify our pricing practices in the future, which could result in changes to our determination of VSOE, TPE and ESP. As a result, our future revenue recognition for multiple-element arrangements could differ materially from our results in the current period. Selling prices are analyzed on an annual basis or more frequently if we experience significant changes in our selling prices.

Revenue Recognition Policies Applicable to both Software and Nonsoftware Elements

Revenue Recognition for Multiple-Element Arrangements—Arrangements with Software and Nonsoftware Elements

We also enter into multiple-element arrangements that may include a combination of our various software related and nonsoftware related products and services offerings including hardware systems products, hardware systems support, new software licenses, software license updates and product support, cloud software subscription, consulting, managed cloud services and education. In such arrangements, we first allocate the total arrangement consideration based on the relative selling prices of the software group of elements as a whole and to the nonsoftware elements. We then further allocate consideration within the software group to the respective elements within that group following the guidance in ASC 985-605 and our policies as described above. After the arrangement consideration has been allocated to the elements, we account for each respective element in the arrangement as described above.

Other Revenue Recognition Policies Applicable to Software and Nonsoftware Elements

Many of our software arrangements include consulting implementation services sold separately under consulting engagement contracts and are included as a part of our services business. Consulting revenues from these arrangements are generally accounted for separately from new software license revenues because the arrangements qualify as services transactions as defined in ASC 985-605. The more significant factors considered in determining whether the revenues should be accounted for separately include the nature of services (i.e. consideration of whether the services are essential to the functionality of the licensed product), degree of risk, availability of services from other vendors, timing of payments and impact of milestones or acceptance criteria on the realizability of the software license fee. Revenues for consulting services are generally recognized as the services are performed. If there is a significant uncertainty about the project completion or receipt of payment for the consulting services, revenues are deferred until the uncertainty is sufficiently resolved. We estimate the proportional performance on contracts with fixed or “not to exceed” fees on a monthly basis utilizing hours incurred to date as a percentage of total estimated hours to complete the project. If we do not have a sufficient basis to measure progress towards completion, revenues are recognized when we receive final acceptance from the customer that the services have been completed. When total cost estimates exceed revenues, we accrue for the estimated losses immediately using cost estimates that are based upon an average fully

 

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burdened daily rate applicable to the consulting organization delivering the services. The complexity of the estimation process and factors relating to the assumptions, risks and uncertainties inherent with the application of the proportional performance method of accounting affects the amounts of revenues and related expenses reported in our consolidated financial statements. A number of internal and external factors can affect our estimates, including labor rates, utilization and efficiency variances and specification and testing requirement changes.

Our managed cloud services are offered as standalone arrangements or as a part of arrangements to customers buying new software licenses or hardware systems products and services. Oracle managed cloud services are designed to provide comprehensive software and hardware management and maintenance services for customers hosted at our Oracle data center facilities, select partner data centers or physically on-premise at customer facilities. Additionally, we provide support services, both on-premise and remote, to Oracle customers to enable increased performance and higher availability of their products and services. Depending upon the nature of the arrangement, revenues from managed cloud services are recognized as services are performed or ratably over the term of the service period, which is generally one year or less.

Education revenues are also a part of our services business and include instructor-led, media-based and internet-based training in the use of our software and hardware products. Education revenues are recognized as the classes or other education offerings are delivered.

If an arrangement contains multiple elements and does not qualify for separate accounting for the product and service transactions, then new software license revenues and/or hardware systems products revenues, including the costs of hardware systems products, are generally recognized together with the services based on contract accounting using either the percentage-of-completion or completed-contract method. Contract accounting is applied to any bundled software, hardware systems and services arrangements: (1) that include milestones or customer specific acceptance criteria that may affect collection of the software license or hardware systems product fees; (2) where consulting services include significant modification or customization of the software or hardware systems product or are of a specialized nature and generally performed only by Oracle; (3) where significant consulting services are provided for in the software license contract or hardware systems product contract without additional charge or are substantially discounted; or (4) where the software license or hardware systems product payment is tied to the performance of consulting services. For the purposes of revenue classification of the elements that are accounted for as a single unit of accounting, we allocate revenues to software and nonsoftware elements based on a rational and consistent methodology utilizing our best estimate of the relative selling price of such elements.

We also evaluate arrangements with governmental entities containing “fiscal funding” or “termination for convenience” provisions, when such provisions are required by law, to determine the probability of possible cancellation. We consider multiple factors, including the history with the customer in similar transactions, the “essential use” of the software or hardware systems products and the planning, budgeting and approval processes undertaken by the governmental entity. If we determine upon execution of these arrangements that the likelihood of cancellation is remote, we then recognize revenues once all of the criteria described above have been met. If such a determination cannot be made, revenues are recognized upon the earlier of cash receipt or approval of the applicable funding provision by the governmental entity.

We assess whether fees are fixed or determinable at the time of sale and recognize revenues if all other revenue recognition requirements are met. Our standard payment terms are net 30 days. However, payment terms may vary based on the country in which the agreement is executed. Payments that are due within six months are generally deemed to be fixed or determinable based on our successful collection history on such arrangements, and thereby satisfy the required criteria for revenue recognition.

While most of our arrangements for sales within our businesses include short-term payment terms, we have a standard practice of providing long-term financing to creditworthy customers through our financing division. Since fiscal 1989, when our financing division was formed, we have established a history of collection, without concessions, on these receivables with payment terms that generally extend up to five years from the contract date. Provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met, we recognize new software license revenues and hardware systems products revenues for these arrangements upon delivery, net of any payment discounts

 

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from financing transactions. We have generally sold receivables financed through our financing division on a non-recourse basis to third party financing institutions within 90 days of the contracts’ dates of execution and we classify the proceeds from these sales as cash flows from operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. We account for the sales of these receivables as “true sales” as defined in ASC 860, Transfers and Servicing, as we are considered to have surrendered control of these financing receivables.

In addition, we enter into arrangements with leasing companies for the sale of our hardware systems products. These leasing companies, in turn, lease our products to end-users. The leasing companies generally have no recourse to us in the event of default by the end-user and we recognize revenue upon delivery, if all the other revenue recognition criteria have been met.

Our customers include several of our suppliers and occasionally, we have purchased goods or services for our operations from these vendors at or about the same time that we have sold our products to these same companies (Concurrent Transactions). Software license agreements or sales of hardware systems that occur within a three-month time period from the date we have purchased goods or services from that same customer are reviewed for appropriate accounting treatment and disclosure. When we acquire goods or services from a customer, we negotiate the purchase separately from any sales transaction, at terms we consider to be at arm’s length and settle the purchase in cash. We recognize new software license revenues or hardware systems product revenues from Concurrent Transactions if all of our revenue recognition criteria are met and the goods and services acquired are necessary for our current operations.

Business Combinations

We apply the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, in the accounting for our acquisitions. It requires us to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statements of operations.

Accounting for business combinations requires our management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date including our estimates for intangible assets, contractual obligations assumed, restructuring liabilities, pre-acquisition contingencies and contingent consideration, where applicable. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made in the past have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain.

Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired include but are not limited to:

 

   

future expected cash flows from software license sales, hardware systems product sales, support agreements, consulting contracts, other customer contracts, acquired developed technologies and patents;

 

   

expected costs to develop the in-process research and development into commercially viable products and estimated cash flows from the projects when completed;

 

   

the acquired company’s brand and competitive position, as well as assumptions about the period of time the acquired brand will continue to be used in the combined company’s product portfolio; and

 

   

discount rates.

Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.

