Identifying your clients' personality-related biases can help you maintain a successful and productive professional relationship.
In our last article, we discussed the concept of personality and what personality is. We described personality as the "consistent, enduring, predictable manner of behaving, experiencing, and
interacting with others and with the world."
We described how, when forming relationships with clients and establishing trust and rapport, it is important to be aware of the client's personality. This is because an individual's personality will give us vital guidance to his or her psychological needs, behavioral patterns, and the way in which emotion interacts with that individual's cognitive activity (thinking).
By having insight into these aspects of a client, you will be more likely to establish and maintain a successful and productive professional relationship that allows you to succeed. Knowing your client's personality style can help you identify the cognitive distortions that are most likely at play for the individual. And, as we've been stating, knowing the distortions gives you insight into the "client mind."
In our previous article, we described several different conceptual systems for classifying personality. So let us return to the four continua of personality that underlie the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:
--Extraversion v. Introversion
--Sensing v. Intuition
--Thinking v. Feeling
--Judging v. Perceiving
(Note: There are no automatic applications of a particular Myers-Briggs type to the cognitive biases we have discussed. The following discussion is intended to illustrate ways in which you can begin to hypothesize which biases are most likely to be observed in a client. Of course, actual experience/interactions with your client will give you the information that will make you able to more accurately assess the biases that operate in a given client.)
Individuals occupying a more extroverted position would be outgoing and relatively less inhibited in their interactions with others. Such individuals are often gregarious and confident and prone to believing in themselves--at times overly so. These individuals may be using active/emotional biases such as the Overconfidence Bias and the Illusion of Control Bias. These clients may be the ones who remind you they are smart enough to do your job and rationalize they need your help because they just don't have the time with all of the other important things on their plate.
On the other hand, more introverted individuals can be shy and inhibited, and may have tendencies toward self-doubt and reliance on others. You might hypothesize that such individuals are more prone to use the Status Quo Bias or the Framing Effect. These clients will thank you every time you pick up the phone to call with an update or send them an e-mail. These individuals appreciate knowing that you are thinking about them but may not pick up the phone to make sure you are.
Another Myers-Briggs continuum is that of Thinking v. Feeling. Those on the thinking end of the continuum emphasize cognitive, intellectual, objective information when it comes to decision-making. Those on the feeling end of the continuum emphasize emotional, subjective information when it comes to decision-making. With this in mind, it is possible to understand how those on the thinking side of the ledger would tend to cognitive distortions that emphasize "thinking" types of data, such as the Ease of Information Bias, Confirmatory Bias, or the Overconfidence Bias.
On the other hand, those that find themselves on the feeling side of the ledger tend to rely upon subjective and emotionally driven biases such as the Optimism Bias, Framing Effect, and Live for Today Bias. The Cognitive Dissonance Bias, when operating, will drive the "thinkers" to ignore the emotional data that they perceive, whereas it will drive the "feelers" to ignore the factual/cognitive data they perceive. A thinking client might be the one who always strikes up conversations with friends about money hoping to get little insights and ideas, while the feeling client will fear that conversation for the anxiety it may provoke.
Turning to the Five Factor Model of personality discussed in our last article, let's explore the Conscientiousness Factor, which has efficient/organized on one end of the continuum and easygoing/careless on the other end. Clients who fall toward the efficient/organized end of the continuum might be conceptualized as having a tendency toward the Illusion of Control Bias. This may be because individuals who are highly organized and efficient tend to see this attribute as a way of mastering their surroundings and achieving a certain measure of control over their world. On the other hand, those who are easygoing and careless might be thought of as individuals who are less likely to plan or think ahead. Thus, one might hypothesize that these individuals would be more likely to display a Live For Today Bias or even an Optimism Bias.
Finally, let us turn to look at the personality disorders that we also discussed in our last article. We explained that when personality styles and tendencies become rigid, inflexible, and maladaptive--when they become unable to flex and adapt to the demands of the situation or the task at hand--the personality style moves into the realm of a personality disorder.
Personality disorders tend to be relatively fixed and rigid styles that, because of their rigidity, interfere with good psychosocial functioning and adaptation. An individual exhibiting signs of a Cluster B personality disorder (which features emotional or erratic behavior) might be more likely to present with a Self-fulfilling Prophecy Bias or an Overconfidence Bias. Individuals who present with Cluster C personality disorders (which feature anxious and fearful behavior) might be likely to demonstrate a Status Quo Bias or Cognitive Myopia.
Of course, there is no known way of being able to predict with a reasonable degree of certainty what bias a client may have, given their personality style or given the presence of a personality disorder. Although these systems are good at classifying groups of people conceptually, each individual is unique and must be assessed and understood on their own terms and in the context of their needs, their strengths and weaknesses, their life stage, and so forth. We want to emphasize that we do not propose a simple formula by which to identify the biases that individuals may present. At the outset of the relationship with a client, the skilled advisor will seek to understand the client and, therefore, the biases that the client presents.
We hope that the examples illustrated in this article will give you a starting place to begin your successful search for your client's biases, which will, in turn, give you clues as to how best to interact with and meet the needs of your client. We will see you next month to continue our discussion of how your clients' personality types come into the room during financial decision-making.