You might call it improvement by subtraction.
As we do from time to time, Morningstar has created a new international-fund category. The new group, which goes by the catchy name "miscellaneous region," consists mostly, though not exclusively, of single-country funds.
Although creating a new category is a common occurrence at Morningstar as fund companies continually explore different areas of the investment landscape, our reason for carving out this one was somewhat different from the norm.
Giving Them Their Own Home
The primary reason we create new fund categories is to group together similar offerings that have become fairly numerous and popular, so interested investors can more easily find them and compare them with one another. Another reason we take this step is to improve the relevance of these funds' rankings and averages.
For example, by creating the India-equity category in mid-2012, we allowed India funds to be ranked only against other India funds and for the new category's averages to reflect the performance and characteristics of those funds alone. Previously, India funds were ranked not only against each other but also against broader Pacific/Asia ex-Japan stock funds. The same dynamic applied to funds focusing solely on the China region, which were given their own category in 2010.
Taking One for the Team
But there's a third, less obvious reason we add new groupings: to improve the usefulness of existing categories. In the above example, the number of India funds had reached a point where they were skewing the rankings and averages for the Pacific/Asia ex-Japan stock category itself. That category had been set up to represent funds that invest all over the Pacific/Asia region, save for Japan--not for single-country portfolios with much narrower mandates. Removing the India funds (and the China-focused funds before them) improved the Pacific/Asia ex-Japan category.
This goal--making other categories better--almost entirely explains the creation of the miscellaneous-region category. Over the years, fund companies have launched more and more international funds (particularly exchange-traded funds) that don't fit cleanly into any category. Mainly, that owed to such funds' focus on a single country or a small region such as the Nordic nations or Europe's emerging markets.
Unlike the India or China groups, there weren't nearly enough funds focusing on Canada, Indonesia, the Gulf States, or anywhere else to justify creating a new category for funds with any of those mandates. So, they had been placed in categories designed for portfolios with broader geographic exposure.
Having one or a few such funds in a broader category was inconsequential. When the number of ill-fitting funds in a group grows too large, though, the problems outlined above arise, with category averages being distorted and proper analysis rendered more difficult. We did not want to wait for the time when there were enough funds targeting each country or small region to merit separate new categories for all. (We like to see at least 20 funds with a certain mandate before creating a category for them.) Rather, we decided to remove all of these narrow-mandate funds from their current categories now and combine them into one new group.