 

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We estimate the fair values of cloud software subscription, software license updates and product support and hardware systems support obligations assumed. The estimated fair values of these performance obligations are determined utilizing a cost build-up approach. The cost build-up approach determines fair value by estimating the costs related to fulfilling the obligations plus a normal profit margin. The estimated costs to fulfill the obligations are based on the historical direct costs related to providing the services including the correction of any errors in the products acquired. The sum of these costs and operating profit approximates, in theory, the amount that we would be required to pay a third party to assume the performance obligations. We do not include any costs associated with selling efforts or research and development or the related fulfillment margins on these costs. Profit associated with any selling efforts is excluded because the acquired entities would have concluded those selling efforts on the performance obligations prior to the acquisition date. We also do not include the estimated research and development costs in our fair value determinations, as these costs are not deemed to represent a legal obligation at the time of acquisition. As a result, we did not recognize new software licenses revenues related to cloud software subscription contracts in the amount of $22 million that would have been otherwise recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities in fiscal 2012. We did not recognize software license updates and product support revenues related to support contracts in the amounts of $48 million, $80 million and $86 million that would have been otherwise recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. In addition, we did not recognize hardware systems support revenues related to hardware systems support contracts that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities in the amounts of $30 million, $148 million and $128 million for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Historically, substantially all of our customers, including customers from acquired companies, renew their software license updates and product support contracts when the contracts are eligible for renewal and we strive to renew cloud software subscription and hardware systems support contracts. To the extent cloud software subscription, software support or hardware systems support contracts are renewed, we will recognize the revenues for the full values of the contracts over the contracts’ periods, which are generally one year in duration.

In connection with a business combination, we estimate costs associated with restructuring plans committed to by our management. Restructuring costs are typically comprised of employee severance costs, costs of consolidating duplicate facilities and contract termination costs. Restructuring expenses are based upon plans that have been committed to by our management, but may be refined in subsequent periods. We account for costs to exit or restructure certain activities of an acquired company separately from the business combination. These costs are accounted for as one-time termination and exit costs pursuant to ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations. A liability for a cost associated with an exit or disposal activity is recognized and measured at its fair value in our consolidated statement of operations in the period in which the liability is incurred. When estimating the fair value of facility restructuring activities, assumptions are applied regarding estimated sub-lease payments to be received, which can differ materially from actual results. This may require us to revise our initial estimates which may materially affect our results of operations and financial position in the period the revision is made.

For a given acquisition, we may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend our review and evaluation of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether we include these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, to determine their estimated amounts.

If we cannot reasonably determine the fair value of a pre-acquisition contingency (non-income tax related) by the end of the measurement period, which is generally the case given the nature of such matters, we will recognize an asset or a liability for such pre-acquisition contingency if: (i) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been incurred at the acquisition date and (ii) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes in our estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on our results of operations and financial position.

In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. We reevaluate these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to our preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill provided that we are within the measurement period. Subsequent to the measurement period or our final determination of the tax allowance’s or contingency’s estimated value, whichever comes first,

 

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changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect our provision for income taxes in our consolidated statement of operations and could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets—Impairment Assessments

We review goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate its carrying value may not be recoverable in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. Effective fiscal 2012, we opted to perform a qualitative assessment to test a reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment. Based on our qualitative assessment, if we determine that the fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than 50 percent) to be less than its carrying amount, the two step impairment test will be performed. In the first step, we compare the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to that unit, goodwill is not considered impaired and we are not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit, then we must perform the second step of the impairment test in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, then we would record an impairment loss equal to the difference. Our reporting units are consistent with our operating segments identified in Note 16 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Determining the fair value of a reporting unit involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include revenue growth rates and operating margins used to calculate projected future cash flows, risk-adjusted discount rates, future economic and market conditions and determination of appropriate market comparables. We base our fair value estimates on assumptions we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Actual future results may differ from those estimates. In addition, we make certain judgments and assumptions in allocating shared assets and liabilities to determine the carrying values for each of our reporting units. Our most recent annual goodwill impairment analysis, which was performed during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, did not result in a goodwill impairment charge, nor did we record any goodwill impairment in fiscal 2011 or 2010.

We make judgments about the recoverability of purchased finite lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may exist. Each period we evaluate the estimated remaining useful lives of purchased intangible assets and whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining periods of amortization. Recoverability of finite lived intangible assets is measured by comparison of the carrying amount of the asset to the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. We review indefinite lived intangible assets for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of indefinite lived intangible assets is measured by comparison of the carrying amount of the asset to its fair value. If the asset is considered to be impaired, the amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value of the impaired asset.

Assumptions and estimates about future values and remaining useful lives of our intangible and other long-lived assets are complex and subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts. Although we believe the historical assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions and estimates could materially impact our reported financial results. We did not recognize any intangible asset impairment charges in fiscal 2012, 2011 or 2010.

Accounting for Income Taxes

Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide income tax provision. In the ordinary course of a global business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain. Some of these uncertainties arise as a consequence of revenue sharing and cost reimbursement arrangements among related entities, the process of identifying items of revenues and expenses that qualify for preferential tax treatment and segregation of foreign and domestic earnings and expenses to avoid double taxation. Although we

 

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believe that our estimates are reasonable, the final tax outcome of these matters could be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Such differences could have a material effect on our income tax provision and net income in the period in which such determination is made.

Our effective tax rate includes the impact of certain undistributed foreign earnings for which no U.S. taxes have been provided because such earnings are planned to be indefinitely reinvested outside the United States. Remittances of foreign earnings to the United States are planned based on projected cash flow, working capital and investment needs of our foreign and domestic operations. Based on these assumptions, we estimate the amount that will be distributed to the United States and provide U.S. federal taxes on these amounts. Material changes in our estimates as to how much of our foreign earnings will be distributed to the United States or tax legislation that limits or restricts the amount of undistributed foreign earnings that we consider indefinitely reinvested outside the United States could materially impact our income tax provision and effective tax rate.

We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In order for us to realize our deferred tax assets, we must be able to generate sufficient taxable income in those jurisdictions where the deferred tax assets are located. We consider future growth, forecasted earnings, future taxable income, the mix of earnings in the jurisdictions in which we operate, historical earnings, taxable income in prior years, if carryback is permitted under the law and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in determining the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets valuation allowance would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination, or goodwill would be adjusted at our final determination of the valuation allowance related to an acquisition within the measurement period. If we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance as an adjustment to earnings at such time.

We calculate our current and deferred tax provision based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed and the global tax implications are known, which can materially impact our effective tax rate.

The amount of income tax we pay is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities, which often result in proposed assessments. Our estimate of the potential outcome for any uncertain tax issue is highly judgmental. A description of our accounting policies associated with tax related contingencies assumed as a part of a business combination is provided under “Business Combinations” above. For those tax related contingencies that are not a part of a business combination, we account for these uncertain tax issues pursuant to ASC 740, Income Taxes, which contains a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The first step is to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Although we believe we have adequately reserved for our uncertain tax positions, no assurance can be given with respect to the final outcome of these matters. We adjust reserves for our uncertain tax positions due to changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit, judicial rulings, refinement of estimates or realization of earnings or deductions that differ from our estimates. To the extent that the final outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences generally will impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which such a determination is made. Our provisions for income taxes include the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate and also include the related interest and penalties.

In addition, as a part of our accounting for business combinations, intangible assets are recognized at fair values and goodwill is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net estimated fair values of assets acquired. Impairment charges associated with goodwill are generally not tax deductible and will result in an increased effective income tax rate in the period that any impairment is recorded. Amortization expenses associated with acquired intangible assets are generally not tax deductible pursuant to our existing tax structure; however, deferred taxes have been recorded for non-deductible amortization expenses as a part of the accounting for business combinations. We have taken into account the allocation of these identified intangibles among different taxing jurisdictions, including those with nominal or zero percent tax rates, in establishing the related deferred tax liabilities.

 

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Legal and Other Contingencies

We are currently involved in various claims and legal proceedings. Quarterly, we review the status of each significant matter and assess our potential financial exposure. A description of our accounting policies associated with contingencies assumed as a part of a business combination is provided under “Business Combinations” above. For legal and other contingencies that are not a part of a business combination, we accrue a liability for an estimated loss if the potential loss from any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether the amount of an exposure is reasonably estimable. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based only on the best information available at the time the accruals are made. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to our pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates. Such revisions in the estimates of the potential liabilities could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, restricted stock-based awards and purchases under employee stock purchase plans, in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires that share-based payments (to the extent they are compensatory) be recognized in our consolidated statements of operations based on their fair values. We recognize stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the service period of the award, which is generally four years.

We are required to estimate the stock awards that we ultimately expect to vest and to reduce stock-based compensation expense for the effects of estimated forfeitures of awards over the expense recognition period. Although we estimate the rate of future forfeitures based upon historical experience, actual forfeitures in the future may differ. To the extent our actual forfeitures are different than our estimates, we record a true-up for the difference in the period that the awards vest and such true-ups could materially affect our operating results. Additionally, we also consider on a quarterly basis whether there have been any significant changes in facts and circumstances that would affect our expected forfeiture rate.

