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Annual Returns

Annual total returns are calculated on a calendar-year and year-to-date basis. Total return includes both capital appreciation and dividends. The year-to-date return is updated daily.

For mutual funds, return includes both income (in the form of dividends or interest payments) and capital gains or losses (the increase or decrease in the value of a security).

Morningstar calculates total return by taking the change in a fund's NAV, assuming the reinvestment of all income and capital gains distributions (on the actual reinvestment date used by the fund) during the period, and then dividing by the initial NAV. Unless marked as load-adjusted total returns, Morningstar does not adjust total return for sales charges or for redemption fees.

Total returns do account for management, administrative, and 12b-1 fees and other costs automatically deducted from fund assets. See also Trailing Return.



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