Investing during retirement can benefit from complexity.
Sometimes, More Is Indeed More
Accumulators win by keeping things simple. In the mutual fund industry, more has been less. The best funds have been those that have been the most straightforward--stock, bond, and balanced funds that have transparent investment schemes that are readily understood by their investors. Such funds pretty much go where their markets take them (in today's parlance, their returns are mostly "beta" rather than "alpha"), and they deliver few surprises. They are run at a low cost.
In contrast, high-concept funds have not served investors well. From "government plus" and option-income in the 1980s through various exotic bonds in the 1990s to market-neutral and 130/30 strategies a decade ago, complex funds have not shown staying power. They arrive with a roar, being heavily marketed and wrapped in expensive packaging, they deliver mediocre-to-poor returns, and they depart a few years later with barely a whimper.
Neither do most accumulators require intricate planning strategies. Invest early, invest often, trade infrequently, keep a close watch on costs and taxes, and let time do its thing. That's pretty much it for the rank-and-file accumulator.
Investing during retirement, however, is another matter--a situation wherein more might indeed be more. Some things don't change before and after retirement. Low costs and funds that use transparent investment schemes remain attractive. However, the combination of a shrinking time horizon and the need to make withdrawals complicates the retiree's planning strategies. Buy-and-forget no longer suffices. The retiree's situation is more dynamic than that of the accumulator, demanding more attention and greater flexibility in response to market movements.
Varying Amounts of Variable Annuities
Such, implicitly, is the argument of Wharton's Olivia Mitchell (who was kind enough to send me the paper) and three faculty members of Goethe University Frankfurt, in "Variable Payout Annuities and Dynamic Portfolio Choice in Retirement." In the article, the authors add two levels of complexity to the retiree's situation. First, they advocate using variable annuity funds rather than plain-vanilla mutual funds. Second, they treat the annuitization decision as being gradual, with the investor purchasing additional variable annuity funds during retirement.
As the authors acknowledge, many previous papers have studied the effects of adding fixed-payout annuities to a retiree's portfolio. Whether fixed or variable, goes the argument, annuities are attractive to retirees because they offer a survival credit. That is, because annuity owners who die at an earlier age effectively pass on a portion of their assets to those who die later, annuities distribute at a higher rate than retirees can achieve by investing on their own. (With enough money, one could emulate a standard mutual fund by investing in the same securities that it holds, in the same proportions. One cannot emulate an annuity in a similar fashion because it contains features that can be obtained only through pooling.)
Nor are the authors the first to extend the argument from fixed-payout annuities, which have an unchanging income stream that does not benefit from market gains, to variable annuities, which can grow over time in both value and income. More articles have been written about fixed annuities, as they are the older of the two investments, but variable annuities have also come in for attention in recent years.
However, the paper gives the most thorough treatment of the dynamic purchase of annuities, that is, the strategy of easing into annuities during the retirement period. Previous articles had treated the subject as an on/off switch or had greatly simplified the dynamic analysis. At the start of retirement, the retiree had the option of purchasing a certain amount of variable annuities, but, after that, the path was pretty much fixed. That clearly is the easier strategy to model than the one of ongoing purchases--but, the authors argue, it is not the better strategy.