We estimate the fair values of employee stock options using a Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. The fair value of an award is affected by our stock price on the date of grant as well as other assumptions including the estimated volatility of our stock price over the term of the awards and the estimated period of time that we expect employees to hold their stock options. The risk-free interest rate assumption we use is based upon United States treasury interest rates appropriate for the expected life of the awards. We use the implied volatility of our publicly traded options in order to estimate future stock price trends as we believe that implied volatility is more representative of future stock price trends than historical volatility. In order to determine the estimated period of time that we expect employees to hold their stock options, we have used historical rates of employee groups by seniority of job classification. Our expected dividend rate is based upon an annualized dividend yield based on the per share dividend declared by our Board of Directors. The aforementioned inputs entered into the option valuation model we use to fair value our stock awards are subjective estimates and changes to these estimates will cause the fair values of our stock awards and related stock-based compensation expense that we record to vary.

We record deferred tax assets for stock-based compensation awards that result in deductions on our income tax returns, based on the amount of stock-based compensation recognized and the fair values attributable to the vested portion of stock awards assumed in connection with a business combination, at the statutory tax rate in the jurisdiction in which we will receive a tax deduction. Because the deferred tax assets we record are based upon the stock-based compensation expenses in a particular jurisdiction, the aforementioned inputs that affect the fair values of our stock awards may also indirectly affect our income tax expense. In addition, differences between the deferred tax assets recognized for financial reporting purposes and the actual tax deduction reported on our income tax returns are recorded in additional paid-in capital. If the tax deduction is less than the deferred tax asset, the calculated shortfall reduces our pool of excess tax benefits. If the pool of excess tax benefits is reduced to zero, then subsequent shortfalls would increase our income tax expense.

 

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To the extent we change the terms of our employee stock-based compensation programs, experience market volatility in the pricing of our common stock that increases the implied volatility calculation of our publicly traded options, refine different assumptions in future periods such as forfeiture rates that differ from our current estimates, or assume stock awards from acquired companies that are different in nature than our stock award arrangements, among other potential impacts, the stock-based compensation expense that we record in future periods and the tax benefits that we realize may differ significantly from what we have recorded in previous reporting periods.

Allowances for Doubtful Accounts

We make judgments as to our ability to collect outstanding receivables and provide allowances for the portion of receivables when collection becomes doubtful. Provisions are made based upon a specific review of all significant outstanding invoices. For those invoices not specifically reviewed, provisions are provided at differing rates, based upon the age of the receivable, the collection history associated with the geographic region that the receivable was recorded and current economic trends. If the historical data that we use to calculate the allowances for doubtful accounts does not reflect the future ability to collect outstanding receivables, additional provisions for doubtful accounts may be needed and our future results of operations could be materially affected.

Results of Operations

Impact of Acquisitions

The comparability of our operating results in fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 is impacted by our acquisitions, primarily the acquisition of Taleo in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, RightNow in the third quarter of fiscal 2012, ATG in the third quarter of fiscal 2011 and Phase Forward during the first quarter of fiscal 2011.

The comparability of our operating results in fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 is impacted by our acquisitions, primarily the acquisition of Sun in the third quarter of fiscal 2010 and, to a lesser extent, our acquisitions of ATG in the third quarter of fiscal 2011 and Phase Forward during the first quarter of fiscal 2011.

In our discussion of changes in our results of operations from fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010, we quantify the contributions of our acquired products to the growth in new software license revenues, software license updates and product support revenues, hardware systems products revenues (as applicable) and hardware systems support revenues (as applicable) for the one year period subsequent to the acquisition date. We also are able to quantify the total incremental expenses associated with our hardware systems products and hardware systems support operating segments for fiscal 2011 in comparison to fiscal 2010. The incremental contributions of our acquisitions to our other businesses and operating segments’ revenues and expenses are not provided as they either were not separately identifiable due to the integration of these operating segments into our existing operations and/or were insignificant to our results of operations during the periods presented.

We caution readers that, while pre- and post-acquisition comparisons, as well as the quantified amounts themselves may provide indications of general trends, the acquisition information that we provide has inherent limitations for the following reasons:

 

   

the quantifications cannot address the substantial effects attributable to changes in business strategies, including our sales force integration efforts. We believe that if our acquired companies had operated independently and sales forces had not been integrated, the relative mix of products sold would have been different; and

 

   

although substantially all of our customers, including customers from acquired companies, renew their software license updates and product support contracts when the contracts are eligible for renewal and we strive to renew cloud software subscription contracts and hardware systems support contracts, the amounts shown as software license updates and product support deferred revenues, new software licenses deferred revenues and hardware systems support deferred revenues in our supplemental disclosure related to certain charges (presented below) are not necessarily indicative of revenue improvements we will achieve upon contract renewal to the extent customers do not renew.

 

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Constant Currency Presentation

Our international operations have provided and will continue to provide a significant portion of our total revenues and expenses. As a result, total revenues and expenses will continue to be affected by changes in the U.S. Dollar against major international currencies. In order to provide a framework for assessing how our underlying businesses performed excluding the effect of foreign currency fluctuations, we compare the percent change in the results from one period to another period in this Annual Report using constant currency disclosure. To present this information, current and comparative prior period results for entities reporting in currencies other than U.S. Dollars are converted into U.S. Dollars at constant exchange rates (i.e. the rates in effect on May 31, 2011, which was the last day of our prior fiscal year) rather than the actual exchange rates in effect during the respective periods. For example, if an entity reporting in Euros had revenues of 1.0 million Euros from products sold on May 31, 2012 and May 31, 2011, our financial statements would reflect reported revenues of $1.25 million in fiscal 2012 (using 1.25 as the month-end average exchange rate for the period) and $1.41 million in fiscal 2011 (using 1.41 as the month-end average exchange rate for the period). The constant currency presentation would translate the fiscal 2012 results using the fiscal 2011 exchange rate and indicate, in this example, no change in revenues during the period. In each of the tables below, we present the percent change based on actual, unrounded results in reported currency and in constant currency.

Total Revenues and Operating Expenses

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
     2012      Percent Change      2011      Percent Change      2010  

(Dollars in millions)

      Actual      Constant         Actual      Constant     

Total Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

   $  19,236         5%         5%       $  18,352         33%         32%       $  13,819   

EMEA(1)

     11,561         1%         1%         11,497         29%         28%         8,938   

Asia Pacific(2)

     6,324         10%         7%         5,773         42%         32%         4,063   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

     37,121         4%         4%         35,622         33%         30%         26,820   

Total Operating Expenses

     23,415         -1%         -1%         23,589         33%         31%         17,758   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Operating Margin

   $ 13,706         14%         14%       $ 12,033         33%         29%       $ 9,062   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Operating Margin %

     37%               34%               34%   

% Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

     52%               52%               52%   

EMEA

     31%               32%               33%   

Asia Pacific

     17%               16%               15%   

Total Revenues by Business:

                    

Software

   $ 26,116         9%         9%       $ 24,031         17%         15%       $ 20,625   

Hardware Systems

     6,302         -9%         -10%         6,944         203%         195%         2,290   

Services

     4,703         1%         1%         4,647         19%         17%         3,905   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

   $ 37,121         4%         4%       $ 35,622         33%         30%       $ 26,820   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

% Revenues by Business:

                    

Software

     70%               68%               77%   

Hardware Systems

     17%               19%               9%   

Services

     13%               13%               14%   

 

(1) 

Comprised of Europe, the Middle East and Africa

 

(2) 

Asia Pacific includes Japan

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations, the increase in our total revenues in fiscal 2012 was primarily attributable to growth in our software business’ revenues, partially offset by a reduction in our hardware systems business’ revenues. Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, the Americas contributed 65%, EMEA contributed 8% and Asia Pacific contributed 27% to our total revenues growth.

 

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Excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations, total operating expenses decreased slightly in fiscal 2012 primarily due to a reduction in our hardware systems business’ expenses due to efficiencies gained through our hardware systems support integration efforts and lower hardware systems products costs associated with lower hardware systems products revenues; due to decreases in certain variable compensation expenses; and due to a reduction in restructuring costs and acquisition related costs primarily associated with expenses incurred in fiscal 2011 related to our acquisition of Sun. These fiscal 2012 expense decreases were partially offset by fiscal 2012 expense increases in salaries and benefits primarily related to additional sales and marketing headcount and an increase in general and administrative expenses that was due to a $120 million legal expense recovery in fiscal 2011.

Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, the increase in total operating margin and operating margin as a percentage of revenues in fiscal 2012 was due to our increase in revenues while our expenses decreased.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Our total revenues increased in fiscal 2011 due to $4.7 billion of incremental revenue contribution from our hardware systems business and significant increases in our software and services businesses’ revenues. Our total revenues growth across all of our businesses in fiscal 2011 was favorably affected by a full year of revenue contributions from Sun as compared to our fiscal 2010 operating results, for which Sun’s revenue contributions were limited to only a portion of the fiscal 2010 period. In addition, our software business revenues increased as a result of the growth in our new software license revenues and our software license updates and product support revenues. Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, the Americas contributed 55%, EMEA contributed 29% and APAC contributed 16% to our total revenues growth.

Excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations, the increase in total operating expenses in fiscal 2011 was due to a full year of expense contributions from Sun to our fiscal 2011 operating results, including increased expenses pertaining to hardware systems products sold and related hardware systems support offerings, additional employee related expenses and an increase in intangible asset amortization. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in restructuring expenses relating to our Sun Restructuring Plan and certain other Oracle-based restructuring plans and were also favorably affected by the recovery of certain legal costs in fiscal 2011 as noted above.

On a constant currency basis, our operating margin increased during fiscal 2011 due to our total revenues growth. Our operating margin as a percentage of revenues remained flat in fiscal 2011 as our revenues and expenses grew at approximately the same rates.

Supplemental Disclosure Related to Certain Charges

To supplement our consolidated financial information we believe the following information is helpful to an overall understanding of our past financial performance and prospects for the future. You should review the introduction under “Impact of Acquisitions” (above) for a discussion of the inherent limitations in comparing pre- and post-acquisition information.

 

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Our operating results include the following business combination accounting adjustments and expenses related to acquisitions, as well as certain other significant expense items:

 

     Year Ended May 31,  

(in millions)

   2012     2011     2010  

New software licenses deferred revenues(1)

   $             22      $               —      $               —   

Software license updates and product support deferred revenues(1)

     48        80        86   

Hardware systems support deferred revenues(1)

     30        148        128   

Hardware systems products expenses(2)

                   29   

Amortization of intangible assets(3)

     2,430        2,428        1,973   

Acquisition related and other(4)(6)

     56        208        154   

Restructuring(5)

     295        487        622   

Stock-based compensation(6)

     626        500        421   

Income tax effects(7)

     (967     (1,003     (1,054
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 2,540      $ 2,848      $ 2,359   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) 

In connection with our acquisitions, we have estimated the fair values of the cloud software subscription, software support and hardware systems support obligations assumed. Due to our application of business combination accounting rules, we did not recognize new software licenses revenues related to cloud software subscription contracts that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities, in the amount of $22 million in fiscal 2012. We also did not recognize software license updates and product support revenues related to support contracts that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities, in the amounts of $48 million, $80 million and $86 million in fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, respectively. In addition, we did not recognize hardware systems support revenues related to hardware systems support contracts that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities in the amounts of $30 million, $148 million and $128 million in fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, respectively.

Approximately $34 million of estimated cloud software subscription contract revenues assumed will not be recognized during fiscal 2013 that would have otherwise been recognized as revenues by the acquired businesses as independent entities due to the application of the aforementioned business combination accounting rules. Approximately $13 million and $2 million of estimated software license updates and product support revenues related to software support contracts assumed will not be recognized during fiscal 2013 and 2014, respectively, that would have otherwise been recognized by the acquired businesses as independent entities due to the application of the aforementioned business combination accounting rules. Approximately $11 million of estimated hardware systems support revenues related to hardware systems support contracts assumed will not be recognized during fiscal 2013 that would have otherwise been recognized by certain acquired companies as independent entities due to the application of the aforementioned business combination accounting rules. To the extent customers renew these contracts with us, we expect to recognize revenues for the full contracts’ values over the contract renewal periods.

 

(2) 

Represents the effects of fair value adjustments to our inventories acquired from Sun that were sold to customers in fiscal 2010. Business combination accounting rules require us to account for inventories assumed from our acquisitions at their fair values. The $29 million included in the hardware systems products expenses line in the table above for fiscal 2010, is intended to adjust these expenses to the hardware systems products expenses that would have been otherwise recorded by Sun as an independent entity upon the sale of these inventories. If we acquire inventories in future acquisitions, we will be required to assess their fair values, which may result in fair value adjustments to those inventories.

 

(3) 

Represents the amortization of intangible assets substantially all of which were acquired in connection with our acquisitions. As of May 31, 2012, estimated future amortization expenses related to intangible assets were as follows (in millions):

 

Fiscal 2013

   $ 2,313   

Fiscal 2014

     1,938   

Fiscal 2015

     1,488   

Fiscal 2016

     941   

Fiscal 2017

     384   

Thereafter

     824   
  

 

 

 

Total intangible assets subject to amortization

     7,888   

In-process research and development

     11   
  

 

 

 

Total intangible assets, net

   $         7,899   
  

 

 

 

 

(4) 

Acquisition related and other expenses primarily consist of personnel related costs for transitional and certain other employees, stock-based compensation expenses, integration related professional services, certain business combination adjustments including certain adjustments after the measurement period has ended and changes in fair value of contingent consideration payable (see Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report) and certain other operating expenses, net.

 

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(5) 

The significant majority of restructuring expenses during fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011 relate to employee severance, facility exit costs and contract termination costs in connection with our Sun Restructuring Plan. Restructuring expenses during fiscal 2010 primarily relate to costs incurred pursuant to our Sun Restructuring Plan and our Fiscal 2009 Oracle Restructuring Plan. Additional information regarding certain of our restructuring plans is provided in Note 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

(6) 

Stock-based compensation was included in the following operating expense line items of our consolidated statements of operations (in millions):

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
     2012      2011      2010  

Sales and marketing

   $             122       $             87       $             81   

Software license updates and product support

     18         14         17   

Hardware systems products

     1         2         3   

Hardware systems support

     5         5         2   

Services

     23         16         14   

Research and development

     295         231         172   

General and administrative

     162         145         132   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal

     626         500         421   

Acquisition related and other

     33         10         15   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stock-based compensation

   $ 659       $ 510       $ 436   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation included in acquisition related and other expenses resulted from unvested stock options and restricted stock-based awards assumed from acquisitions whose vesting was accelerated upon termination of the employees pursuant to the terms of those stock options and restricted stock-based awards.

 

(7) 

The income tax effects presented were calculated as if the above described charges were not included in our results of operations for each of the respective periods presented. Income tax effects were calculated based on the applicable jurisdictional tax rates applied to the items within the table above and resulted in an effective tax rate of 24.0% for fiscal 2012 instead of 23.0%, which represented our effective tax rate as derived per our consolidated statement of operations, due to the disproportionate rate impact of discrete items, income tax effects related to acquired tax exposures, and differences in jurisdictional tax rates and related tax benefits attributable to our restructuring expenses in the period. Income tax effects were calculated reflecting an effective tax rate of 25.3% for fiscal 2011 instead of 25.1%, which represented our effective tax rate as derived per our consolidated statement of operations, primarily due to differences in jurisdictional tax rates and the related tax benefits attributable to our restructuring expenses in the period and the income tax effects related to our acquired tax exposures. Income tax effects were calculated reflecting an effective tax rate of 27.1% for fiscal 2010 instead of 25.6%, which represented our effective tax rate as derived per our consolidated statement of operations, due to similar reasons as those noted for the fiscal 2011 differences.

Software Business

Our software business consists of our new software licenses segment and software license updates and product support segment.

 

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New Software Licenses:    New software license revenues substantially represent fees earned from granting customers licenses to use our database and middleware and our application software, and also include fees earned from cloud software subscription contracts. We continue to place significant emphasis, both domestically and internationally, on direct sales through our own sales force. We also continue to market our products through indirect channels. Expenses associated with our new software license revenues are sales and marketing expenses, which are largely personnel related and include commissions earned by our sales force for the sale of our software products, marketing program costs, and amortization of intangible assets.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
     2012      Percent Change      2011      Percent Change      2010  

(Dollars in millions)

      Actual      Constant         Actual      Constant     

New Software License Revenues:

                    

Americas

   $  5,107         10%         11%       $  4,662         26%         24%       $  3,704   

EMEA

     2,884         1%         4%         2,861         16%         13%         2,463   

Asia Pacific

     1,915         12%         11%         1,712         25%         16%         1,366   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

     9,906         7%         8%         9,235         23%         19%         7,533   

Expenses:

                    

Sales and marketing(1)

     5,899         8%         8%         5,455         17%         16%         4,654   

Stock-based compensation

     120         43%         43%         84         5%         5%         79   

Amortization of intangible assets(2)

     822         1%         1%         811         0%         0%         816   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

     6,841         8%         8%         6,350         14%         13%         5,549   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin

   $  3,065         6%         10%       $  2,885         45%         37%       $  1,984   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin %

     31%               31%               26%   

% Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

     52%               50%               49%   

EMEA

     29%               31%               33%   

Asia Pacific

     19%               19%               18%   

Revenues by Product:

                    

Database and middleware

   $ 6,971         5%         6%       $ 6,626         23%         19%       $ 5,406   

Applications

     2,935         13%         14%         2,609         23%         20%         2,127   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total new software license revenues

   $ 9,906         7%         8%       $ 9,235         23%         19%       $ 7,533   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

% Revenues by Product:

                    

Database and middleware

     70%               72%               72%   

Applications

     30%               28%               28%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

 

(2) 

Included as a component of ‘Amortization of Intangible Assets’ in our consolidated statements of operations

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations, total new software license revenues increased by 8% in fiscal 2012 due to growth across all major regions and product types and due to incremental revenues from our acquisitions. On a constant currency basis, the Americas contributed 63%, EMEA contributed 13% and Asia Pacific contributed 24% to our new software license revenues growth during fiscal 2012.

In constant currency, database and middleware revenues and applications revenues increased by 6% and 14%, respectively, in fiscal 2012 primarily due to growth resulting from improved customer demand for our products, our sales force’s execution and incremental revenues from our acquisitions. The growth rates of our new software license revenues for fiscal 2012 were affected by the high growth rates that we experienced in fiscal 2011 against which our fiscal 2012 revenues were compared. In reported currency, products from our recent acquisitions contributed $63 million to the growth in our database and middleware revenues and $254 million to the growth in our applications revenues during fiscal 2012.

 

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As a result of our acquisitions, we recorded adjustments to reduce assumed cloud software subscription obligations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. Due to our application of business combination accounting rules, cloud software subscription revenues in the amount of $22 million that would have been otherwise recorded by our acquired businesses as independent entities were not recognized in fiscal 2012. To the extent underlying cloud software subscription contracts are renewed with us following an acquisition, we will recognize the revenues for the full value of the cloud software subscription contracts over the contract periods.

In reported currency, new software license revenues earned from transactions of $3 million or greater increased by 4% in fiscal 2012 and represented 27% of our new software license revenues in fiscal 2012 in comparison to 28% in fiscal 2011.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, our total new software license expenses increased in fiscal 2012 primarily due to higher employee related expenses from increased headcount.

Excluding the effect of unfavorable foreign currency rate fluctuations, new software license margin increased due to the increase in revenues, and new software license margin as a percentage of revenues was flat as our revenues increased at the same rate as our operating expenses.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Excluding the effect of favorable foreign currency rate fluctuations, total new software license revenues increased by 19% in fiscal 2011 due to growth across all major regions and product types and incremental revenues from our acquisitions. On a constant currency basis, the Americas contributed 63%, EMEA contributed 21% and Asia Pacific contributed 16% to our new software license revenues growth during fiscal 2011.

In constant currency, database and middleware revenues and applications revenues increased by 19% and 20%, respectively, in fiscal 2011 primarily due to similar reasons as those noted above. In reported currency, Sun contributed $398 million in growth to our database and middleware revenues through the third quarter of fiscal 2011 (the one year anniversary of our acquisition of Sun) and our other recent acquisitions contributed $40 million during fiscal 2011. In reported currency, our recent acquisitions contributed $191 million to the growth in our applications revenues during fiscal 2011.

In reported currency, new software license revenues earned from transactions of $3 million or greater increased by 47% in fiscal 2011 and represented 28% of our new software license revenues in fiscal 2011 in comparison to 23% in fiscal 2010.

Excluding the effect of unfavorable foreign currency rate fluctuations, total software sales and marketing expenses increased in fiscal 2011 primarily due to higher employee related and other operating expenses resulting from a full year of expense contributions from Sun to our fiscal 2011 operating results and higher variable compensation expenses resulting from higher revenues.

Excluding the effect of favorable foreign currency rate fluctuations, new software license margin and margin as a percentage of revenues increased as our revenues increased at a faster rate than our expenses.

 

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Software License Updates and Product Support:    Software license updates grant customers rights to unspecified software product upgrades and maintenance releases issued during the support period. Product support includes internet access to technical content as well as internet and telephone access to technical support personnel in our global support centers. Expenses associated with our software license updates and product support line of business include the cost of providing the support services, largely personnel related expenses, and the amortization of our intangible assets associated with software support contracts and customer relationships obtained from acquisitions.

 

    Year Ended May 31,  
    2012     Percent Change     2011     Percent Change     2010  

(Dollars in millions)

    Actual     Constant       Actual     Constant    

Software License Updates and Product Support Revenues:

             

Americas

  $ 8,672        9%        9%      $ 7,963        12%        11%      $ 7,100   

EMEA

    5,194        8%        8%        4,802        12%        13%        4,304   

Asia Pacific

    2,344        15%        12%        2,031        20%        12%        1,688   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total revenues

    16,210        10%        9%        14,796        13%        12%        13,092   

Expenses:

             

Software license updates and product support(1)

    1,208        -3%        -3%        1,250        20%        18%        1,046   

Stock-based compensation

    18        27%        27%        14        -20%        -20%        17   

Amortization of intangible assets(2)

    863        4%        4%        827        -1%        -1%        839   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total expenses

    2,089        0%        0%        2,091        10%        9%        1,902   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total Margin

  $ 14,121        11%        11%      $ 12,705        14%        12%      $ 11,190   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total Margin %

    87%            86%            85%   

% Revenues by Geography:

             

Americas

    54%            54%            54%   

EMEA

    32%            32%            33%   

Asia Pacific

    14%            14%            13%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

 

(2) 

Included as a component of ‘Amortization of Intangible Assets’ in our consolidated statements of operations

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, software license updates and product support revenues increased in fiscal 2012 as a result of new software licenses sold with substantially all customers electing to purchase support contracts during the trailing 4-quarter period, the renewal of substantially all of the customer base eligible for renewal in the current fiscal year and incremental revenues from recent acquisitions. Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, the Americas contributed 53%, EMEA contributed 29% and Asia Pacific contributed 18% to the increase in software license updates and product support revenues.

In reported currency, software license updates and product support revenues in fiscal 2012 included incremental revenues of $83 million from our recently acquired companies. As a result of our acquisitions, we recorded adjustments to reduce assumed support obligations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. Due to our application of business combination accounting rules, software license updates and product support revenues related to support contracts in the amounts of $48 million, $80 million and $86 million that would have been otherwise recorded by our acquired businesses as independent entities were not recognized in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Historically, substantially all of our customers, including customers from acquired companies, renew their software support contracts when such contracts are eligible for renewal. To the extent these underlying support contracts are renewed, we will recognize the revenues for the full value of these contracts over the support periods, the substantial majority of which are one year in duration.

Excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations, total software license updates and product support expenses were flat in fiscal 2012 as an increase in intangible asset amortization and salaries expenses from increased headcount were offset by reductions in variable compensation expenses, bad debt expenses and certain other operating expenses.

 

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Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total software license updates and product support margin and margin as a percentage of total revenues increased as our total revenues increased while our total expenses remained flat.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, software license updates and product support revenues increased in fiscal 2011 for similar reasons as those noted above.

In reported currency, software license updates and product support revenues in fiscal 2011 included incremental revenues of $240 million from Sun through the third quarter of fiscal 2011 (the one year anniversary of our acquisition) and $80 million from our other recently acquired companies. As described above, the amounts of software license updates and product support revenues that we recognized in fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 were affected by business combination accounting rules.

On a constant currency basis, total software license updates and product support expenses increased due to an increase in salaries, variable compensation and benefits expenses that were primarily related to a full year’s contribution from Sun and certain other headcount increases.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total software license updates and product support margin and margin as a percentage of total revenues increased as our total revenues increased at a faster rate than our total expenses.

Hardware Systems Business

Our hardware systems business consists of our hardware systems products segment and hardware systems support segment.

Hardware Systems Products:    Hardware systems products revenues are primarily generated from the sales of our computer server and storage products. We market and sell our hardware systems products through our direct sales force and indirect channels such as independent distributors and value added resellers. Operating expenses associated with our hardware systems products include the cost of hardware systems products, which consists of expenses for materials and labor used to produce these products by our internal manufacturing operations or by third party manufacturers, warranty expenses and the impact of periodic changes in inventory valuation, including the impact of inventory determined to be excess and obsolete. Operating expenses associated with our hardware systems products also include sales and marketing expenses, which are largely personnel related and include variable compensation earned by our sales force for the sales of our hardware products, and amortization of intangible assets.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
     2012      Percent Change      2011      Percent Change      2010  

(Dollars in millions)

      Actual      Constant         Actual      Constant     

Hardware Systems Products Revenues:

                    

Americas

   $   1,880         -16%         -16%       $   2,248         201%         199%       $ 747   

EMEA

     1,140         -15%         -16%         1,337         176%         165%         485   

Asia Pacific

     807         1%         -3%         797         191%         173%         274   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

     3,827         -13%         -14%         4,382         191%         184%         1,506   

Expenses:

                    

Hardware systems products(1)

     1,842         -10%         -10%         2,055         134%         126%         877   

Sales and marketing(1)

     1,106         7%         6%         1,037         203%         194%         342   

Stock-based compensation

     3         -57%         -57%         5         4%         4%         5   

Amortization of intangible assets(2)

     393         -8%         -8%         426         164%         164%         162   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

     3,344         -5%         -5%         3,523         154%         146%         1,386   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin

   $ 483         -44%         -46%       $ 859         634%         732%       $ 120   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin %

     13%               20%               8%   

% Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

     49%               51%               50%   

EMEA

     30%               31%               32%   

Asia Pacific

     21%               18%               18%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

 

(2) 

Included as a component of ‘Amortization of Intangible Assets’ in our consolidated statements of operations

 

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Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effects of currency rate fluctuations, hardware systems products revenues decreased in fiscal 2012 due to reductions in sales volumes of certain of our legacy product lines, including lower margin products, and due to the recent introduction of new SPARC processor-based servers that we believe slowed purchases of predecessor server products. These hardware revenue decreases were partially offset by increases in hardware revenues attributable to our Oracle Engineered Systems during fiscal 2012.

Excluding the effects of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems products operating expenses declined in fiscal 2012 primarily due to reductions in hardware systems products costs associated with lower revenues, lower intangible asset amortization, and decreases in bad debt expenses, which were partially offset by increased employee related expenses due to additional sales headcount.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems products margin and total margin as a percentage of revenues decreased in fiscal 2012 primarily due to decreases in hardware systems products revenues and increases in hardware sales and marketing expenses.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    The increases in hardware systems products revenues, expenses and total margin for fiscal 2011 were primarily attributable to the impact of Sun’s contributions to our operating results for the full fiscal 2011 year as compared to fiscal 2010, which included Sun’s contribution to our operating results for only a portion of the fiscal year. In fiscal 2010, our hardware systems products expenses and total margin were unfavorably impacted by $29 million of fair value adjustments made pursuant to business combination accounting rules for inventories we assumed from Sun and sold to customers in the post-combination periods. Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems products margin and margin as a percentage of total revenues increased as our total revenues increased at a faster rate than our total expenses.

Hardware Systems Support:    Our hardware systems support offerings provide customers with software updates for the software components that are essential to the functionality of our hardware systems and can include product repairs, maintenance services and technical support services. Expenses associated with our hardware systems support operating segment include the cost of materials used to repair customer products, the cost of providing support services, largely personnel related expenses, and the amortization of our intangible assets associated with hardware systems support contracts and customer relationships obtained from our acquisitions.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
     2012      Percent Change      2011      Percent Change      2010  

(Dollars in millions)

      Actual      Constant         Actual      Constant     

Hardware Systems Support Revenues:

                    

Americas

   $   1,157         5%         5%       $   1,103         267%         263%       $ 301   

EMEA

     870         -13%         -14%         1,004         195%         186%         340   

Asia Pacific

     448         -2%         -5%         455         217%         196%         143   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

     2,475         -3%         -4%         2,562         227%         218%         784   

Expenses:

                    

Hardware systems support(1)

     1,041         -17%         -18%         1,254         198%         189%         421   

Stock-based compensation

     5         1%         1%         5         124%         124%         2   

Amortization of intangible assets(2)

     305         2%         2%         298         202%         202%         98   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

     1,351         -13%         -14%         1,557         199%         191%         521   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin

   $ 1,124         12%         10%       $ 1,005         283%         274%       $ 263   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin %

     45%               39%               34%   

% Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

     47%               43%               38%   

EMEA

     35%               39%               43%   

Asia Pacific

     18%               18%               19%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

 

(2) 

Included as a component of ‘Amortization of Intangible Assets’ in our consolidated statements of operations

 

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Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, hardware systems support revenues decreased in fiscal 2012 due to revenue decreases in the EMEA and Asia Pacific regions, partially offset by higher revenues in the Americas.

As a result of our acquisitions, we recorded adjustments to reduce assumed hardware systems support obligations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. Due to our application of business combination accounting rules, hardware systems support revenues related to hardware systems support contracts in the amounts of $30 million, $148 million and $128 million that would have been otherwise reported by our acquired businesses as independent entities were not recognized in fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. To the extent these underlying support contracts are renewed, we will recognize the revenues for the full values of these contracts over the future support periods.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems support expenses decreased in fiscal 2012 primarily due to the reduction of service delivery costs during fiscal 2012 resulting from our integration initiatives associated with our acquisition of Sun.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems support margin and margin as a percentage of total revenues increased as a result of our expense reductions.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    The increases in hardware systems support revenues and expenses in fiscal 2011 were primarily attributable to the impact of Sun’s contributions to our operating results for the full fiscal 2011 period as compared to fiscal 2010. As a result of our acquisition of Sun, we recorded adjustments to reduce assumed hardware systems support obligations to their estimated fair values at the acquisition date as prescribed by business combination accounting rules that, as described above, affected the amounts of hardware systems support revenues that we recognized in fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware systems support margin and margin as a percentage of total revenues increased as our total revenues increased at a faster rate than our total expenses.

 

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Services Business

Our services business consists of consulting, managed cloud services and education services. Consulting revenues are earned by providing services to customers in business and IT strategy alignment, enterprise architecture planning and design, initial product implementation and integration and ongoing product enhancements and upgrades. Managed cloud services revenues are earned by providing services for comprehensive software and hardware management and maintenance services for customers hosted at our Oracle data center facilities, select partner data centers or physically on-premise at customer facilities. Additionally, we provide support services, both on-premise and remote, to customers to enable increased performance and higher availability of their products and services. Education revenues are earned by providing instructor-led, media-based and internet-based training in the use of our software and hardware products. The cost of providing our services consists primarily of personnel related expenses, technology infrastructure expenditures, facilities expenses and external contractor expenses.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

Services Revenues:

                    

Americas

   $   2,420         2%         2%       $   2,376         21%         20%       $   1,967   

EMEA

     1,473         -1%         -1%         1,493         11%         10%         1,346   

Asia Pacific

     810         4%         3%         778         32%         23%         592   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total revenues

     4,703         1%         1%         4,647         19%         17%         3,905   

Expenses:

                    

Services(1)

     3,720         -2%         -2%         3,802         12%         11%         3,384   

Stock-based compensation

     23         39%         39%         16         17%         17%         14   

Amortization of intangible assets(2)

     47         -27%         -27%         66         12%         12%         58   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

     3,790         -2%         -2%         3,884         12%         11%         3,456   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin

   $ 913         20%         19%       $ 763         70%         63%       $ 449   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total Margin %

     19%               16%               11%   

% Revenues by Geography:

                    

Americas

     52%               51%               50%   

EMEA

     31%               32%               35%   

Asia Pacific

     17%               17%               15%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

 

(2) 

Included as a component of ‘Amortization of Intangible Assets’ in our consolidated statements of operations

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, our services revenues increased modestly in fiscal 2012 due to increased consulting and managed cloud services revenues including incremental contributions from our recently acquired companies, which were partially offset by decreases in our education revenues.

On a constant currency basis, our services expenses decreased during fiscal 2012 due to lower third-party contractor expenses associated with our managed cloud services offerings, lower intangible asset amortization and certain other net expense reductions.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total services margin and total margin as a percentage of revenues increased during fiscal 2012 as our total services revenues increased while our total services expenses decreased.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, the increase in our services revenues in fiscal 2011 was due to increases in our managed cloud services revenues resulting from the full fiscal year impact of revenue contributions from our acquisition of Sun.

 

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On a constant currency basis, our services expenses increased during fiscal 2011 primarily due to additional employee related expenses associated with a full fiscal year of expense contributions from Sun and higher third-party contractor expenses that supported our increase in revenues.

Excluding the effect of currency rate fluctuations, total services margin and total margin as a percentage of revenues increased during fiscal 2011 as our total services revenues increased at a faster rate than our total services expenses.

Research and Development Expenses:    Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related expenditures. We intend to continue to invest significantly in our research and development efforts because, in our judgment, they are essential to maintaining our competitive position.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

Research and development(1)

   $     4,228         -1%         -1%       $     4,288         39%         38%       $     3,082   

Stock-based compensation

     295         28%         28%         231         35%         35%         172   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

   $ 4,523         0%         1%       $ 4,519         39%         38%       $ 3,254   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

% of Total Revenues

     12%               13%               12%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    On a constant currency basis, total research and development expenses increased slightly during fiscal 2012 primarily as a result of an increase in employee related expenses such as salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation from increased headcount, which was partially offset by a decrease in variable compensation expenses and a decrease in certain legal costs.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    On a constant currency basis, total research and development expenses increased during fiscal 2011 primarily due to the impact of Sun’s contributions to our expenses for the full fiscal year, including additional employee related expenses such as salaries, variable compensation, benefits and stock-based compensation from increased headcount.

General and Administrative Expenses:    General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel related expenditures for information technology, finance, legal and human resources support functions.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

General and administrative(1)

   $     964         17%         17%       $     825         6%         4%       $     779   

Stock-based compensation

     162         12%         12%         145         10%         10%         132   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

Total expenses

   $ 1,126         16%         16%       $ 970         6%         5%       $ 911   
  

 

 

          

 

 

          

 

 

 

% of Total Revenues

     3%               3%               3%   

 

(1) 

Excluding stock-based compensation

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    On a constant currency basis, total general and administrative expenses increased in fiscal 2012 primarily as a result of a fiscal 2011 $120 million benefit from the recovery of certain legal costs, which reduced our expenses in fiscal 2011.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    On a constant currency basis, total general and administrative expenses increased during fiscal 2011 due to the impact of Sun’s contributions to our expenses for the full fiscal year, primarily additional employee related expenses, which were partially offset by the recovery of legal costs noted above.

 

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Amortization of Intangible Assets:

 

    Year Ended May 31,  
          Percent Change           Percent Change        

(Dollars in millions)

  2012     Actual     Constant     2011     Actual     Constant     2010  

Software support agreements and related relationships

  $ 585        3%        3%      $ 570        -1%        -1%      $ 574   

Hardware systems support agreements and related relationships

    119        1%        1%        118        300%        300%        29   

Developed technology

    923        -7%        -7%        992        22%        22%        811   

Core technology

    337        9%        9%        308        11%        11%        277   

Customer relationships and contract backlog

    370        2%        2%        363        55%        55%        234   

Cloud software subscriptions and related relationships

    33        267%        267%        9        *            *              

Trademarks

    63        -7%        -7%        68        41%        41%        48   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total amortization of intangible assets

  $   2,430        0%        0%      $   2,428        23%        23%      $   1,973   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

* Not meaningful

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Amortization of intangible assets in fiscal 2012 in comparison to fiscal 2011 was flat as additional amortization from intangible assets that we acquired from our acquisitions of RightNow and Taleo in fiscal 2012 and from our acquisitions of ATG and Phase Forward in fiscal 2011, amongst others, were offset by a reduction in expenses associated with certain of our intangible assets that became fully amortized. Note 7 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report has additional information regarding our intangible assets and related amortization.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Amortization of intangible assets increased in fiscal 2011 in comparison to fiscal 2010 due to additional amortization from intangible assets that we acquired including our acquisitions of ATG and Phase Forward in fiscal 2011 and our acquisition of Sun in fiscal 2010. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in expenses associated with certain of our intangible assets that became fully amortized.

Acquisition Related and Other Expenses:    Acquisition related and other expenses consist of personnel related costs for transitional and certain other employees, stock-based compensation expenses, integration related professional services, certain business combination adjustments including certain adjustments after the measurement period has ended and changes in fair value of contingent consideration payable (see Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report) and certain other operating expenses, net. Stock-based compensation expenses included in acquisition related and other expenses resulted from unvested stock options and restricted stock-based awards assumed from acquisitions whereby vesting was accelerated upon termination of the employees pursuant to the original terms of those stock options and restricted stock-based awards.

 

    Year Ended May 31,  
          Percent Change           Percent Change        

(Dollars in millions)

  2012     Actual     Constant     2011     Actual     Constant     2010  

Transitional and other employee related costs

  $ 25        -81%        -81%      $ 129        94%        86%      $ 66   

Stock-based compensation

    33        254%        254%        10        -37%        -37%        15   

Professional fees and other, net

    13        -81%        -83%        66        -2%        -4%        68   

Business combination adjustments, net

    (15     -499%        -515%        3        -28%        -78%        5   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Total acquisition related and other expenses

  $             56        -73%        -74%      $         208        35%        27%      $         154   
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    On a constant currency basis, the decrease in acquisition related and other expenses during fiscal 2012 was primarily due to lower transitional employee related costs and professional services expenses in comparison to those that were incurred in fiscal 2011 (primarily related to our acquisition of Sun), and was also due to a benefit from a business combination related legal settlement, which reduced our fiscal 2012 expenses. These expense reductions were partially offset by an increase in stock-based compensation expenses associated with our recent acquisitions and expenses associated with the change in fair value of contingent consideration payable (see Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report).

 

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Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    On a constant currency basis, acquisition related and other expenses increased primarily due to the full fiscal year impact of Sun’s expense contributions, including higher transitional employee related expenses.

Restructuring expenses:    Restructuring expenses consist of employee severance costs and may also include charges for duplicate facilities and other contract termination costs to improve our cost structure prospectively. For additional information regarding our restructuring plans, see Note 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

Restructuring expenses

   $     295         -40%         -40%       $     487         -22%         -23%       $     622   

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Restructuring expenses in fiscal 2012 primarily related to our Sun Restructuring Plan, which our management approved, committed to and initiated in order to better align our cost structure as a result of our acquisition of Sun. To a lesser extent, we also incurred expenses associated with other Oracle-based plans, which our management approved, committed to and initiated in order to restructure and further improve efficiencies in our Oracle-based operations. The decrease in restructuring expenses in fiscal 2012 in comparison to those that were incurred in fiscal 2011 primarily related to the decrease in expenses incurred in connection with our Sun Restructuring Plan.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    During fiscal 2011, we incurred restructuring expenses primarily in connection with our Sun Restructuring Plan and to a lesser extent, we also incurred expenses associated with other Oracle-based plans. During fiscal 2010, we recorded restructuring expenses primarily in connection with our Sun Restructuring Plan and our Fiscal 2009 Oracle Restructuring Plan.

Interest Expense:

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

Interest expense

   $     766         -5%         -5%       $     808         7%         7%       $     754   

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Interest expense decreased in fiscal 2012 due to lower average borrowings as compared to fiscal 2011 primarily due to the maturity and repayment of $2.25 billion of senior notes in January 2011.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Interest expense increased in fiscal 2011 due to higher average borrowings resulting primarily from our issuance of $3.25 billion of senior notes in July 2010. This interest expense increase was partially offset by a reduction in interest expense associated with the maturities and repayments of $2.25 billion of senior notes, as noted above, and $1.0 billion of floating rate senior notes and related variable to fixed interest rate swap agreements in May 2010.

Non-Operating Income (Expense), net:    Non-operating income (expense), net consists primarily of interest income, net foreign currency exchange gains (losses), the noncontrolling interests in the net profits of our majority-owned subsidiaries (Oracle Financial Services Software Limited and Oracle Japan) and net other income (losses) including net realized gains and losses related to all of our investments and net unrealized gains and losses related to the small portion of our investment portfolio that we classify as trading.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
           Percent Change            Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012     Actual      Constant      2011     Actual      Constant      2010  

Interest income

   $   231        42%         45%       $   163        34%         32%       $   122   

Foreign currency gains (losses), net

     (105     -1,041%         -1,112%         11        108%         112%         (148

Noncontrolling interests in income

     (119     23%         25%         (97     -2%         -1%         (95

Other income, net

     15        -86%         -86%         109        92%         89%         56   
  

 

 

         

 

 

         

 

 

 

Total non-operating income (expense), net

   $ 22        -88%         -83%       $ 186        388%         372%       $ (65
  

 

 

         

 

 

         

 

 

 

 

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Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    On a constant currency basis, our non-operating income, net decreased in fiscal 2012 primarily as a result of net foreign currency transaction losses incurred in fiscal 2012 in comparison to net foreign currency transaction gains incurred in fiscal 2011. In addition, we incurred a decrease in other income, net, which was attributable to net gains recorded in fiscal 2011 due to favorable changes in the values of our marketable securities that we classify as trading that are held to support our deferred compensation plan obligations. These unfavorable variations to non-operating income, net were partially offset by increases in interest income during fiscal 2012 due to larger average cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances in comparison to fiscal 2011.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    We recorded non-operating income, net during fiscal 2011 in comparison to non-operating expense, net in fiscal 2010 primarily due to net foreign currency transaction losses incurred in fiscal 2010, which included a foreign currency remeasurement loss of $81 million resulting from the designation of our Venezuelan subsidiary as “highly inflationary” in accordance with the FASB’s ASC 830, Foreign Currency Matters, and the subsequent devaluation of the Venezuelan currency by the Venezuelan government. In addition, our interest income increased in fiscal 2011 due to larger average cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances and other income, net increased in fiscal 2011 as a result of gains recognized on the sale of certain equity investments.

Provision for Income Taxes:    Our effective tax rate in all periods is the result of the mix of income earned in various tax jurisdictions that apply a broad range of income tax rates. The provision for income taxes differs from the tax computed at the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate due primarily to earnings considered as indefinitely reinvested in foreign operations, state taxes, the U.S. research and development tax credit and the U.S. domestic production activity deduction. Future effective tax rates could be adversely affected if earnings are lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory tax rates, by unfavorable changes in tax laws and regulations or by adverse rulings in tax related litigation.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  
            Percent Change             Percent Change         

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Actual      Constant      2011      Actual      Constant      2010  

Provision for income taxes

   $  2,981         4%         4%       $  2,864         36%         32%       $  2,108   

Effective tax rate

       23.0%                 25.1%                 25.6%   

Fiscal 2012 Compared to Fiscal 2011:    Provision for income taxes increased during fiscal 2012 due substantially to higher income before provision for income taxes, partially offset by the favorable effects of an increase in the number of foreign subsidiaries in countries with lower statutory rates than the United States, the earnings of which we consider to be indefinitely reinvested outside the United States. If these subsidiaries generate sufficient earnings in the future, our provision for income taxes may continue to be favorably affected to a meaningful extent, although any such favorable effects could be significantly reduced under a variety of circumstances.

Fiscal 2011 Compared to Fiscal 2010:    Provision for income taxes increased during fiscal 2011 due substantially to higher income before provision for income taxes and a reduction in the impact of favorable judicial decisions and settlements with worldwide taxing authorities.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

     As of May 31,  

(Dollars in millions)

   2012      Change      2011      Change      2010  

Working capital

   $   24,635         -1%       $   24,982         103%       $   12,313   

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities

   $   30,676         6%       $   28,848         56%       $   18,469   

Working capital:    The decrease in working capital as of May 31, 2012 in comparison to May 31, 2011 was primarily due to an increase in our stock repurchases during fiscal 2012 in comparison to fiscal 2011 (we used $5.9 billion of cash for stock repurchases during fiscal 2012 in comparison to $1.2 billion used for stock repurchases during fiscal 2011), the reclassification of $1.25 billion of our senior notes due April 2013 as a

 

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current liability, cash used for acquisitions and cash used to pay dividends to our stockholders. These decreases to working capital were almost entirely offset by the favorable impact to our net current assets resulting from our net income during fiscal 2012. Our working capital may be impacted by some of the aforementioned factors in future periods, certain amounts and timing of which are variable.

The increase in working capital as of May 31, 2011 in comparison to May 31, 2010 was primarily due to the favorable impact to our net current assets resulting from our net income during fiscal 2011 and our issuance of $3.25 billion of long-term senior notes in July 2010. These increases were partially offset by cash used for our acquisitions, repurchases of our common stock and cash used to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities:    Cash and cash equivalents primarily consist of deposits held at major banks, money market funds, Tier-1 commercial paper, U.S. Treasury obligations, U.S. government agency and government sponsored enterprise obligations and other securities with original maturities of 90 days or less. Marketable securities primarily consist of time deposits held at major banks, Tier-1 commercial paper, corporate notes, U.S. Treasury obligations, U.S. government agency and government sponsored enterprise obligations and certain other securities. The increase in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at May 31, 2012 in comparison to May 31, 2011 was primarily due to an increase in cash generated from our operating activities and our short-term borrowing of $1.7 billion made pursuant to a revolving credit agreement. These increases in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were partially offset by our June 2011 repayment of $1.15 billion of short-term borrowings pursuant to our expired revolving credit facilities, $255 million of cash used to repay RightNow’s legacy convertible notes after the closing of the acquisition, the use of $4.7 billion of net cash for acquisitions, the repurchases of our common stock (see discussion above) and the payment of cash dividends to our stockholders. Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities included $26.8 billion held by our foreign subsidiaries as of May 31, 2012, $20.9 billion of which we consider indefinitely reinvested earnings outside the United States. These undistributed earnings would be subject to U.S. income tax if repatriated to the United States. Assuming a full utilization of the foreign tax credits, the potential deferred tax liability associated with these undistributed earnings would be approximately $6.3 billion as of May 31, 2012. The amount of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities that we report in U.S. Dollars for a significant portion of the cash held by our foreign subsidiaries is subject to translation adjustments caused by changes in foreign currency exchange rates as of the end of each respective reporting period (the offset to which is recorded to accumulated other comprehensive income in our consolidated balance sheet). As the U.S. Dollar generally strengthened against major international currencies during fiscal 2012, the amount of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities that we reported in U.S. Dollars for these subsidiaries decreased as of May 31, 2012 relative to what we would have reported using constant currency rates as of May 31, 2011.

The increase in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at May 31, 2011 in comparison to May 31, 2010 was primarily due to cash generated from our operating activities, our issuance of $3.25 billion of senior notes in July 2010 and $1.15 billion of short-term borrowings made pursuant to certain of our revolving credit agreements. Additionally, cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances increased due to the weakening of the U.S. Dollar in comparison to certain major international currencies during fiscal 2011. These increases in our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances were partially offset by the repayment of $2.25 billion of our senior notes which matured in January 2011, the repayment of $881 million of commercial paper notes, the usage of $1.9 billion of net cash for acquisitions, repurchases of our common stock and the payments of cash dividends to our stockholders.

Days sales outstanding, which is calculated by dividing period end accounts receivable by average daily sales for the quarter, was 53 days at May 31, 2012 compared with 55 days at May 31, 2011. The days sales outstanding calculation excludes the revenue adjustments that primarily reduce our acquired cloud software subscription, software license updates and product support obligations and hardware systems support obligations to fair value.

 

     Year Ended May 31,  

(Dollars in millions)

   2012     Change      2011     Change      2010  

Net cash provided by operating activities

   $ 13,743